William Wilson Hunter.

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municipal limits.

Jaunsar Bawar (or Kalsi). — Tahsil or Sub-division of Dehra Dun
District, North- Western Provinces, consisting of a rugged triangular
wedge of mountains, lying between the valleys of the Jumna and the
Tons. Lat. 30° 31' to 31° i' n., and long. 77° 45' to 78° 7' e. The
whole tract is so hilly that scarcely a single level spot of a hundred
yards occurs. The mountains, which belong to the Himalayan range,
are largely covered with forests of deodar. The highest peak attains an



I A URA—JA WAD I. 1 6 1

elevation of 9347 feet above sea-level. Area, 478 square miles, of
which only 29 square miles were returned as cultivated in 1881.
Population (1872) 40,046; (1881)45,117, namely, males 25,400, and
females 19,717. Of the 495 villages comprising the tahsil, 494
have less than five hundred inhabitants, and i from one to twc^
thousand. Agriculture remains in a backward state, but irrigation from
the minor torrents fertilizes the few cultivable patches upon the rugged
hill-sides. The population consists chiefly of Dhums, a tribe of low-
caste aborigines, Hindus in creed, but scarcely raised above absolute
barbarism. Polyandry prevails extensively ; education is almost un-
known ; but crime is comparatively rare. A European detachment
occupies the cantonment of Chakrata. The head - quarters of the
tahsil are at Kalsi. Land revenue, ;^262i ; total Government
revenue, ^2^301 7. In 1883, the ^^//j-// contained 2 civil and 2 revenue
courts, with 2 police stations.

Jaura. — State in Central India. — See Jaora.

Javli. — Sub-division of Satara District, Bombay Presidency. Area,
419 square miles; number of villages 252, with 10,242 houses. Popula-
tion (1872) 63,842; (1881) 63,729, namely, 31,946 males and 31,873
females. In 1881 Hindus numbered 61,451 ; Muhammadans, 1981 ;
'others,' 297. The Sub-division contains 5 criminal courts; police
stations {thdnds), 2; regular police, 69 men; village watchmen, 19.
Land revenue, ^9438.

Jawad. — Town in the Sub-division of Nimach of the Native State
of Gwalior, Western Malwa Agency, Central India. Lat. 24° 36' n.,
long. 74° 54' E. ; 1400 feet above sea-level. Population (1881) 7692.
Stormed in 1818 by the British, and given over to Daulat Rao Sindhia,
to one of whose rebellious adherents it belonged. The town is sur-
rounded by a stone wall, w^ith 52 bastions, and has good gateways.
Distant 12 miles due north from Neemuch (Ximach). A fair amount
of trade is carried on; there are 30 slwoffs' (bankers') shops. Well
known for its red cloth. Post-ofRce.

Jawadi. — A range of mountains in Tirupatur taluk, Salem District,
IMadras Presidency, lying between 12° 15' and 12° 40' n. lat, and
between 78° 40' and 79° 6' e. long., and extending over an area of 344
square miles, with 143 villages. Population (1871) 9296 ; (1881) 17,549.
The Jawadis or Javadis separate the Tirupatur taluk from the District of
South Arcot. The eastern portion of the mountains is clothed with
verdure to the sunmiit. The range sinks into the plain near Singaraj^ett.
Average height above the sea, 3000 feet. The climate of the range
and its valleys is unhealthy, and unsuited to Europeans. The
plateau near Raddiiir, which is reached from Alangayam, is lovely —
endless downs, park like grass lands, dotted with tanks. In the slope
of the hill, which faces Bommaikuppam and Mattrapalli, is a stream

VOL. VII. L



1 62 JAWA HIR—JA WALAPUR.

which has the property of covering with petrifactions everything which
is placed in its waters, as leaves, sticks, etc. The approaches are
difficult, and exclusively by bridle-paths. Some portions of the forest
land, containing teak, sandal-wood, etc., have been conserved by
Government, and the nomadic system of cultivation has of late been
restricted, and in some tracts suppressed. The greater part of the hills
is inhabited by MalaiHs, a hill tribe, who style themselves Vellalars and
Pachai Vellalars, the latter being distinguished from the former by the
fact that the females are not allowed to tattoo themselves or to tie
their hair in the knot called koiidai. Both classes came originally
from Kanchipuram.

Jawahir. — Tract of country in Kumaun, North-Western Provinces.
— See JuHAR.

Jawdlamukhi. — Ancient town in Dehra tahsil, Kangra District,
Punjab. Lat. 31° 52' 34" n., long. 76° 21' 59" e. Situated on the road
from Kangra town to Nadaun, at the foot of a precipitous range of hills,
forming the northern limit of the Beas (Bias) valley. Population
(1881) 2424, namely, Hindus, 2217; Jains, 11 ; Muhammadans, 196;
number of houses, 542. Once a considerable and opulent town,
which still possesses solid ruins testifying to its former prosperity;
now chiefly noticeable from the presence of a very holy shrine, surpassing
in reputation even that of Kangra. The temple stands above certain
jets of combustible gas, issuing from the ground, and kept constantly
burning, as a manifestation of the goddess Devi. Seven centuries ago,
the deity appeared to a Brahman in the south, and bid him repair to
this place, where he would find a perpetual flame issuing from the earth.
The Brahman obeyed, discovered the spot, and built a temple to the
goddess. A conflicting and more ancient account, however, narrates
that the flames proceed from the mouth of the Daitya king or demon,
Jalandhara (see Jalandhar District), who was overwhelmed by Siva
under a pile of mountains. The present temple certainly belongs to
Devi. The devotion of centuries has enriched it with many costly
offerings, amongst others a gilt roof, presented by Ranjit Singh in 18 15.
About 50,000 pilgrims attend the great festival in September or
October. Six hot mineral springs occur in the neighbourhood,
impregnated with common salt and iodide of potassium. The town
still retains some commercial importance as an entrepot for traffic
between the hills and the plains. Principal export — opium from KuUu.
Police station, post-office, school-house. Sardi erected by the Raja of
Patiala, attached to the temple. Eight dhannsdlas or sanctuaries, with
rest-houses for travellers. Municipal revenue (1882-83), ;£"i99, derived
principally from octroi ; average incidence of taxation, is. 7fd. per
head.

Jawalapur. — Town in Saharanpur District, North-Western Pro-



JAWHAR. 163

vinces. Lies in lat. 29° 55' 33" n., and long. 78° 9' e., on the north
bank of the Ganges Canal ; distant from Rurki (Roorkee) 14 miles
north-east, and from Saharanpur town T^d miles east. Population (1881)
15,196, namely, Hindus, 9574 ; Muhammadans, 5314 ; and Christians, 8.
The town forms with Hardwar a municipal union. Many of the
Hindu residents are Brahmans connected with the Hardwar temples,
who have a perpetual feud with the Musalman Rajputs. Police station,
post-office, school, dispensary. Municipal revenue of Hardwar Union
(1881-82), £262-]; from taxes, ;£"i523, or is. id. per head of popu-
lation (28,106) within municipal limits.

Jawhdr.— Native State under the Political Agency of Thana, in
the Konkan, Bombay Presidency; situated between 19° 40' and
20° 4' N. lat., and between 73° 2' and 73° 23' e. long., within the
geographical limits of Thana District. Jawhar State consists of two
unequal patches of territory, the larger in the north-western part of
Thana District, and the smaller in the north-eastern. The Bombay,
Baroda, and Central India Railway just touches the western boundary of
the smaller patch. Area, 534 square miles. Population (1881) 48,556,
namely, 25,174 males and 23,382 females; density of population
per square mile, 91 ; number of villages, 116; occupied houses, 8307 ;
unoccupied, 1068. According to religion, the population is divided
into 6869 Hindus, 501 Muhammadans, and 41,186 'others.' Since
1872, the population has increased by 11,150. Average revenue,
inclusive of transit dues, ;j^i 0,000.

Most of the State is a plateau raised about 1000 feet above the Konkan
plain. Eastward the Sahyadris can be crossed by pack-bullocks through
the Chinchutara and Gonde passes to the north, and through the Dhond-
mare and Shir passes to the south, of the high hill of Vatvad. The
westerly route, about 35 miles from Jawhcir to the Dahanu Road station
of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway, crosses the
Kasatwadi and Deng passes by a metalled road built by the British
in 1872-74. Towards the south and west of the State, the country
is in some places level, but the rest of the territory is elevated,
and consists of the rocky and forest-covered tract that everywhere
lies at the western foot of the Sahyadri range. Though its many
fertile valleys contain numerous streams, their waters are not used for
irrigation. The chief streams are the Deharji, the Surya, the Pinjali,
and the Vagh. Except in the southern viahdl (sub-division) of Mal-
vada, the water supply fails as the hot season advances. Between June
and October the rainfall is heavy. After the close of the rainy season
till the end of December, the air retains a considerable degree of
moisture. In January and February the dryness and heat increase,
followed from March to June by a tolerably warm season. During the
greater part of the year, the climate is malarious and unhealthy. The



1 64 J A WHAR—JA YAMANGALL

prevailing diseases are fever and ague. Good building stone is found.
Besides timber, the country yields rice to a limited extent, and the
coarser grains abundantly.

Up to 1294, the period of the first Muhammadan invasion of the
Deccan, Jawhar was held by a Varli, not a Koli, chief. The first Koli
chief, Paupera, obtained his footing in Jawhar by a device similar to that
of Dido, when she asked for and received as much land as the hide
of a bull would cover. The Koli chief cut his hide into strips, and
thus enclosed the territory of the State. In the succeeding centuries
Jawhar had to carry on a struggle, first with the Portuguese, and after-
wards with the Marathas. The present (1884) chief, Malhar Rao, alias
Patang Shah (adopted), is a Hindu of the Koli tribe. He has power to
try his own subjects for capital offences without the express permission
of the Political Agent. The succession follows the rule of primo-
geniture : there is no sanad authorizing adoption. In the case of the
present chief, the adoption was recognised by the paramount power on
receipt of a special payment or nazardnd. Jaya Mukney, the founder
of the State, established himself as a freebooter in the country about
Jawhar nearly 550 years ago. He was succeeded by his son Nim
Shah, on whom, about the year 1341, the Emperor of Delhi conferred
the title of Raja. So important was this event in the history of Jawhar
that the 5th of June 1343, the day on which the title was received, has
been made the beginning of a new era, which is still used in public
documents. The only place of interest in the State is the ruined fort
of Bhopatgarh, about 10 miles south-east of Jawhar town.

The chief decides first-class magisterial and sessions cases, and hears
appeals. There is a State jail; number of prisoners (1881), 92;
regular police, 21 men. There are six schools, one of them in Jawhc4r
town, with an average monthly attendance of 79 pupils. A dispensary
was opened in 1878, and was attended in 1881 by 1133 patients.

JawMr. — Chief town of the Native State of Jawhar, in the Konkan,
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 19° 56' n., and long. 73° 16' e. ; fifty miles
north-east of Thana. The town contains 200 houses. It is healthy, and
free from excessive heat; elevation above sea-level, 1000 feet. Public
office for the chief, school-house, and dispensary. The water supply is
scanty ; but the works in progress to enlarge the Surya reservoir and to
embank a low piece of ground will materially improve it.

Jayamangali. — River in Mysore State; tributary of the North
Pinakini river, which runs through the north-east corner of Tiimkur
District, Mysore State, and joins the North Pinakini in the adjoining
Madras District of Bellary. The Jayamangali rises in the Devaray-
durga Hills, and flows northward through the Kortagiri taluk. Its
sandy bed affords facilities for irrigation by means of kapili wells, and
talpargi or spring-head streams drawn from the channel.



JEDDYA GOWDEN—JEHLAM. 165

Jeddya Gowden. — Mountain in South Arcot District, Madras
Presidency. Lat. 11° 40' to 11° 51' N., long. 78° 42' to 78° 53' e.

Jehlam {/ahla?n, Jhehun). — River in the Punjab; the most westerly
of the five streams from which the Province derives its name. It is
also known as the Bihet or Bitasta, corruptions of its Sanskrit name
Vifasta, which Alexander's historians Graecized into Hydaspes, but
Ptolemy more correctly as Bidaspes. The Jehlam rises in Kashmir
State, among the mountains forming the north-eastern boundary of the
valley, and, after flowing in a south-westerly course, forms a junction
with the streams which have their origin in the Pi'r Panjd.1 range. It
then passes through the picturesque string of lakes in the neighbour-
hood of Srinagar or Kashmir city, and flows thenceforth above the level
of the lower valley, being confined by high banks like those of the Po.
Before entering the Walar Lake, it receives the waters of a considerable
tributary, the Sind, which rises in the northern mountains. The united
stream then pours through the snow-clad Pir Panjal range by the
narrow pass of Baramula, which forms an outlet for the entire basin of
the Kashmir valley. A vast lake at one time probably filled the whole
of this great central hollow in the Himalayan system ; but the outlet has
been gradually worn down by the escaping flood, till only the lowest
portion of the valley now remains covered with water. The distance
from the source to the lower mouth of the Baramula Pass may be
estimated at about 130 miles, of which 70 are navigable. The river
has a breadth of 420 feet at Baramula.

At Muzaffarabad, just before entering British territory, the Jehlam
receives the Kishan Ganga, a river of at least equal length, which rises
in Baltistan or Little Tibet, and drains an extensive valley among the
Northern Himalayas. It next forms the boundary between the
Kashmir State and the British Districts of Hazara and Rawal Pindi,
flowing in a narrow rocky bed, shut in by mountains on either side.
Numerous rapids here render navigation impossible, though large
quantities of timber are floated down from Kashmir. A handsome
suspension bridge at Kohala in Hazara conveys the Kashmir road
across the river. Below Dangalli, 40 miles east of Rawal Pindi, the
Jehlam becomes navigable. Passing into Jehlam District, it skirts the
outlying spurs of the Salt Range, and finally debouches upon the plains
a little above the town of Jehlam, about 250 miles from its source.
Below Jehlam, inundation of the lowlands begins to be possible, and
low sandy islands stud the wide bed of the stream. After a south-
westerly course of more than 100 miles, during which the river divides
the District of Jehlam from those of Gujrat and Shahpur, it enters the
latter District entirely, and trends thenceforth more directly southward.
The width in this portion of its course averages 800 yards in flood,
dwindling down during the winter months to less than half that size.



i66 JEHLAM.

Sudden freshets occur after heavy rains, and cause frequent inundations
over the lowlands, greatly increasing the productive power of the soil.
The Jehlam next enters the District of Jhang, where it preserves the
i ame general characteristics, but with a wider valley, bounded by the
liigh uplands known as the bar. It finally joins the Chenab (Chinab)
at Timmu, in lat. 31° 11' N., long. 72° 12' e., 10 miles to the south of
Maghiana, after a total course of not less than 450 miles, of which
about 200 lie within British territory. The current in the plains has
an average rate of 4 miles per hour. The wedge of land between the
Jehlam and the Chenab is known as the Jech Doab ; while the tract
stretching westward to the Indus bears the name of the Sind Sdgar
(Saugor) Doab.

The principal towns upon the Jehlam are Kashmir or Srinagar
(situated on one of its lacustrine expansions), Jehlam, Pind Dadan
Khan, Miani, Bhera, and Shahpur. According to General Cunning-
ham, the point where Alexander crossed the Hydaspes may be identified
with Jalalpur in Jehlam District ; while nearly opposite, on the Gujrat
bank, stands the modern battle-field of Chilianwala. Bridges of boats
cross the river at Jehlam and Pind Dadan Khan, and at a point just
below its junction with the Chenab. The permanent railway bridge
of the Northern Punjab State Line also crosses at the town of Jehlam.
For further particulars, see Hazara, Rawal Pindi, Jehlam, Gujrat,
Shahpur, and Jhang Districts, and Kashmir State.

Jehlam. — British District in the Lieutenant - Governorship of the
Punjab (Panjab), lying between 32° 26' and 33° 15' n. lat, and between
71° 51' and 73° 50' E. long. Jehlam is a District in the Rawal Pindi
Division. It stands ninth in order of area and eighteenth in order of
population among the thirty-two Districts of the Province, comprising
3-67 per cent, of the total area, 3*14 per cent, of the total population,
and 2-50 per cent, of the urban population of British territory. It
is bounded on the north by Rawal Pindi District; on the east by
the river Jehlam ; on the south by the river Jehlam and Shahpur Dis-
trict ; and on the west by Bannu and Shahpur Districts. Area, 3910
square miles; population (1881) 589,373 persons. The administrative
head-quarters are at Jehlam town, which is also the chief centre of
population and commerce in the District.

Physical Aspects. — Jehlam forms the south-eastern portion of that
rugged Himalayan spur known as the Salt Range, which extends
between the Indus and Jehlam rivers into the borders of the Sind Sagar
(Saugor) Do.4b. Although its surface is not so wild as the mountain
region of Rawal Pindi, it yet presents a general appearance of great
beauty and sublimity, relieved in places by smiling patches of cultivated
valley. The backbone of the District is formed by the Salt Range, a
double line of parallel hills, mainly composed of red sandstone and



JEHLAM. 167

carboniferous rocks, running in two long forks from east to west
throughout its whole breadth. At their foot lies a small strip of level
soil, stretching along the banks of the Jehlam, and thickly dotted with
prosperous villages, some of which receive and detain the fertilizing
waters from the lower slopes. Above this favoured tract, the Salt
Range rises in bold and striking precipices, broken by gorges of dull
russet sandstone and grey gypsum, which contrast finely with the
brilliant redness of the superficial soil. The latter peculiarity marks
the presence of salt, from which the range derives its name, and which
is mined in enormous quantities, under Government supervision, at
Kheura. Some of the gorges are clothed with green brushwood, and
traversed by trickling streams, at first pure and fresh, but soon im-
pregnated with the saline matter over which they flow, and thus
rendered worse than useless for purposes of irrigation.

Between the lines of hills lies a picturesque table-land, in which the
beautiful little lake of Kallar Kahar nestles amongst the minor ridges
—at one end a mimic dead sea, surrounded by bare and rocky hills, its
banks encrusted with salt, and devoid of life or vegetation ; at the other,
a glistening lake, crowned by wooded heights, and alive with myriads of
wildfowl. North of the Salt Range, again, the country extends upward
in an elevated plateau, diversified by countless ravines and fissures,
until it loses itself in the tangled masses of the Rawal Pindi mountains.
I'he drainage of the District is determined by a low central watershed,
running north and south, at right angles to the Salt Range. The waters
of the western portion find their way into the Sohan, and finally into
the Indus ; those of the opposite slope collect into small torrents, and
empty themselves into the Jehlam, which skirts the District for 100
miles on its eastern and southern edge. This river is navigable for
some distance above the town of Jehlam for the flat-bottomed craft of
the country.

The mineral wealth of the Salt Range is considerable. Not only are
building stones and marbles of great beauty produced in abundance,
but there is a large variety of stones that supply lime. There is also
gypsum for plaster of Paris, and various red earths and ochres occur
which have value as colouring agents. Coal, sulphur, and petroleum
are found, and many metals, including copper, gold, lead, and iron.
This last occurs in the form of rich hematite, and is in some places so
abundant that the rocks containing it disturb the indications of the
magnetic compass. Finally, the range furnishes the greater portion
of the salt-supply of the Punjab. With the exception of salt, indeed,
litde has yet been done to develope its mineral resources, the exceed-
ing cost of carriage having been the great obstacle ; but now that
railway communication between Miani and Lahore has lessened this
difticulty, it is to be hoped that a region so fertile in mineral pro-



i68 [EHLAM.

ducts will not be allowed to lie fallow. The Administration Report for
1878-79 (the latest return) shows salt mines at Kheura, Sardi, Makrach,
Katha, and Jatana, of which the first two alone were worked during the
year, and yielded 3,241,508 inaunds ; and coal mines, at Makrach,
Pidh, Dandot, and Kundal. The coal is generally of inferior quality,
and its use commercially for fuel has hitherto not proved successful.
Recently, however (1884), the mineral has been extensively purchased
by the railway authorities at Find Dadan Khan. The seams excavated
are those at Makrach, where there is an outcrop on the surface, said to
be of a good hard quality. Sulphuret of lead or galena is found in
small nodules in two or three localities. It is chiefly found in clefts in
the most inaccessible precipices of the hills.

History. — The early annals of Jehlam present more points of interest
than its records in modern times, since it can claim a mention both
in the semi-mythical geography of the Alahdbhdrata and in the more
veracious pages of Alexander's historians. Hindu tradition represents
the Salt Range as the refuge of the Pandavas during the period of their
exile; and every salient point in its scenery is connected with some
legend of the national heroes. On the other hand, modern research
has decided that the conflict between Alexander and Porus took place
at some point within the present District; though the exact spot at
which the Macedonian king effected the passage of the Jehlam (or
Hydaspes) has been hotly disputed. General Cunningham is probably
correct in supposing that the real site of the crossing was at Jalalpur,
w^hich he identifies with the city of Bukephala ; and that the battle with
Porus — a Greek corruption of the name Purusha — took place at Mong,
on the Gujrat side, close to the field of Chilianwdla. But when the
brief light cast upon the District by Arrian and by Curtius has been
withdrawn, we have little 'information with reference to its condition,
until the Musalman conquest brought back literature and history to
Upper India.

The Janjuahs and Jats, who, along with other tribes, now hold the
Salt Range and the northern plateau respectively, appear to have
been the earliest inhabitants. The former are doubtless pure Rdjputs,
while the Jd,ts are perhaps their degenerate descendants. The
Ghakkars seem to represent an early wave of conquest from the
east, and they still inhabit a large tract in the east of the District ;
while the Awans, who now cluster in the western plain, are apparently
later invaders from the opposite quarter. The Ghakkars were the
dominant race at the period of the first Muhammadan incursions ; and
they long continued to retain their independence both in Jehlam itself
and in the neighbouring District of Rawal Pindi, where the history of
the tribe will be found more fully traced. During the flourishing period
of the Mughal dynasty, the Ghakkar chieftains were among the most



JEHLAM. 169

prosperous and loyal vassals of the house of Babar. But after the
collapse of the Delhi Empire, Jehlam fell, like its neighbours, under
the sway of the Sikhs. In 1765, Gujar Singh defeated the last inde-
pendent Ghakkar prince, and reduced the wild mountaineers of the Salt
Range and the Murree (Marri) Hills to subjection. His son succeeded
to his dominions, until 1810, when he fell before the irresistible power
of Ranjit Singh. Under the Lahore Government, the dominant classes



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