William Wilson Hunter.

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that they conquered. There are about twenty families of rank in
Jhabua State, who pay ^i'lSoo a year in tribute to Holkar, and ^2500
to their own chief. In lieu of the tribute of ;£35oo5 which Holkar
claimed from Jhabua, lands were assigned to him, through the media-
tion of the British Government. The Raja, though then only 15 years
of age, did good service during the Mutiny of 1857. The gross revenue
of the State is (1882-83) ;^i4,7io, and the expenditure ^13, 979-
The chief is entitled to a salute of eleven guns.

The Jhabua possessions, formerly of considerable extent and value,
are now comprised within very narrow Umits. What remains to the
State may be described as a mountainous and woody tract, consisting
chiefly of extensive ranges of hills, seldom abrupt or rising to any great
height, and covered for the most part with thick jungle of small but
valuable timber trees, chiefly teak and blackwood. These ranges, as a
rule, run nearly north and south, at distances from each other varying
from I to 5 or 6 miles. The intermediate valleys are watered by
numerous rivulets, tributaries of the Narbada (Nerbudda), the Mahi,
and the Anas. The last especially, taking its rise in the south, and
running through the centre of the State, with its several branches and
feeders, contributes greatly to the fertility of Jhabua. The cultivator
in these valleys is able to raise a second or ' dry ' crop, an advantage
unknown in many of the southern and eastern parts of the State. The
soil is for the most part good, and repays with little culture the toil of
the cultivator. The hills abound with minerals, especially iron and
copper ores ; but these, for want of skill or industry, are comparatively

The population in 1875 ^^s estimated to number 55,000, chiefly
Bhi'ls and Bhilalas of the agricultural class, a hardy, industrious, but
wild race. The Census of 1881 returns the population (exclusive of
Ratanmal) at 92,938, namely, 47,943 males and 44,995 females, dwelling
in 785 villages. According to religion the people are thus distributed :
—Hindus, 40,094, or nearly 43 per cent.; Muhammadans, 2275;
Jains, 2027; Sikhs, 10; aboriginal tribes, 48,531; and Christian, i.
Two towns have between two and three thousand inhabitants. The
products of the State are more than sufficient for the needs of the
inhabitants. The surplus, chiefly gram and, in the southern and plain
Districts, wheat, is exchanged for the numerous articles of necessity or
luxury which the neighbouring Province of Gujarat afl"ords. The prin-


cipal rain crops are Indian corn, rice, knra^ ?/iug, itrid, hadli, and samli.
The ' dry ' or second crops are gram and wheat. Small quantities of
cotton and poppy are raised, but only in two or three places, and not
sufficient for home consumption. In the Pitlawar and other Districts
in the plains, sugar-cane is grown to a considerable extent. The gardens
])roduce ginger, garlic, onions, and niost of the vegetables common to
the rest of Malwa. In the greater part of this State, as in most hilly
and Bhi'l Districts, — the soil not admitting of regular cultivation, but
merely of patches in the more fertile parts, — instead of admeasurement
or regular allotments of ground, the system has been adopted of taxing
the cultivator according to the number of pairs of bullocks used by him
in agriculture. The whole of the revenue duties and village govern-
ment are in the hands of the hereditary Bhil pdtels or head-men. The
State pays ;£"i47 towards the cost of the Malwa Bhil corps.

There are dispensaries and schools in three towns, viz. Jhabua,
Ranapur, and Kandla ; also a school at Rambhapur. Education,
however, is neglected, and the schools are very inefficient. The
Raja of Jhabua maintains a military force of 50 horse and 200 foot.
There are three fair-weather roads : (i) from Indore via Dhar and Ali
Rajpur to Gujarat, passing through Para Rajla and Kanas ; (2) from
Rattam via Dohad to Gujarat, passing through Pitlawar and Thaundla ;
(3) a branch road from Pitlawar via Thaundla, Jhabua, and Ranapur to
Gujarat. Along all of these roads water is scarce during the hot season.

Jhabua. — Chief town of the Jhabua State, under the Bhopawar
Agency of Central India; situated in lat. 22° 45' n., and long. 74°
38' E., on the route from Mau (Mhow) to Jhalod, 82 miles west of the
former, and 36 south-west of the latter. The town is enclosed by a mud
wall, with circular bastions of masonry, and stands on the margin of a
small lake in a valley lying at the eastern base of a ridge of hills. On
the north bank is the Raja's residence rising above the town, and some
temples ; and on the opposite side is a fine grove of trees, whilst behind
the palace and town rises a hill covered with low jungle. Jhabua
consists of tortuous, uneven, and steep streets. By the lake is a
memorial of the death of the present (1882) chief's father, killed 40
years ago by lightning while seated on his elephant. The town is
unhealthy. Dispensary, post-office, and school.

Jhajhar.— Town in Bulandshahr District, North- Western Provinces.
Lat. 28° 16' N., long. 77° 42' 15" E. Distant from Bulandshahr town
15 miles south-west. Population (1881) 4151. Founded by Sayyid
Muhammad Khan, a Baluch who accompanied Humayiin in his raid,
and made the town a refuge for runaways and outcasts. His descend-
ants in the ninth generation still own the soil. Before the Mutiny,
Jhajhar supplied the light cavalry with many Baluch recruits. It is now
a mean, poverty-stricken town, with a post-office, police station, village


school. A house-tax is levied to provide for conservancy, and for ihe
watch and ward of the town.

Jhajjar.— Southern tahsil of Rohtak District, Punjab, consisting
of a somewhat sandy plain, growing marshy as it approaches the
Najafgarh jhil, and intersected by minor watercourses. Area, 469
square miles, with 181 towns and villages, and 16,378 houses.
Population (1881) 112,485, namely, males 60,135, and females
52,350. Average density, 240 per square mile. Number of families,
23.972. Hindus and Sikhs numbered 97,675 ; Muhammadans,
24,703; Jains, 104; and Christians, 3. Total number of towns
and villages, 181, of which 112 contained less than five hundred
inhabitants; 43 from five hundred to a thousand; 20 from one to
two thousand; and 6 upwards of two thousand. Of a total area
of 289,249 acres in 1879, at the time of the revised setdement,
213,268 acres were returned as under cultivation, of which 27,592
acres were irrigated from wells, or by natural inundation. Of the
remaining area, 8269 acres lay fallow ; 48,341 acres were cultivable,
but not under tillage ; 17,387 acres were uncultivable w^aste ; and 10,991
acres were held revenue free. The average annual area under the
principal crops for the five years from 1877-78 to 1881-82, is returned
as follows: — Bdjra, 84,872 acres; Jodr, 34,169 acres; inoth, 17,631
acres ; barley, 17,514 acres ; gram, 1 1,733 acres ; and wheat, 7846 acres.
Revenue of the tahsil (1883), ;2{^22,8i9. The administrative staff
consists of I Assistant Commissioner, i fahsilddr, and i honorary
magistrate. These officers preside over 2 civil and 3 criminal courts.
Number of police circles (thdiids), 2 ; strength of regular police, 64
men ; village watchmen {chaukiddrs), 187. The Riwari-Firozpur Railway
passes through the outskirts of the tahsil.

Jhajjar. — Town and municipality in Rohtak District, Punjab,
and head - quarters of Jhajjar tahsil ; formerly the capital of a
Native State, and afterwards the civil station of a British District,
now removed to Rohtak. Lat. 28° 36' 33" n., long. 76° 14'
10" E. Population (1868) 12,617; (1881) 11,650, namely, 6895
Hindus, 4659 Muhammadans, i Sikh, 93 Jains, and 2 'others.'
Situated on the plain, 35 miles west of Delhi, and 21 miles south
of Rohtak town. The town was founded at the time of the first
Muhammadan conquest of Delhi, in 11 93. It was almost ruined
by the great famine of 1793, but has since regained its prosperity.
In 1796, Nijabat Ali Khan became Nawab of Jhajjar. He was son
of Murtaza Khan, a Pathan soldier of fortune under Shah Alam.
'i ogether with his two brothers, he took service with Sindhia, from
whom they obtained extensive grants, with the titles of Nawab of
Jhajjar, Bahadurgarh, and Pataodi. After the British conquest, these
grants were confirmed and enlarged. But when the Mutiny broke out.


Abdul Rahman Khan, the reigning Nawdb, threw off his allegiance,
together with his cousin of Bahadurgarh. Both were captured and
tried, and the Nawab of Jhajjar was condemned to death, his estates
being confiscated by the British Government. A District of Jhajjar was
organized out of the new territory, but in 1861 the head-quarters were
removed to Rohtak, with which District Jhajjar was incor[jorated.
Small and languishing trade in grain and country produce, the town
lying remote from modern trade routes. Considerable manufacture of
pottery. Tahsili, police station, post-office, dak bungalow, school-house,
dispensary. Ruined tanks and tombs surround the town. ]\Iunicipal
revenue in 1882-83, ^630, or is. id. per head of population.

Jhaknauda. — Town in Jhabua State, Bhopawar Agency, Central
India. Large town, situated 15 miles from Sardarpur, and 24 miles
north-east of Jhabua town. The residence of a T/idkur, one of the
principal Umraos ; his income is ^^^looo, and he pays an annual
tribute of p/^311 to the Indore State.

Jhalakati (or Alahdrdjganj). — Village and municipality in Bakar-
ganj District, Bengal. Lat. 22° 38' 30" n., long. 90° 15' e. ; situated at
the junction of the Jhalakati and Nalchiti rivers. Population (1881)
1463. One of the largest timber markets in Eastern Bengal, especially
for the sale of sundri wood. Extensive export trade in rice ; imports
of salt. Municipal revenue (1881-82), ^^140; rate of taxation,
iid. per head of population (3000) within municipal limits. Fair held
here annually in November at the Diwdli festival, which is attended by
about 8000 persons.

Jhalawar. — Native State in Rajputana, under the political superin-
tendence of the Haraoti and Tonk Agency, Rajputana, Central India.
The State consists of three detached tracts. The largest one is
bounded on the north by the State of Kotah ; on the east by Sindhia's
territory and a detached District of the Tonk State ; on the south by
the petty State of Rajgarh, outlying portions of the States of Sindhia
and Holkar, a detached District of the Dewas State, and the State of
Jaura (Jaora) ; and on the west by detached Districts belonging to
Sindhia and Holkar. This portion of the State lies between lat. 23° 48' and
24° 48' N., and between long. 75° 55' and 77° e., and contains the capital,
Jhalra Patan. The second detached area is bounded on the north,
east, and south by the Gwalior State, and on the west by Kotah. It
lies between lat. 25° 5' and 25' 25' n., and between long. 76° 55' and 77°
25' E. The chief town in this tract is Shahabad. The third detached
tract, known as Kirpapur, situated to the north-west of the largest tract,
is only a few square miles in extent, and is bounded on the north by
Sindhia's territory, and on the east, south, and west by Mewcir (Udaipur).
The area of the whole State is 2694 square miles ; number of villages,
1455 ; towns, 2. Population (1881) 340,488.


Physical Aspects.— The main portion of Jhalawar is situated on a
raised plateau, gradually rising from 1000 feet above sea-level in the
north to 1500 feet in the south. The northern, eastern, and part of the
southern portions are very hilly, and intersected by many streams.
The hills are for the most part covered with timber and grass, and
sometimes enclose lakes, which have been formed by damming up the
outlets of natural basins. The rest of this tract is a rich undulating
plain, dotted with evergreen trees. The Shahabad tract is, on the west,
an elevated table-land, well wooded ; and in the eastern part, some 500
feet lower, very hilly and covered with thick jungle. Speaking generally,
the soil is rich, of dark clayey mould, which produces valuable crops,
such as opium, etc. Locally the soils are known and divided into 3
classes — (i) kali, the rich black loam ; (2) indl, a loam of a lighter
colour, but almost equally fertile ; (3) bdrh, the shaly soil, by far the
poorest of the three. It is estimated that about one-quarter ot the
cultivable area consists of kali, one-half of mdl, and one-quarter of bdrli
soil. At places the presence of rock and kankar (calcareous limestone)
close to the surface interferes with the productiveness of the kali and
mdl soils.

Of the many streams running through the territory, the following are
the most important : — The Parwan enters the State at the south-east
extremity, and winds for 50 miles up to the point where it enters
Kotah ; half-way, it is joined by the Newaj, another good-sized stream.
For 16 miles of its length, the Parwan forms the boundary line between
Jhalawcir and Kotah State. There are two ferries on the Parwan ; one
at Manohar Thana, the other at Bhachurni. A ferry at Bhurilia crosses
the Newdj. The Kali Sind flows for a distance of about 30 miles
through and along the border of the State. Its bed is rocky, the banks
])recipitous, and in parts lined with trees. There is a ferry at Bhonrcisa
and another at Khairasi. The Aii river, flowing from the south-western
corner, traverses the State for a length of 60 miles, dividing Jhalawar
from Holkar's territory and the Tonk Districts in the south, and from
Kotah in the north. It joins the Kali Sind at the point where that
stream enters Kotah. The bed of this river is less rocky than the Kali
Sind, its banks are steep, and in parts where the foliage reaches the
water's edge, the views are picturesque. Ferries cross the Aii at Suket
and Bhilwdri. The Chhota Kali Sind, with a ferry at Gangrar, flows
only for a short distance through the south-western portion of the

The following extract from a brief memorandum by the Superinten-
dent of the Survey, shows the geological formation of the country :—
' Two of the main rock series of India are well exposed. Jhalra Patan,
the capital, stands on Vindhyan strata, at the northern edge of the
great spread of basaltic rocks known as the Deccan trap formation, this



northern area of it being also often mentioned as the Malwd trap.
These Vindhyans belong to the upper division in the Geological Survey
classification of this great Indian rock system. The beds about Jhalra
Patan are considered to belong to the Rewa or middle group of them,
and consist of sandstones and shales, with a band of limestone. Over
the greater part of this Vindhyan area the strata are quite undisturbed,
and their habit is to weather into scarped plateaux or ridges, having one
face steep and the other sloping. These are capped by tlie sandstone,
the low ground being eroded out of the shales. There are many
varieties of basaltic rocks, hard with columnar and ball structure or
amorphous, also vesicular and amygdaloidal in every degree, and soft
crumbling ash-like beds, both earthy and vesicular. The age of the
Vindhyan formation is quite unknown, beyond the fact that it must be
at least as old as the palaeozoic. The trap is certainly either upper
cretaceous or lower tertiary.' Iron, and red and yellow clays used for
dyeing cloth, are found in the Shahabad District.

History. — The ruling family of Jhalawar belongs to the Jhala clan of
Rajputs. Their ancestors were petty chiefs of Halwad in the District
of Jhalawar, in Kathiawar. About 1709 a.d., one Bhao Singh, a younger
son of the head of the clan, set out from home with his son and a small
troop of followers, to try his fortune at Delhi. At Kotah, Bhao Singh
left his son Madhu Singh with the Maharaja of Kotah, and went on
himself to Delhi, where all trace of him ends. Madhu Singh rose
into great favour with the Kotah chief, who married his eldest son
to Madhu Singh's sister, and gave him a grant of the estate of Nandla,
with the post of Faujdar, which included not only the command of the
troops, but that of the castle, the residence of the sovereign. This
procured him the respectful title of Mama, or maternal uncle, from the
younger members of the prince's family, a title which habit has per-
petuated with his successors. ^ladhu Singh was succeeded in the office
of Faujdar by his son Madan Singh, and it then became hereditary in
the family. Himmat Singh followed Madan Singh, and was in his turn
succeeded by his famous nephew Zali'm Singh, who was at the time only
eighteen years of age. Three years later, Zali'm Singh was the means of
securing victory for the troops of Kotah over the army of Jaipur, but he
afterwards fell into disfavour with the Ra'ja in consequence of some
rivalry in love. Being dismissed from his office, he migrated to
Udaipur (Oodeypore), where he did good service. But when the
Kotah Raja was on his death-bed, he sent for Zali'm Singh, and com-
mitted his son Umed Singh and the country to his charge. From
this time, Zalim Singh was the real ruler of Kotah. He raised it to a
state of high prosperity ; and under his administration, which lasted
over forty-five years, the Kotah territory was respected by all parties—
^luhammadan, Maratha, and Rajput (see Kotah). In 1838, it was


resolved, with the consent of the chief of Kotah, to dismember the
State, and to create the principality of Jhalawar as a separate provision
for the descendants of Zalim Singh, so that the State of Jhalawar dates
only from 1838. The Districts then severed from Kotah were considered
to represent a revenue of 12 lakhs of rupees (^120,000), or one-third
of the income of the State. The new State also became responsible
for one-third of the debts of Kotah ; and by treaty acknowledged the
supremacy of the British Government, agreeing to supply troops accord-
ing to available means, and to pay an annual tribute of ^8ooc.
Madan Singh received the title of Maharaja Rana, was granted a salute
of 15 guns, and placed on the same footing as the other chiefs in
Rajputana. He was succeeded by Prithi Singh, who, during the Mutiny
of 1857-58, did good service by conveying to places of safety several
Europeans who had taken refuge in his State. He was succeeded
in 1876 by his adopted son, Bakht Singh, then in his eleventh year.
On accession, in accordance with family custom, which enjoins that
only the four names of Zalim Singh, Madhu Singh, Madan Singh, and
Prithi Singh are to be assumed by the rulers of this house, he took the
name of Zalim Singh. During his minority he was educated at the
Mayo College in Ajmere, and the State was administered by a
council under the superintendence of a British officer, whose head-
quarters are still at Jhalra Patan. On 22nd February 1884, the
Rana Zalim Singh was invested with governing powers, having
attained his majority in November 1883. The chief of Jhalawar
is entitled to a salute of 15 guns. A military force is maintained
of 20 field and 75 other guns, 247 artillerymen, 425 cavalry, and 3266

Agriculture. — In Jhalawar all the ordinary Indian grains are culti-
vated. In the southern Districts opium is extensively grown for the
Bombay market. Throughout the rest of the State, wheat, jowdr^ and
opium are the chief crops, except in Shahabad, where the staple is bdjra
(Holcus spicatus), and food-grasses locally known as rdli and kodon.
Irrigation is principally carried on by means of w^ells, water generally
lying near the surface. Near Jhalra Patan, however, is a large artificial
lake, from which water is drawn by a channel two miles long. In 1882,
it was estimated that about 434,74° acres, or less than one-third of the
total area of the State, were cultivated. Of the untilled portion, more
than one-third, but less than half, is cultivable; the remainder
consisting of hilly and waste land.

Revefuie.—T\\Q total revenue of the State in 1882-83 was ^152,523,
of which sum pf 118,397 was derived from the land. Of this sum only
^132,480 reached the treasury, the balance, /;2o,o43, being alienated
in Jiigirs or feudal holdings, or in religious grants. The theory that
the State is lord of the soil is carried out in Jhalawar. The cultivators.


except in the Chaumela District (compribing the pan^ands of Pach-
pahcir, Awar, Dag, and Gangrar), are, as a rule, occupancy tenants,
holding directly from the State. In the Chaumela District, the revenue
is realized from village communities, the members of which are called
ivattanddrs. But the bankers, who live in Jhalra Patan, are the
chief media for the transfer of revenue from the cultivators to the
Rand. The jdgirddrs furnish horses and men for the service of the
State, and present themselves at head-quarters on the occurrence of

The police are distributed over four Districts and are under the charge
of four superintendents. The numbers are 167 mounted and 141 7 foot ;
and are included in the cavalry and infantry enumerated above. A
central jail exists, in which the prisoners are employed in road-making
and the manufacture of paper, rugs, and clothes. Kx\. extradition
treaty was concluded with the State in 1868. Education is at present
very backward, but is slowly progressing. There were in 1884 in
the State 22 schools. In the Districts, the village priest teaches
the young people (chiefly the sons of Brahmans and Baniyas)
the method of keeping accounts and the rudiments of reading and
writing Hindi. In the town of Jhalra Patan, and in the Chhaoni or
cantonment, there are two schools in which Hindi, Urdu, and P^nglish
are taught ; and one girls' school. The number of pupils receiving
instruction in all the State schools (1883-84) was 1139, of whom 35
were girls. A judicial system has been introduced. The lower
courts are tahs'il courts with minor powers : above the ta/isil courts
are the appellate courts, generally formed oi Zi pa?ichdyat. Final appeal
lies to the Rana. Five dispensaries are maintained by the State,
two at head-quarters, and three in the Districts; 162 in-door and
15,855 out-door patients were treated in 1883-84.

Population. — The population was estimated in 1875 at 226,000 per-
sons ; by the Census of 1881, it w\is returned at 340,488, namely,
183,039 males and 157,449 females, dwelling in 63,001 houses.
Number of persons per square mile, 126-38 ; houses per square mile,
2375; persons per house, 5-4- Of the total population, 319,612,
or 93 per cent, were returned as Hindus ; 20,863 Muham-
madans ; and 13 Christians. Among the Hindus, 18,498 were
Brahmans; 9491 Rajputs, of the Jhala and Rahtor clans for the
most part, and 291,623 other Hindu castes, the principal being
Baniyas or Mahajans (13,470), Giijars (18,591), Minas (16,084),
Bhils (16,459), Chamars (27,313), Dhakurs (11,263), Sondhias
(36,026), Balais (17,787), Kachhis (1077), Jats (i409)» ^^^^ other
Hindus (132,144). The different sects among the Muhamrnadans were
returned as follows :— Shaikhs, 5593; Sayyids, 1104; Mughals, 553;
Pathans, 6878 ; other Muhammadans, 6735. The Sondhias or Sondhis


are found to the number of about thirty-six thousand in the Jhalawar
State. The complexion of this race is fair, neither very dark nor very
light (Sandhia = twiHght). They claim descent from a prince born with
the face of a tiger, and consider themselves a distinct Rajput people.
They are idle, predatory, and immoral. Their women have a reputation
for horsemanship.

Means of Communication. — There are in the State 5i| miles of
metalled road and 89J miles of fair-weather road ; of the former, a
length of 27^ miles is on the road running through the State from
Kotah on the northern border, to Raipur in Holkar's territory on the
southern ; the remaining length of 24 miles being in and around the
cantonments and town of Jhalra Patau. All other roads are simply cart
tracks, which in the rains become useless for wheeled traffic. The
principal of these lead towards the high - road between Agra and
Bombay, towards Agra and Indore, to the south-west towards Ujjain,
to the west in the direction of Nimach (Neemuch). Along the south-
east and south routes traffic is carried on with Bombay through Indore,
opium being exported, and English cloths imported; grain from Bhopal
is also imported by these routes. By the north-west route grain from
Haraoti, and a small quantity of cloth from Agra, is imported. The
chief towns in the State are Jhalra Patau, Shahabad, Kailwara,

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 7) → online text (page 24 of 57)