William Wilson Hunter.

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Chhipa Burod, Bukari Suket, Mandhar Thana, Pachpahar, Dag, and

Climate. — The climate of Jhalawar resembles that of Central India,
and is generally healthy. The hot weather is less severe than in
Northern Rajputana, the thermometer during the day in the shade
ranging from 85° to 88° F. The temperature during the rains is cool
and pleasant, and in the cold weather frosts occasionally occur. No
trustworthy register of the rainfall has been kept; but judging from
the record kept at Agar (a station in Sindhia's territory, about 60 miles
south of Jhalra Patan), the annual rainfall is probably between 30 and
40 inches. In 1883, the rainfall was registered at four stations, viz. the
cantonments 30-5, Jhalra Patan 33-6, Shahabad 33-5, and Aklera 387

Jhalawar. — Division or Pranth of Kathiawar, Gujarat (Guzerat),
Bombay Presidency. Takes its name from the Jhala Rajputs, who own
the principal estates. It includes the States of Dhrangadra, the chief
of which is the recognised head of the Jhala clan, Wankaner, Limbdi,
Wadhwan, and minor States. Area, about 4400 square miles. Popula-
tion (1872) 427,329; (1881) 439,629, namely, 228,701 males and
210,928 females, dwelling in 9 towns and 702 villages, and occupying
94,548 houses. Average density of population, 102*4 per square mile.
According to religion, Hindus numbered 371,510; Muhammadans,
37,156; and 'others,' 30,963.


Jhalera.— Guaranteed Girasia, Thakurate, or chiefship, under the
Bhopal Agency, Central India. The chief receives from Sindhia a
pecuniary allowance, in lieu of rights over land, of nearly ;£i2o. This
is paid through the Political Agent, to whom also the Thakur is
subordinate in his administration.

Jhalod. — Petty division of the Sub-division of Dahod, Panch
Mahals District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 22 25' 50" to 23' 35' n.,
and long. 74° 6' to 74° 23' 25" e. Jhalod is bounded on the north by
Chelkari State, on the east by Kushalgad State, both in Central India,
on the south by the southern portion of Dohad Sub-division, and on
the west by Baria (Bariya) and Sunth of Rewa Kantha. The Anas
river runs along its eastern face. Water is in most places close to the
surface, and large areas are watered by lever-lifts from unbuilt wells.
The important trade route from Gujarat (Guzer^t) to Malwa passes
through the tract. Area, 267 square miles. Population (1872)
36,785. The Census of 1881 does not show the population of Jhalod
separately, but includes it wiih that of the Sub-division of which it
forms a part.

Jhalod.— Town in Jhalod, petty division of the Sub-division of
Dahod, Panch Mahals District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 23° 7' n.,
long. 74° 10' E. Population (1881) 5579, of whom 2659 were Hindus,
io6'i Muhammadans, 69 Jains, and ' others,' 1790. Area of town site,
94 acres. The inhabitants are mostly Bhils and Kolis. There is an
export trade in grain, pottery, cotton cloth, and lac bracelets in
imitation of the costly ivory Ratlam bracelets. There is a large pond

near the town. . r\ ^\

Jhalotar-Ajgain.— /'^r^^^^' of Mohan tahsU, Unao District, Oudh ;
situated between Mohan Auras on the north, and Harha on the south.
Originally constituted a pargatid in the reign of Akbar. Area, 98
square miles, of which 55 are cultivated; Government land revenue
demand, ^8901 ; average incidence, 2s. io|d. per acre. The prevail-
ing tenure is imperfect patiiddri, 46,650 out of the total of 62,657
acres being thus held; of the balance, 12,096 acres are zamin-
ddri, and 3910 MIuMdri. Population (1881) 58,185, namely, 30,53^
males and 27,649 females. The Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway
intersects the pargand, with a station at Kusumbhi. Five market
villages. . ^

Jhalra Patan (or Fdfan).-Ch\ef town of the Native State of
Jhalawar, Rajputana. Jhalra Patan lies in lat. 24" 32' N., and long. 7^
12' E. ; situated at the foot of a low range of hills runmng from south-
east to north-west. The drainage from these hills to the north-west of the
town is collected into a good-sized lake by a large and very solid masonry
dam, about two-thirds of a mile long, on which stand sundry temples
and buildings. The town lies behind this dam, the general level ot


the ground being the same height as the water of the lake in the cold
weather. Between the city walls and the foot of the hills stretch a
number of gardens, watered by a small canal brought from the lake.
Except on the lake side, the city is protected by a masonry wall with
circular bastions and a ditch capable of being supplied by the lake.
This ditch, however, ceases in the centre of the eastern face. From
the west, running south of the city at a distance of 400 or 500 yards,
flows the Chandrabagha river, which then bends to the north-east, and,
passing through the hills, joins the Kali Sind after a course of about
four miles through open country. On a hill 150 feet above the city is
situated a small square fort of no importance.

The old town was situated a little to the south of the present site,
on the bank of the Chandrabagha. There is considerable diversity of
opinion as to the derivation of the name. According to Tod, Jhalra
Patan means the ' City of Bells,' as the old town, being a place
of some sanctity, contained 108 temples with bells. It was also
known from its position by the name of Chandioti-Nagri, which was
destroyed, and its temple despoiled in the time of Aurangzeb. All
that was left of the ancient place in 1796, was the temple of Sat Seheli,
or 'Seven Damsels,' which still stands in the new town. Others con-
nect the name of the town with the Jhala clan. Thornton considers
the most plausible etymology to be jhalra^ ' a spring of water,' and
pdtan^ a 'town.'

The present city was founded in 1796 by Zalim Singh, who also
established the Chhaoni, a permanent cantonment about 4 miles north
from the city, with which it is connected by a metalled road. Zalim
Singh, upon founding Jhalra Patan, placed a large stone tablet in the
centre of the town, on which w\as engraved a promise that new settlers
would be excused the payment of custom dues, and would be, for
whatever crime convicted, fined no more than Rs. 1-4 (2s. 6d.).
This edict was annulled in 1850. The Maharaja Rc4na's palace
and all the courts and public offices are situated in the Chhaoni or
cantonment. The palace is enclosed by a high masonry wall forming
a square, with large circular bastions at each corner, and two semi-
circular ones in the centre of each face or side of the square ; the
length of each face being 735 feet. The principal entrance is in the
centre of the eastern side, and the approach to it is along the main
street of the bazar running due east and west. About a mile to the
south-west is a sheet of water, below which, and watered by it, are
several gardens, in the centre of one of which is a bungalow, with a
canal round it filled with water from the lake. The Chhaoni is situated
on a rising stretch of rocky ground, about 2 J miles from the strong
fort of Gagraun, in Kotah territory. Its present great want is a proper
water-supply for drinking and bathing purposes. The population is


larger than that of the town proper. The chief bankers Hve at Jhalra
Patan. The mint and other State estabUshments are there also. It is
the head-quarters of the Jhalra Patan pargand^ while the cantonment
is the head-quarters of the Jhalawar court. Population (1881) of
Patan, 11,469, namely, 6042 males and 5427 females. Hindus were
returned as numbering 9378 and Muhammadans 2091. Of Chhaoni
the population was 20,303, namely, 10,866 males and 9437 females.
Hindus numbered 14,212 ; Muhammadans, 6080; and 'others,' 11.

Jhalu. — Town in Ihjnaur talisil, Bijnor (Bijnaur) District, North-
western Provinces. Situated in lat. 29° 20' 10" n., and long. 78° 15'
30" E., on the Dhampur road, 6 miles east of Bijnaur town. Popula-
tion (1872) 5979 ; (1881) 5547, namely, Hindus, 3102; and Muham-
madans, 2445. Area of town site, 94 acres. An important market
town, with a large trade in agricultural produce. For police and
conservancy purposes, a house-tax is levied.

Jhamka. — Petty State in South Kathiawar, Gujarat (Guzerat),
Bombay Presidency. Jhamka consists of i village, Jhamka, with 2
separate tribute-payers. It is 10 miles south of Kunkavar station
on the Dhoraji branch line of the Bhaunagar-Gondal Railway, and 18
miles north-west of Lakhapadar tJidnd. The revenue in 1881 was esti-
mated at ^400 ; tribute of ;£"i8, los. is paid to the Gaekwar of
]]aroda. Population (188 1) 785.

Jhammar. — Petty State in Jhalawar Division of Kathiawar, Guzerat,
Bombay Presidency. Jhammar consists of i village, Jhammar, with

2 separate tribute-payers. It is 9 miles north-east of Wadhan city, and

3 miles south-west of Lakhtar station on the Bombay, Baroda, and
Central India Railway. The tdluhddrs are Jhala Rajputs and Bhayads
of Wadhan. The revenue in 1881 was estimated at ^401 ; tribute
of ;£46, 8s. is paid to the British Government. Population (1872)
584; (1881) 717.

Jhampodar. — Petty State in Jhalawar Division of Kathiawar,
Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. Jhampodar consists of i village,
Jhampodar, with 3 separate tribute-payers. It is 10 miles south of
Lakhtar, and 10 miles east of Wadhan station on the Bombay, Baroda,
and Central India Railway. The tdhikddrs are Jhala Rajputs, Bhayads
of Wadhan. The revenue in 1881 was estimated at ^412; tribute
of £\i, 1 6s. is paid to the British Government. Population (1872)
449; (1881) 561.

Jhang. — British District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the
Punjab, lying between 30° 35' and 32° 4' n. lat., and between 71° 39'
and 73° 38' E. long. Jhang forms the northern District of the
Multan (T^Iooltan) Division. It stands fourth in order of area, and
twenty-sixth in order of population, among the thirty-two Districts
of the Province, comprising 5-33 per cent, of the total area, 2-10 per

2o6 /BANG,

cent, of the total population, and 1*52 per cent, of the urban population
of British territory. The District is bounded on the north by Shahpur
and Gujranwala ; on the west by Dera Ismail Khan ; and on the south-
east by Montgomery, Multan, and Muzaffargarh. Area, 5702 square
miles; population (1881), 395,296 souls. The administrative head-
quarters are at Maghiana, a suburb of the town of J hang.

Physical Aspects. — The District of Jhang comprises an irregular
triangle, artificially constituted for administrative purposes from portions
of three separate tracts. Its eastern half embraces a large part of the
high dorsal ridge in the Rechna Doab ; thence it stretches across the
Chenab into the wedge of land between that stream and the Jehlam
(Jhelum), whose waters unite a few miles below the town of Jhang;
while westward again the boundary runs beyond the joint river, far into
the heart of the Sind Sagar (Saugor) Doab. The Ravi also bounds
the District for a few miles along its southern edge. So artificial a
tract can hardly be said to possess any common natural features of its
own. Starting from the eastern border, we come first upon the bar or
wild upland plain of the Rechna Doab, broken here and there by sandy
depressions, and inhabited only by pastoral nomads, who dwell in
moveable hamlets of thatched huts. In the south, however, along the
bank of the Ravi, and to the west, along the Chenab, before and after
its junction with the Jehlam, strips of comparatively fertile lowland
support a dense population. Some seven miles east of the Chenab, the
country once more rises, and abruptly changes from a wooded cultivable
plain to the lifeless wilderness characteristic of the higher lands
between the river valleys of the western Punjab. Strips of cultivation
along the convergent streams enclose this sterile wedge, which runs
like an intrusive spur of Shahpur District down the centre of the Jech
Doab. Beyond the Jehlam, another singularly fertile belt fringes the
river, extending a few miles inland, till it reaches the bank of the Sind
Sagar thai, rising like a wall above the rich alluvial lowland. Only 39
per cent, of the whole area is included within regularly defined villages ;
the remainder consists of wild and elevated plateaux, almost destitute
of vegetation, or covered with clumps of coarse grass. An ancient
watercourse, now dry, crosses the north-eastern angle, and bears the
name of the Nannanwa Canal.

There are no mines in the District, but there are several stone quarries
in the hills near Chiniot, where mill-stones, pestles and mortars,
shoemakers' blocks, kneading stones, oil-pans for lamps, etc., are made.
The Kirana Hills are said to contain iron-ore, but it has never been
worked. Fish are caught at Lalera, in the extreme south, to supply
the market of Multan. Beasts of prey include the wolf, hyaena, wild
cat, and lynx. Ravine-deer, wild hog, and hares occur in the less
frec^uented parts of the lowlands ; geese are plentiful during the season,

JHANG. 207

but wild duck are scarce. A few wild asses are said to roam over
the outskirts of the desert uplands. The sajji plant, which yields soda,
grows abundantly in the high ground between the Chenab and the
Jehlam, and in the southern part of the Rechna Doab.

History. — The District of Jhang possesses unusual historical interest,
from the presence within its borders of the ruins which crown the small
rocky eminence of Sanglawala Tiba. This site has been identified
by General Cunningham with the Sakala of the Brahmans, the Sagal
of Buddhism, and the Sangala of Alexander's historians. The hill
occupies a position on the Gujranwala border, surrounded on two sides
by a large swamp, formerly a lake of considerable depth. In the
Mahdbhdrata, Sakala appears as the capital of the Ivladras, whose
memory still survives in the name of Madra-des, which the surround-
ing country retains at the present day. Paths through the primeval
forest then led up to the lake and hill where the Aryan colonists had
placed their stronghold. In Buddhist legend, Sagal appears as the
metropolis of King Kusa, against whom seven kings made war, to
carry off his wife, Prabhavati ; but the king, mounting an elephant,
met them without the city, and shouted with so loud a voice that
his cry resounded over all the earth, and the seven kings fled away
in terror. The Greek historians inform us how Alexander turned
aside from his projected march towards the Ganges, to attack the
people of Sangala, who held out against him in the rear. He found
the city strong both by art and nature, defended by brick walls and
covered on two approaches by the lake. The Macedonian forces
attacked and took an outpost on the low ridge of Mundapapura, after
which they laid siege to the city, undermined the walls, and carried
the position by assault. Hwen Thsang, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim,
who visited Sakala in 630 a.d., has given the topographical details
which enable General Cunningham to effect the present identification
with an unusual degree of certainty. The walls then lay in ruins, and
a small inhabited town occupied the centre of the ancient city, whose
relics surrounded it on every side. It still contained a Buddhist
monastery of 100 monks, and two topes {stiipas), one of them erected
by the famous Emperor Asoka. Sherkot, in the lowlands of the
Chenab, has also been identified, though less certainly, with a town
of the Malli, attacked and taken by Alexander, and described at
a later period by Hwen Thsang as the capital of a considerable

In modern times, the history of Jhang centres in the family of Sials,
who ruled over a large tract between Shahpur and Multan, with litde
dependence on the imperial court at Delhi, until they finally fell before
the power of Ranjit Singh. The Sials of Jhang are Muhammadans of
Rajput descent, whose ancestor, Rai Shankar of Daranagar, emigrated

2o8 JHANG.

early in the r 3th century from the Gangetic Doab to Jaunpur. His
son, Sial, in 1243, left his adopted city for the Punjab, then overrun
by the Mughal hordes. Such emigrations appear to have occurred
frequently at the time, owing to the unsettled state of the lower Pro-
vinces. During his wanderings in search of a home, Sial fell in with
the famous Musalman saint Baba Farid-ud-dm Shakarganj of Pak-
pattan, whose eloquence converted him to the faith of Islam. He
afterwards sojourned for a while^ at Sialkot, where he built a fort ; but
finally settled down and married at Sahiwal, in Shahpur District. It
must be confessed, however, that his life and those of his descendants
bear somewhat the character of eponymic myths. Manak, sixth in
descent from Sial, founded the town of Mankera in 1380; and his
great-grandson, Mai Khan, built Jhang Sial on the Chenab in 1462.
Four years later, Mai Khan presented himself at Lahore, in obedience
to a summons, and obtained the territory of Jhang as a hereditary
possession, subject to a payment of tribute into the imperial treasury.
His family continued to rule at Jhang, with the usual dynastic
quarrels and massacres of Indian" annals, till the beginning of the
present century.

Meanwhile, the Sikh power had arisen in the north, and Karam
Singh Dulii, a chief of the Bhangi confederacy, had conquered Chiniot
in this District. In 1803, Ranjit Singh marched against that fort and
captured it, after w^hich he turned towards Jhang, but was bought off
by Ahmad Khan, the last of the Sial chieftains, on promise of a
yearly tribute, amounting to £,'jooo and a mare. Three years later,
however, the Maharaja again invaded Jhang with a large army, and
captured the fort, after a desperate resistance. Ahmad Khan then
fled to Multan, and the Maharaja farmed the territories of Jhang to
Sardar Fateh Singh. Shortly afterwards, Ahmad Khan returned with
a force given him by Muzaffar Khan, Nawab of Multan, and recovered
a large part of his previous dominions, which Ranjit Singh suffered him
to retain on payment of the former tribute, as he found himself too
busy elsewhere to attack Jhang. After his successful attempt on
Multan in 18 10, the Maharaja took Ahmad Khan a prisoner to Lahore,
ns he suspected him of favouring his enemy, Muzaffar Khan. He
afterwards bestowed on him a Jcigir, which descended to his son,
Inayat Khan. On the death of the latter, his brother, Ismail Khan,
endeavoured to obtain succession to the Jdgir, but failed through the
opposition of Gulab Singh. In 1847, ^^er the establishment of the
British Agency at Lahore, the District came under the charge of our
Government; and in 1848, Ismail Khan rendered important services
against the rebel chiefs, for which he received a small pension.
During the Mutiny of 1857, the Sial leader again proved his loyalty
by raising a force of cavalry and serving in person on the British side.

JHANG. 209

His pension was afterwards increased, and he obtained the title of
Khan Bahadur, with a small y^fo^/V for life.

Popidatio7i. — The Census of 1855 returned the total population of
the District, as then constituted, at 251,769 persons; but by adding
the population of various villages in Shahpur and Muzaffargarh, since
transferred to Jhang, the total is raised to 299,054. In 1868, the
next enumeration disclosed a total population, over an area correspond-
ing to the present District, of 347,043, or an increase of 47,989 over
1855. At the last Census in 1881, it was ascertained that the popu-
lation had increased to 395,296, or by 96,242 since 1855, or by
48,253 since t868. The results of the Census of i88t may be briefly
summarized as follows: — Area, 5702 square miles, with 5 towns and
756 villages; number of houses, 87,808, of which 67,024 were
occupied and 20,784 unoccupied. Number of families, 85,064. Total
population, 395,296, namely, males 214,382, and females 180,914.
Average density of population, 69 per square mile; towns or villages
per square mile, 0T3 ; persons per town or village, 520 ; houses per
square mile, 15; persons per occupied house, 5*9. Classified ac-
cording to age, there were, under 15 years of age — males 90,862, and
fjmales 78,463; above 15 years — males 123,520, and females 102,451.
As regards religious distinctions, the District forms a strong centre for
the faith of Islam. The Muhammadans at the date of the Census
numbered 326,910, or 8270 per cent. ; while the Hindus amounted
to only 64,892, or 16*42 per cent. The Sikhs were returned at 3477 ;
Christians, 11 ; Jains, 4; and Parsis, 2. In the ethnical classification,
Rajputs occupy the first place numerically, with 89,641 persons, chiefly
Sials and Bhattis. Jats come next with 48,242. Aroras, a Hindu trading
caste, numbered 45,041; Khatris, 15,196; Julahas, 24,176; Biluchis,
i55°93^ Sayyids, 5944; and Brahmans, 5319.

Only 3 towns contained a population exceeding 5000 persons —
namely, Maghiana, 12,574, and Jhang, 9055, the two places forming
practically one town; and Chiniot, 10,731. The only other places
worthy of the name of towns are Shorkot, 2283; and Ahmadpur,
23SS. Of the 761 towns and villages (or rather in many cases
collections of houses grouped together for Census purposes), 550
were returned as containing less than five hundred inhabitants; 141
from five hundred to a thousand; 52 from one to two thousand;
1 2 from two to three thousand ; and 6 towns upwards of three
thousand inhabitants. It is only in the Chiniot tahsil, and in the
better cultivated tracts in other portions of the District, that all the
inhabitants of the lands included in a village site occupy one compact
hamlet or village, in the English sense of the word. They prefer dwell-
ing in isolated homesteads, at their separate wells. In the south of the
District there are many village areas which have no village site what-



ever, each proprietor living at his well. The well of the lavilmrddr or
head-man, and perhaps one other of the village proprietors, may have
a small hamlet growing up round it, consisting of the huts of the
proprietor and his tenants, and of a shopkeeper and a few village
menials {kdmins) ; but there are hardly any strong, solidly-built villages,
such as are seen in Districts farther east. As regards occupation, the
Census returned the male population above 15 years of age under the
following heads : — (i) professional class, 3646 ; (2) domestic and
menial class, 2935 ; (3) commercial class, including merchants, traders,
and carriers, 471 1; (4) agricultural and pastoral class, 59,343; (s)
industrial and manufacturing class, including artisans, 34,251; (6)
indefinite and non-productive class, 12,540; (7) occupation not speci-
fied, 6094. Punjcabi and Jatki (Multani) are the languages spoken in
the District.

Agriculture. — The area under cultivation in 1873 amounted to
241,325 acres, and in 1881-82 to 322,788 acres, or, roughly speaking,
one-tenth of the entire area. The distinguishing feature of the District
consists in the fact that no crops can anywhere be grown without
irrigation. The best land is that which lies beyond the immediate
action of the rivers, and between the alluvial lands and the high
bank of the bar. In this tract all the principal staples of the District
can be raised by means of well-irrigation. The land exposed to the
inundations produces more uncertain crops, as a rich deposit sometimes
covers the previously sterile plain, while at other times villages, wells,
and cultivated fields are carried away by the destructive flood. Rain
crops are practically unknown. Wheat, barley, gram, turnips, and
peas form the staples of the spring harvest ; while Jodr, cotton, viash,
china, til, and maize make up the chief items of the autumn crops.
In 1881-82, wheat covered 172,760 acres; jodr, 38,561 acres;
gram, 13,208 acres; barley, 6240 acres; cotton, 29,781 acres; and
vegetables, 17,322. Agricultural knowledge remains in a backward
state, rotation of crops being absolutely unknown, and perhaps un-
needed. Manure is largely used, and fallows are made use of to
reinvigorate exhausted land.

Cattle-grazing forms the means of livelihood of a large section of
population, and nearly one-half of the total assessed area of the
District, or 1,520,383 acres, is returned as grazing land. Cattle theft
forms a common crime in the District. Horse and camel breeding is
a favourite pursuit. The horses of Jhang bear a high reputation,
and the mares are esteemed among the best in the Punjab.

The village system and the theory of joint responsibility for the
land revenue may be regarded as entirely an innovation of
British rule. By far the greater number of villages are held on

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 7) → online text (page 25 of 57)