William Wilson Hunter.

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Kanauj. He was succeeded by his younger brother, Ibrahim, the
builder of the Atala Masjid. Ibrdhfm's life was spent in a long contest
for the recovery of Kanauj, which he was obliged to cede in the earlier
years of his reign, and for the conquest of Kalpi, which he twice
unsuccessfully attacked. He died in 1440. His son, Mahmiid, was
more aggressive. In 1442 he took Kalpi, and ten years later marched
upon Delhi, to which he laid siege. Bahlol Lodi, the real ruler of the
Empire under the fainearit Emperor Ala-ud-dm, returned from the
Punjab, raised the siege, and utterly defeated Mahmiid. The last of
the dynasty was Sultan Hassan, who passed his life in a fierce and
chequered struggle for supremacy with Bahlol, then actual Emperor at
Delhi. At length, in 1478, Bahlol succeeded in defeating his rival in
a series of decisive engagements. He took the city of Jaunpur, but
permitted the conquered Hassan to reside there, and to complete the
building of his great mosque, the Jama Masjid, which forms the chief
ornament of the town at the present day. Many other architectural
works in the District still bear witness to its former greatness under its
independent Musalman rulers. In spite of such unwonted clemency,
Hassan more than once rebelled, and died an insurgent in i495-

Under the Lodi dynasty the history of Jaunpur contains nothing more
than the stereotyped narrative of provincial intrigue, constant revolt,


and bloody repression. When Ibrahfm, the last of that line, was
defeated and killed at Pdnipat by Babar in 1526, Bahadur Khan, the
governor of Jaunpur, asserted his independence ; and for a short time
a local kingdom was once more established in the District. But after
the fall of Agra and Delhi, Bdbar sent his son Humayiin eastward for
the recovery of Jaunpur and Behar. Thenceforward the District
formed a portion of the Mughal Empire, except during the brief inter-
position of Sher Shah and his family. In 1575, Akbar removed the
viceregal court for the eastern Provinces to his newly-founded city and
fort of Allahabad; and Jaunpur was governed from that time by a
Nizam. Nothing worthy of note occurred in connection with this
District until 1722, when it was transferred, with Benares, Ghdzipur,
and Chanar, from the viceroyalty of Allahabad and the direct sway of
the Delhi Empire to the hands of the Nawab Wazir of Oudh. The
latter appointed Balwant Singh to the government of these Districts,
with the title of Raja of Benares. In 1750, when the Rohilla leader,
Sayyid Ahmad Bangash, defeated the Wazir Saadat Khan, he nominated
his own kinsman, Zama Khan, to be governor of the Benares Province.
Zama Khan was finally expelled from Jaunpur by Raja Chait Singh of
Benares. The Nawab Wazir, however, retained possession of the fort,
which was not handed over to Chait Singh till the English gave it him
in 1777.

Our first connection with the District arose in 1765, when it
passed for a short time into our hands after the battle of Baxar. In
1775 it was made over to us permanently by the treaty of Lucknow.
From that time nothing occurred which calls for notice up till the date
of the Mutiny. On 5th June 1857, news of the Benares revolt reached
Jaunpur. The Sepoys of the treasury guard at once mutinied, and shot
their own officers, as well as the Joint Magistrate. They then marched
off to Lucknow without molesting the other Europeans, who made
good their escape to Benares. The District continued in a state of
complete anarchy till the arrival of the Gurkh^ force from Azamgarh
on 8th September. The civil officials then returned to Jaunpur, and
the police stations were re-established ; but the north and west of the
District remained in rebellion. In November, owing to the active
levies made by Mehndi Hassan, who styled himself Nizam of Jaunpur,
most of the surrounding country was lost again. But in February 1858,
the rebels of the north and west were defeated and dispersed; and in
:May, the last smouldering embers of disaff"ection were stifled by the
repulse of the insurgent leader Jurhi Singh from Machhlishahr, at
the hands of the people themselves. After that time, no more serious
disturbance occurred than the gang robberies of a few desperate dacoit

Population.— ]2,MT\-^m is one of the Districts where the spread of


cultivation has almost reached its limit, and is the third most densely
populated District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the North-Western
Provinces and Oudh. The Census of 1853 returned the population at
1,143,749 persons; in 1865, the number had decreased to 1,015,427;
in 1872, there was a slight rise to the total of 1,025,961 persons; and
in 1881, to 1,209,663, or an increase of 65,914 in the 28 years since
1853. The Census of 1881 was taken upon an area of 1554 square
miles. It disclosed a total population of 1,209,663 persons, distributed
among 3120 villages and 204,387 houses. These figures yield the
following averages : — Persons per square mile, 778 ; villages per square
mile, 2; houses per square mile, 131 "5; persons per village, 388;
persons per house, 5-9. Classified according to sex, there were —
males, 611,407 ; females, 598,256; proportion of males, 50*6 per cent.
Classified according to age, there were, under 15 years — males 240,984,
and females 222,965 ; total children, 463,949? or 38*3 per cent. : 15
years and upwards — males 370,423, and females 375,291 ; total adults,
745,714, or 617 percent.

In religion, Jaunpur is still essentially Hindu, in spite of its long sub-
jection to Muhammadan rulers, and the continued presence of a local
Musalman court. The Census shows 1,095,986 Hindus, being at the
rate of 90-6 per cent., as against 113,553 Muhammadans, who stand in
the proportion of only 9*4 per cent. As regards the ethnical distinc-
tions and caste differences of the people, Brahmans in 1881 numbered
149,441; Rajputs, 115,133; Baniyas, 26,287 5 Ahirs, 184,019; Chamars,
172,543; Kdyasths, 15,020; and Kurmis, 47,666. Among the
Musalmans, Sunnis were returned at 99;849, and Shiahs at 13,704.
With the exception of Lucknow, the Shiahs form a larger percentage of
the Muhammadan population, namely 12 per cent, than in any other
District in the Lieutenant-Governorship, owing to the long continuance
of a Shiah court at Jaunpur under the Lodi dynasty, which was over-
thrown by Babar at Pdnipat in 1526. Europeans numbered 53 ; Eura-
sians, 36; and native Christians, 31. The sects of Christians repre-
sented in Jaunpur are the Churches of England and Rome, Presbyterians
and Baptists. The agricultural population of all ages amounted to
916,617, or 7577 per cent, of the District total.

Town and Rural Population. — There are only four towns the number
of whose inhabitants exceeds 5000, namely, Jaunpur with 42,845 ;
Machhlishahr, 9200; Badshahpur, 6423; and Shahganj, 6317. The
aggregate urban population accordingly amounts to 64,785 persons, or
less than 5-3 per cent, of the total. Indeed, as upwards of two-thirds of
the villages contain less than five hundred inhabitants, it is clear that
the great mass of the people are scattered about in small hamlets, as
is usual in the eastern Districts of the North-West; whereas, in the
western parts of the Province, a considerable proportion of the popula-


tion is collected together in large towns. Villages containing between
five hundred and a thousand inhabitants number 559 ; while 164 have
between one and two thousand. Only 30 places have upwards of two
thousand inhabitants.

Material Co7idition of the People.— K trader's house of the better class
generally contains about ^50 worth of furniture and utensils of all
kinds, of which bedsteads, mattresses, quilts, carpets, and boxes represent
about ;£"3o, and cooking vessels the remainder. A well-to-do cultivator
owns a few strong boxes, bedsteads, and quilts, worth about £\o,
besides cooking vessels worth £^ or £(i. An artisan in middling
circumstances possesses one or two mattresses, bedsteads, and quilts,
and some drinking vessels, worth altogether about £Z' A poor
labourer has only a few earthen jars, one or two quilts, and perhaps a
cot or two of grass cord stretched on a wooden frame, worth in all from
\o'=>Ao £\. The poorer classes of cultivators, labourers, and mechanics
are all in much the same condition : the coarsest and scantiest clothing
and food, a few vessels necessary for cooking, a hut with rough mud
walls, and a thatch to cover them being usually the extent of their
possessions. The Kurmis and Kachhis are much better off than the
other agricultural classes. They cultivate poppy, tobacco, and vegetables,
make larger profits, are more steady and industrious ; and as they are
thus able to pay higher rents, they are much sought after by landlords,
and are very rarely disturbed in their holdings. According to occupa-
tion, the male population is divided into six classes in the Census Report
as follows: — (i) Professional, including Government officials and
servants, 5148; (2) domestic servants, inn and lodging-house keepers,
etc., 1877; (3) commercial, including merchants, traders, carriers, etc.,
7541 ; (4) agricultural and pastoral, including gardeners, 294,650 ; (5)
manufacturing, including mechanics and artisans, 44,671 ; (6) indefinite
and non-productive, comprising general labourers and male children,

Agriculture. — The ordinary soil of Jaunpur is a mixture of vegetable
mould, clay, and sand ; but in old river-beds and the basins of temporary
lakes, a rich black alluvial deposit, answering to the vidr of Bundel-
khand, may occasionally be found. The whole District is one wide
expanse of cultivation, with scarcely an available acre untilled. The
harvests are those common to the rest of Upper India. The kharif ox
autumn crops include rice, Indian corn, cotton, bdjra, jodr, and vioth.
They are sown in June, immediately after the first rain of the season,
and reaped from September to November. The rahi or spring crops
are sown in the autumn months, and reaped from March to April.
They consist of wheat, barley, oats, peas, and other pulses. Irrigation
is carried on from wells, tanks, ponds, and jhils. Although a certain
rotation of crops is observed, yet (except for the cultivation of sugar-


cane) the intentional leaving land fallow for an entire year is almost
unknown. The mode of cultivation is very simple. Seeds are
almost always sown broadcast in land ploughed by an iron spike*
set between two pieces of wood, and serving both for share and
coulter. A wooden board drawn by bullocks does duty for harrow
and roller. The quantity of land taken up by the autumn crops
varies with the earliness of the rains and other contingencies ; as a rule,
about one-third of the cultivable area is sown for the kharif. Near the
towns, almost all land is tilled for both harvests ; but in the low-lying
rice lands, and in indigo or sugar-cane plantations, only one crop a
year is grown. The best soils are selected for wheat, and barley ranks
next in popular estimation. Sugar yields the greatest profit, but it
requires much care and plentiful manuring ; while the land in which it
is grown must always be left fallow for six months or a year. Indigo
cultivation on a large scale dates only from the establishment of British
rule, and twenty years ago an area of about 14,000 acres was sown with
the plant. Since the disastrous seasons of 1870 and 1871, this area has
been much curtailed, although there are still in the District seven large
indigo concerns under European management, with many outlying
factories. Poppy is cultivated, and opium produced under Govern-
ment regulations, by Kurmis, who are bound to deliver all the opium
produced to the officials of the Opium Department at Ghazipur, by
whom they are paid at the rate of about 5s. a lb. for opium of 70°
consistence. The condition of the peasantry is one of only moderate
comfort. The Kurmis and Kachhis, however, who cultivate poppy,
tobacco, and vegetables, make larger profits than others, and are
steadier and more industrious.

The tenures in the District belong to the three main classes of
zaminddn, pattiddri, and bhaydchdrd. The adult male agricultural
population in 1881 was returned at 292,643, namely, landholders,
15,235; estate agents, 1809; cultivators, 237,939; ^^^ labourers,
37,570. The female adult agriculturists numbered 138,971, namely,
landholders, 987; cultivators, 101,066; and labourers, 36,918. Of a
total area, according to the latest official statistics, of 1554 square miles,
15 19 square miles were assessed for Government revenue. Of these,
962 square miles were returned as under cultivation, 303 square miles
as cultivable, and 254 square miles as uncultivable waste. Total
Government assessment, including local rates and cesses levied on land,
;£ 1 46, 96 2, or an average of 4s. 9d. per cultivated acre. Total rental
paid by cultivators, including cesses, ;£^233,i36, or an average of
7 s. 3|d. per cultivated acre.

The rates of wages are low, and labour is easily obtained. In 1883,
coolies were paid about 3d. per diem ; agricultural labourers, from 6s.
to 7s. per month ; bricklayers, from 4jd. to 6d. per day. Field hands


are usually paid in kind, an adult receiving 2 J lbs. of the coarser grains,
with a slight increase at harvest or festivals, and a suit of clothes yearly.
Parched gram and treacle for the mid-day meal are supplied by the
employer. The average price of food-grains in 1882 was as follows : —
Wheat, i9i sers per rupee, or 4s. 6d. per cwt. ; best rice, 8 sers per
rupee, or 14s. per cwt. ; common rice, 16 J sers per rupee, or 6s. lod.
per Qy^\..\jodr, 37 sers per rupee, or 3s. per cwt.; bdjra, 22 sers per
rupee, or 5s. id. per cwt.

Natural Calamities. — The Giimti is liable to sudden freshets during
the rainy season, owing to the high banks which it has piled up at
its entrance into the Ganges, and which act as dams to prevent the
prompt outflow of its flooded waters. These inundations extend to its
tributary the Sai. Much damage was thus effected in 1774; but the
greatest recorded flood took place in September 187 1, when the river
rose more than 23 feet in fourteen days, and swept away 4000 houses
in the city, besides 9000 others in villages along its banks. On the
other hand, Jaunpur has been comparatively free from drought. In
1770, the District suffered like all its neighbours; but in 1783, and in
1803, the scarcity did not rise to the point of famine. The disastrous
season of 1837-38, of course, affected Jaunpur to some extent, yet its
worst ravages were confined to the western Districts. The distress of
1860-61 did not reach so far east as Jaunpur ; while the Bengal famine
of 1874 scarcely extended to this District, though severely felt in the
trans-Gogra region.

The last recorded scarcity occurred in 1877 and 1878, owing to the
failure of the rabi or spring crop from drought. To alleviate the
distress, Government relief works were set on foot in February 1878,
which up to November afl'orded work to 61,397 persons. Besides these,
25,973 aged or helpless paupers received relief at a poorhouse which
was opened in Jaunpur city. The result of the scarcity was the
reducing of a large proportion of the people to a weak condition, but
without encountering actual starvation. In short, Jaunpur, like its
neighbour Azamgarh, has enjoyed a singular immunity from this terrible
scourge, when compared with any other part of the plain country. The
rainfall seldom or never fails entirely, and it is generally so spread over
the year as to secure at least one harvest from total loss.

Coynmunications, Trade, etc. — The District is almost entirely devoted
to agriculture, and its trade is confined to raw materials and food-stuffs.
A considerable manufacture of indigo is carried on at seven large
factories, with numerous out-stations, under European management;
but since 1870 and 1871, this industry has declined, and the out-turn
fallen off. The principal fairs are held at Mariahu in September, and
at Karchuli in March; they are attended by from 20,000 to 25,000
pilgrims and traders. The Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway passes


through the District, with a length of 45 miles, and stations at Jalalpur,
Jaunpur civil station, Jaunpur city, Mihrawan, Kheta Sarai, Shahganj,
and Bilwai. There are altogether 13?^ miles of metalled and 4i8| of un-
metalled roads in the District. During the rains, the Giimti is navigable
for the largest native craft, which are employed in bringing down grain
from Oudh. The Sai is also navigable for boats of moderate burthen.

Administratmi. — The District of Jaunpur formed part of the Benares
Province under the Oudh Government ; and after the introduction of
British rule it was at first included in that Division. In 1865 it was
transferred to the Allahabad Division. The local staff usually con-
sists of a Magistrate-Collector and a Joint or Assistant Magistrate, with
the usual native subordinates. The whole amount of revenue (imperial,
municipal, or local) raised in the District in 1876 was £\(i2,^^2.
Of this sum, ^125,072, or nearly five-sixths, w^as contributed by the
land-tax. By 1882-83, the gross District revenue had increased to
^191,404, while the land-tax had slightly fallen to ;£i 24,527. In
1882, the total strength of the regular police force was 575 officers and
men, maintained at a cost of ^5864. These figures give i policeman
to every 27 square miles of area and to every 2103 of the population;
while the cost of maintenance was at the rate of £1, 15s. 5-Jd. per
square mile, or about id. per head. The District jail contained a
daily average of 224 prisoners in 1882, of whom 212 were males and
12 females. The District contains 19 imperial and 4 local post-offices;
and there is a telegraph office at each of the stations on the Oudh and
Rohilkhand Railway. Education is making but little progress. In
1875, there were in all 203 schools in Jaunpur, including 7 girls'
schools, with a roll-call of 7570 scholars. The city of Jaunpur has a
zild school for Oriental languages, besides a large religious institution
for Arabic and Persian. In 1882-83, the Government-inspected
schools (exclusive of private institutions) numbered 129, with 4976
pupils. In 1881, the Census returned 6802 boys and 115 girls as
under instruction, besides 24,954 males and 422 females able to
read and write, but not under instruction. The District is divided
into 5 tahsih and 1 7 police circles. There is only one municipality,
Jaunpur city. In 1882-83, its total receipts amounted to ^^2985, and
its expenditure to ;£242 8. The incidence of municipal taxation was at
the rate of is. ofd. per head of the population within municipal limits.

Sanitary Aspects.— The cUmate of Jaunpur is moister, the tempera-
ture more equable, and the rain more evenly distributed throughout
the year, than in most Districts of the North-Western Provinces. The
average 'annual rainfall was 41 71 inches for the 30 years ending 1881.
The rainfall in 1881 was 46-10 inches, or 4-39 above the average. The
total number of deaths recorded in the year 1882 was 35,455» or 30-39
per thousand of the population. The number of registered deaths from


fevers was 32,253, or 27*64 per thousand of the po})ulation. There are
three charitable dispensaries in the District, at Jaunpur, Shahganj, and
Machhh'shahr. During the year 1883 they afforded rehef to 20,582

Jaunpur. — Tahsil of Jaunpur District, North-Western Provinces,
comprising the pargands of Havili Jaunpur, Bialsi, Rari, Zafarabad,
Kariyat Dost, Khapraha, and tappa Saremu. The Giimti and the Sai
flow through the tahsil, as also a number of small streamlets and
drainage channels. The Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway crosses the
tahsil^ which is also well supplied with road communications.
Area, according to the latest official statement, 334 square miles,
of which 327 square miles are assessed for Government revenue or
quit-rent. Of the assessed area, 233*6 square miles are returned as
cultivated, 67*2 square miles cultivable, and 26*2 square miles barren.
Total amount of Government land revenue, ^30,056, or including
local rates and cesses levied upon land, £,2>^,'^^Z- Amount of rent,
including local cesses paid by the cultivators, ;£'56,329. Population
(1872) 276,772; (1881)322,315, namely, males 161,992, and females
160,323, showing a total increase in the nine years of 37,567, or 13
per cent. Classified according to religion, there were in 1881 — Hindus,
285,002; Muhammadans, 37,201; and 'others,' 112. Of the 822
towns and villages comprising the tahsil^ 644 contained less than five
hundred inhabitants, 30 from five hundred to a thousand, 46 from one
to three thousand, and 2 with upwards of three thousand inhabitants.

Jaunpur. — Town, municipality, and administrative head-quarters of
Jaunpur District, North-Western Provinces; situated in lat. 25° 41' 31"
N., and long 82° 43' 38" e., on the left or northern bank of the river
Giimti, about 15 miles above its junction with the Sai. Population
(1872) 35,003; (1881) 44,845, namely, 25,920 Hindus, 16,832 Mu-
hammadans, 92 Christians, and i ' other.' The Census Report states
that the actual town of Jaunpur had a population in 1872 of 23,327,
and in 1881 of 27,030 on an area of 880 acres. But to keep within
the definition of a town it was impossible to demarcate the suburban
houses separated only by gardens, ruins, building sites, etc.

Jaunpur is a very ancient city, the former capital of a con-
siderable Muhammadan kingdom, which once extended from Budaun
and Etawah to Behar. It abounds in splendid architectural monu-
ments, most of which belong to the Pathan period, when the rulers
of Jaunpur made themselves independent of Delhi, and founded an
important local dynasty. {See Jaunpur District.) The fort of
Firoz, an irregular quadrangular building, overlooking the north
of the Giimti, consists of a stone wall, built round an artificial
earthen mound. The materials were obtained from ruined Buddhist
or Hindu temples, and 'carved stones taken from these sources occur


profusely in the walls. The towers and last remaining buildings in the
fort were blown up after the Mutiny of 1857, and nothing now exists
but the shell. The date of the fort may be placed about 1360. The
hamains or baths of Ibrahim, which commemorate the name of the
great Jaunpur Sultan, were constructed about 1420. The Atala Masjid
or mosque, also built by Ibrahim, in 141 8, has now nothing left but a
rich screen, flanked by ragged pinnacles. It occupies the site of a
Hindu temple, attributed to Raja Jai Chand. The Dariba mosque,
built by two of Ibrahim's governors, has a domed hall and two wings,
masked by a low fagade of the peculiar Jaunpur type. A quarter of a
mile from the city, some large piers, upholding a screen of great beauty,
mark the site of another of Ibrahim's mosques, the Jinjiri Masjid. The
Lai Darwaza, erected by Bibi Raji, the queen of Mahmiid, about 1450,
is still in good preservation, with handsome cloisters and gates. The
Jama Masjid or great mosque of Hassan, completed after his fall in
1478, occupies the west side of a terrace, while domed gateways on the
three other sides give access to a large quadrangle, 70 yards square,
surrounded by a colonnade in two storeys. The splendid bridge over
the Giimti, erected by Mun'im Khan, governor under the Mughals, in
1569-73, measures 712 feet in length, and has four large central arches,
with six of smaller span on each side. The cost has been estimated at
^{^300,000. During the Mutiny of 1857, Jaunpur formed a centre of
disaffection. {See Jaunpur District.)

The town still possesses a considerable trade, and is celebrated
for its manufacture of perfumes from the flowers of the rose, jasmine,
and screw pine. The manufacture of papier-mache has been recently
introduced ; but paper-making, which was formerly one of the
principal industries of Jaunpur, is now almost totally extinguished in
consequence of the competition of machine-made paper. The civil
station is situated south of the Giimti; the only public buildings
are the courts of the magistrate and judge, church, dak bungalow, jail,
and police lines. The latter are the old cantonments used by the
Native troops quartered at Jaunpur before the Mutiny. There are two
railway stations on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Hne, at the city and
at the civil station. Municipal revenue in 1882-83, £,'2(^^^\ from
taxes, ^2221, or is. ofd. per head of population (42,845) within

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 7) → online text (page 19 of 57)