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generally, is hot and very dry, owing to the want of trees or shade, and
the radiation from bare rocks or arid wastes ; but it is not considered
unhealthy. The average mean annual temperature at the civil station
is about 80° F. In 1881, the general mean temperature was 79*8%
ranging from a maximum of 116-3° i" ^^^7 ^^^ Ji-i^ie, to a minimum of
42-3' in January. The mean monthly temperature in 1881 was as
follows: — January 65-5°, February 72*6°, March 75-6°, April 90*3°,
May 96-6°, June 91*3°, July 82-3°, August 80-4°, September 83-2°,
October 827°, November 71-8°, and December 65°. The annual
rainfall for a period of twenty years ending 1881 was 35*24 inches.
In the latter year the rainfall was 53*85 inches, or 18 -61 inches above
the average. The population are habitually under-fed, and they con-
sequently succumb readily to slight diseases. The total number of
deaths recorded in 18S2 was 12,852, or 38-36 per thousand of the
whole population ; and of these, 6542 were assigned to fevers. There
are two charitable dispensaries, namely at the civil station and at Mau-
Ranipur. During the year 1883 they afforded medical relief to 401
in-door and 5425 out-door patients. [For further information regarding
Jhansi, see the Settlenwit Report of the District, compiled by Captain
Gordon, Mr. Daniell, C.S., Colonel Davidson, and Mr. Jenkinson, C.S.,
published in 187 1. Also the Gazetteer of the North- Wester7i Provinces,
by Mr. E. T. Atkinson, vol. i. pp. 236-302 (Allahabad, 1874); the
Cens2is Report of the North- Wester 71 Provinces ; and the various annual
Provincial a7id Departmental Reports ixQm 1880 to 1883.]

Jhansi. — Western /^//5/7 of Jhansi District, North-Western Pro-


vinces, consisting of a narrow hilly strip of land along the west bank
of the river Betwa, much cut up by intrusive or isolated portions of
adjacent Native States. Area, 379 square miles, of which 186 were
cultivated in 1S72. Population in 1872, 72,861; m 1881, 80,971,
namely, males 43,223, and females 37,748. In 1881, Hindus numbered
76,104 ; Muhammadans, 3544 ; Jains, 575 \ and ' others,' 748. Number
of towns and villages, 166. Land revenue {1882), ^8583 ; total Govern-
ment revenue, including local rates and cesses, ^10,697; rental paid
by cultivators, ^21,752. The tahsil contains i civil and i criminal
court, with 11 police circles {thdnds\ a regular police force of 94
officers and men, besides 123 village watchmen {chaitkiddrs).

Jhansi Naoabad. — Village and administrative head-quarters of
Jhansi District, North-Western Provinces. Lat. 25° 27' 30" n., long,
78° 37' E. The village lies at the extreme western limit of the District,
close under the walls of Jhansi city, which is now included within the
Native State of Gwalior. The fort, also belonging to Gwalior, over-
looks and commands the civil station and military cantonment. The
population of the village and civil station, which in 1872 was only 536,
had increased by 1881 to 2473. Jhansi Naoabad stands in the midst
of a wild and rocky country, and is cut off from communication with
other British posts during seasons of flood on the Betwa. In the
summer months the heat is intense-, the thermometer often standing at
108° F. in the shade up to 6 p.m. Previous to the cession oi pargands
Pachor, Karera, and part of Jhansi to GwaHor in 1861, the head-
quarters occupied a central position ; but they now stand quite at one
side of the present District. Lines exist in the cantonment for Euro-
pean and native troops. The civil station is a straggling village, con-
sisting of the residences of the officials, together with court-houses,
tahsili, police station, dispensary, schools, and post-office. Municipal
revenue in 1882-83, ;£io6 ; from taxes, ^72, or 7d. per head of

Jharcha. — Town in Sikandarabd.d tahsil, Bulandshahr District,
North-Western Provinces. — See Jarcha.

Jharid..— Coal-field in Manbhum District, Bengal, situated in the
parga?id of the same name, a few miles s. and s.e. of Parasnath Hill,
Bengal. The following notice is extracted from a paper by Mr. F.
Hughes, published in vol. v. of the Memoirs of the Geological Survey
of Jndia: — The field commences at a distance of about 170 miles
from Calcutta, nearly south of the village of Gobindpur on the
Grand Trunk Road, and extends east and west for about 18 miles,
its greatest breadth, in a line north and south, being about 10 miles.
The general truth, that geological structure mainly determines the
physical appearance of a country, is admirably illustrated and borne out
in the present instance, the configuration of the surface of the ground


presenting the same uniform type of aspect which is common in areas
composed of coal-bearing rocks, and resembhng in aUnost every detail
the appearances exhibited by the Raniganj field. The coal area
generally is flat, and nowhere rises into undulating scenery. There is
scarcely a single elevation worthy of the name of a hill ; only a few
low ridges and escarpments, principally along the eastern and northern
boundaries of the field, where the hard grits and sandstones of the
lower, or Barakhar, division of the Damodar series crop out. The
excellence of the coal in the Raniganj group of the Raniganj field is
well known ; but in the Jharia field, although there are many seams in
the upper series superior to some in the Barakhars, the finest coal and
the freest from ash occurs in the latter. In the Karharbari field, 28 to
30 miles north of the Jharia field, much of the coal there, exclusively
of Barakhar age, is superior to that of other districts, some of it yielding
on assay as small an amount of ash as 2-5 and 4 per cent. Coking
coal, as far as experiments have yet been made, is found only there ;
and the evidence both in that and the present field tends to show that,
whatever the average superiority of the coal in the Raniganj group
over those of the Barakhars may be, the best quality of coal is found
amongst the latter. In making a comparision of the economic values
of the two series in this field, it must be remembered that, in addition
to the comparative size of the seams, their freedom from partings,
and their constancy, the question of the amount of dip enters largely
into the subject. In India, where appliances for working collieries are
necessarily limited, and human labour is in many cases the only power
available, a slight increase in the angle of inclination would necessitate
such an addition to the expenditure, owing to the greater depth from
which the water would have to be pumped out and the coal raised, that
whereas a seam dipping at 12° and 16° might profitably be worked,
one inclined at 20° or even 18° would have to be abandoned, unless
its superior quality enabled it to fetch a higher price in the market.
Bearing this in mind, then, it is evident from what has been stated in
this report that seams in the Barakhar group have the great advantage
over thos'^ in the Raniganj series of dipping at much smaller angles,
thus affording greater facilities for being worked. Indeed, the inclina-
tion throughout the Raniganj group is so high, that its economic value
may be set down as being nearly 7iil until the seams of the Barakhar
group shall have been exhausted.

Jharia Garkhari. — State in Khandesh District, Bombay Presi-
dency. — See Dang States.

Jheend. — Native State in the Punjab. — See Jixd.

Jhelum. — River, District, tahsil^ and town in the Punjab. — See

Jhind. — Native State in the Punjab. — See Jind.


Jhinjhuwara.— Petty State in the Jhalawar Sub-division of Kathia-
war, Gujarat, Bombay Presidency. Area, 165 square miles. Population
(1881) 15,766. Jhinjhuwara consists of 17 villages, with 9 independent
tribute-payers. The revenue in 1876 was estimated at ;£8ooo. Tribute
of ;£iio7, 7s. is paid to the British Government. Inhabitants mostly
Kolis. There were formerly three salt-works in this State. They are
all now closed, and the tdlukddrs receive on this account an annual
compensation from the British Government. Saltpetre is also found
in the State. A portion of the adjacent Rann, with several small
islands, is owned by the State. Jhilanand, the principal of these
islands, is about 10 square miles in area, and contains several small
tanks and a hot spring called Bhotwa. Anand, a king afflicted with
leprosy, is said to have been marvellously cured of his disease by
bathing in this spring.

Jhinjhuwara.— Town in the Petty State of Jhinjhuwara in the
Jhalawar Division of Kathiawar, Gujarat, Bombay Presidency. Lat.
23° 21' N., long. 71° 42' E. Population (1872) 3058; (1881)3770.
Jhinjhuwara is an ancient town with a fort and well-built cut-stone
reservoir or tank. The gates of the ruined outer fortifications are fine
specimens of ancient Hindu architecture. Many of the stones bear
the inscription Mahansri Udal; tradition declares this Udal to have
been the minister of Sidraj Jayasingh of Anhilwara Patan, to whom is
ascribed the construction of both fort and tank, and who is said to have
been born here. Jhinjhuw^ara fell under the Sultans of Ahmadabad
and became one of their fortified posts. Afterwards it was a thdrid of the
Mughal Government under Akbar. On the decay of the empire it was
wrested from them by Kambhoji, the ancestor of the present tdlukddrs,
who claim to have been originally Jhalas of the Dhrangadra house, but
were outcasted owing to intermarriage with Kolis. Jhinjhuwara is said
to have been founded by one Jhunjho, a Rabari. The town is about
16 miles north of Kharaghora station on the Patri Branch of the Bombay,
Baroda, and Central India Railway. Post-office and school.

Jhirak. — Sub-division and town, Karachi (Kurrachee) District,
Sind, Bombay Presidency. — See Jerruck.

Jhiri. — River of Assam, which rises in lat. 25° 16' n., long. 93°
24' E., amid the Barel (Barail) Hills, and flows south into the Barak, in
lat. 24° 43' N., long. 93° 7' E., forming for a considerable distance the
boundary between Cachar District on the west, and the independent
State of Manipur. It runs in a narrow valley, shut in between two
steep spurs of the Barel range.

Jhlinjhnu. — Parga?id and town in the Shaikhawdti District of the
Native State of Jaipur, Rajputana. The pargand of Jhiinjhnu is one
of four pargands held by the chief of Shaikhawati, one of the
principal feudatories of the Jaipur State. — See Khetri. Population


of the town (1881) 9538, namely 5064 males and 4474 females.
Hindus numbered 6167 ; Muhammadans, 3370; and 'others,' i. The
town is situated on the route from Delhi to Bikanir, 120 miles south-
west of the former, and 130 east of the latter. The hill, at the eastern
base of which it ctands, is visible for miles round, and has been seen at
a distance of 95 miles with the naked eye on a clear afternoon. Here,
during the existence of the Shaikhawati confederacy, each of the five
confederated chiefs had a stronghold. Lat. 28° 6' n., long. 75° 24'

45" E.

Jhlisi. — Village in Allahabad District, North-Western Provinces,
opposite the city of Allahabad, on the left bank of the Ganges, situated
in lat. 25° 26' N., long. 81° 58' e. An ancient town traditionally dating
from 2200 B.C. in the Puranic age as the city of Kesi or Pratisthan,
and the residence of the first prince of the Lunar dynasty, Pururavas.
In the time of Akbar, the place was one of the triangle of cities
(Prayag and Jalalabad being the two others) forming the centre from
which the subah of Allahabad was ruled. The town consists of a new
and an old quarter, the former containing (1881) 2267, and the latter
1404 inhabitants — total, 3671. A bridge of boats in the dry season,
and a ferry during the rains, connects Jhiisi with Daraganj, a suburb of
Allahabad, on the other side of the river. It is a station of the Great
Trigonometrical Survey, and contains an imperial post-office and first-
class police station. For police and conservancy purposes, a house-
tax is levied, amounting in 1881-82 to j[,<^Z'

Jia Dhaneswari {Dhansiri). — River in Darrang District, Assam ;
which rises beyond the frontier amid the Aka Hills, and flows south
into the Brahmaputra. It is navigable throughout the year for native
boats of 4 tons burthen.

Jiaganj. — Town in Murshidabad District, Bengal, on the left bank
of the Bhagirathi. Lat. 24° 14' 30" n., long. 88° 18' 31" e. ; situated three
miles above Murshidabad city, and opposite Azimganj railway station.
In 1857, the revenue surveyor stated that Jiiganj carried on a large
trade in cotton, saltpetre, sugar, rice, and silk. According to the
registration returns of 1876-77, the total imports were valued at
^123,000, chiefly salt, oil-seeds, tobacco, and ghi ; the principal
exports were piece-goods and rice. No later returns are available,
owing to an alteration in the system of river registration of trade.

Jigni. — Petty State under the Bundelkhand Agency, Central India.
Area, 21-28 square miles. Population (1881) 3427, dwelling in 6
villages, containing 510 houses. Density of population, 165 7 persons
per square mile; houses per village, 24; persons per house, 67.
Hindus number 3339 ; Muhammadans, 88. Jigni State is situated
south of the Betwa, at its confluence with the Dhasan river in the north-
west of Hamirpur District. The State, at the time of the British

232 JILO—jmD,

occupation of Bundelkhand, consisted of '14 villages, which were
attached in consequence of contumacy, but 6 villages were restored in
1 810. The present Rao Jagirdar is named Lakshman Singh, a Hindu
Bundela. He holds a saiiad of adoption. The revenue of the State
is about ^^1400. There is a military force of about 57 infantry.

Jilo or Jilo-Patan. — Town in the Tourwati District of the Jaipur
State, Rajputana. Population (1881) 594I5 namely, 3417 males and
2524 females. Hindus numbered 5492, and Muhammadans 449.

Jind (yjh'md). — One of the Native States situated to the east of the
Sutlej (Satlaj) river, under the political superintendence of the Govern-
ment of the Punjab. It consists of three or four isolated tracts, with a
total area of 1232 square miles. The principality, which is one of the
Phulkian States {see Patiala), was founded in 1763, and the chief was
recognised as Raja by the Emperor of Delhi in 1768. The Rajas of
Jind have always been steady adherents of the British Government.
Among the foremost and most sincere of those who proffered their
allegiance after the overthrow of the Marathas was Raja Bagh Singh of
Jind ; and the good offices of this chief were not unimportant in the
negotiations which followed the advance of Lord Lake in pursuit of
Holkar to the banks of the Beas (Bias). In recognition of these services,
Lord Lake confirmed to the Raja the grants of land he held under the
Emperors of Delhi, and under Sindhia. After the Sutlej campaign, the
Governor -General bestowed a grant of land of about £,z^o a year
in value on the Raja of Jind, as a mark of satisfaction with his conduct.
In 1857, Swariip Singh, then Raja, was the first to march against the
mutineers at Delhi. His troops acted as the vanguard of the army, and
he remained in the British camp until the re-occupation of the city,
and a portion of his troops took part in the assault. For these services
he received a grant of additional territory, yielding ;j^i 1,681 per
annum, on condition of fidelity and political and military service in
time of difficulty and danger. The present Raja, Raghbir Singh,
G.C.S.I., is a Sikh of the Sidhu Jat tribe, and is entitled to a salute
of II guns. At the Imperial Assemblage at Delhi on January i, 1877,
he was appointed a Counsellor of the Empress.

The Jind territory comprises an area of 1232 square miles,
and has a population returned in 188 1 at 249,862, namely, males
136,909, and females 112,953. Hindus numbered 210,627; Muham-
madans, 34,247 ; Sikhs, 4335 ; Jains, 649; Christians, 3 ; unspecified, i.
The State contains 8 towns, 415 villages, and 51,394 houses, of which
42,078 are occupied and 9316 unoccupied. Number of resident
families, 62,787. Average density of population, 203 persons per
square mile. The revenue has rapidly increased of late years, and is
now between 6 and 7 lakhs of rupees, or between ;^6o,ooo and
^70,000. The military force consists of 6 horse and 6 mule guns,


234 artillerymen, 392 cavalry, 1600 infantry. The Raja su^jplies 25
horsemen for general service in British territory.

Jind. — Chief town of Jind State, Punjab, and residence of the Raja ;
situated in lat. 29° 19' n., and long. 76° 23' e. Population (1881)
7136, namely, Hindus, 4092; Muhammadans, 2823; Sikhs, 65; Jains,
155; and unspecified, i. Number of houses. 1619.

Jinjira. — State and port in Bombay Presidency. — See Janjira.

Jinjiram. — River in Goalpara District, Assam ; rises in swamps
between Agiagram and Lakhipur, and flows westward nearly parallel
to the Brahmaputra, from which also it receives a partial overflow in
the rains, till it falls into that river below Manika char. Another
river is marked in the Survey maps named Jinjiram, but is really
called the Jinari. It rises in the Garo Hills, and flows north into
Goalpara District, emptying itself into the Brahmaputra a few miles
above the town of Goalpara. Both streams are navigable during the
rains by boats of 2 tons burthen.

Jira.— Village in the south of Goalpara District, Assam, on the left
or west bank of the Krishna! river, at the foot of the Garo Hills. The
weekly market is frequented by Garos, who bring down lac and other
products of their hills to exchange for cotton goods, salt, rice, dried
fish, etc. Jira has given its name to a dwdr or lowland tract in the
Garo Hills, where valuable sal timber is found.

Jiral. — Petty State of the Sankhera Mehwas, Gori group, in Rewa
Kantha, Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. It is divided among
three shareholders, who are also the proprietors of Kamsoli INIoti and
Kamsoli Nani, the total area of the three estates being 5 square miles.
The estimated revenue of Jiral in 1881 was ^170, of which £-] is paid
as tribute to the Gaekwar of Baroda.— ^c?^ Kamsoli Moti and Kamsoli

Jirang.— Petty State in the Khasi Hills, Assam ; presided over by a
5c7r^^frnamed Moit Singh. Population (1881) 720. Natural products
—rice, chillies, and caoutchouc. Cotton cloth is woven. Jirang
contains some of the finest sal forests in the Khasi Hills.

Jiri. — River of Assam. — See Jhiri.

Jobat— Petty State under the Bhopawar or Bhil Agency, Central
India; lying between 22° 24' and 22° 36' n. lat., and between 74° 37'
and 74° 51' E. long. It is one of the offshoots of the Ali-Rajpur
State, and consists of a small tract of hilly country, inhabited almost
entirely by Bhils, which was left undisturbed during the turmoil which
the Maratha invasions caused in Malwd. The Vindhya mountains
skirt the northern frontier, and spurs from them run into the State.
The road from Indore via Dhar, Rajpur (Ali-Rajpur) to Gujarat
(Guzerat), passes through the north-w^est corner of the State. The Rana
of Jobat is a Rahtor Rajput. The area of the State is 132 square


miles. Population (1881) 9387, namely, 4812 males and 4575 females,
dwelling in 69 villages, containing 17 13 houses. Density of popula-
tion, 71 persons per square mile; houses per square mile, 13; persons
per house, 5-47. Hindus numbered 5293; Muhammadans, 168;
aboriginal tribes, 3916; Jains, 10. Revenue (1876), ^£1700.

Jobat— Town in the State of Jobat, under the Bhopawar Agency,
Central India. Lat. 22° 26' 45" n., long. 74° 35' 30" e. Though the
State is named after this town, it is not the capital. The minister
of the State lives at Ghora, three miles distant, and State business
is transacted there, though Ghora is only a large village, but healthier
than Jobat, from which place it has been proposed to remove. The
town of Jobat consists of a small collection of houses and a few shops,
nestling under the fort of the Rana, which is picturesquely situated
on a steep rocky hill, shut closely in on three sides by forest-clad hills.
The inhabitants suffer much from fever. Here are the treasury and
the jail. The State dispensary is at Ghora.

Jodhia or Joriya.— Revenue division or mahdl, town, and chief port
of Nawanagar State in Halar Sub-division, Kathiawar, Bombay Presi-
dency. The port was formerly a mere fishing village, on the south-
eastern shores of the Gulf of Cutch. The wharf is about a mile and a
half distant from the town, with which it is connected by a good made
road. A custom-house and a press for cotton and wool bales are at the
wharf. The water off this part of the coast is too shallow for ships of
any considerable burthen. According to a local legend, the gulf from
Jodhia to the opposite coast of Cutch could be crossed by a foot-
path at low water 200 years ago. The north-west bastion of the fort
80 feet above the sea, the palace or Darbar house 300 yards south-
east of the bastion, and a grove of trees a mile to the south and
outside the town, are high and conspicuous marks in nearing the port
from seaward. Population (1872) 6592; (1881) 6842, namely, 3377
males and 3465 females; Hindus numbered 4315, Muhammadans
2150, Jains 372, and 'others' 5. The town is situated in lat. 22° 40' n.,
long. 70° 26' 30" E., about 24 miles north-east of Nawanagar, 40 miles
north-west of Rajkot, and 40 miles west of Morbi, and is surrounded by
a wall with towers and a small interior fort. Post-office, vernacular boys'
and girls' schools, and dispensary. Jodhia mahdl or revenue division
has four subordinate divisions, Pardhari, Balambha, Hariana, and
Vanathali. The head revenue and judicial officials of the division have
their courts at Jodhia towm.

Jodhpur (also called Mdrwdr). — Native State in Rajputana,
under the Western Rajputana States Agency. The State is bounded
on the north by Bikaner (Bickaneer) and the Shaikhawati District of
Jaipur (Jeypore); on the east by Jaipur anc^ Kishangarh ; on the
north-east by xVjmere-Merwara ; on the south-east by Mewar (Mey-


war) ; on the south by Sirohi and Palanpur ; on the west by the
Rann of Cutch (Kachch) and the Thar and Parkar District of Sind;
and on the north-west by the Native State of Jaisahner (Jeysulmere).
It lies between lat. 24° 36' and 27° 42' n., and between long. 70° 6'
and 75° 24' E. Its greatest length north-east and south-west is about
290 miles, and its greatest breadth 130 miles. It contains an area
of 37,000 square miles, being the largest State in Rajputana. The
population (1881) numbers 1,750,403, so that Jodhpur is the second
most populous State in Rajputana. The State is the cradle of a long
line of chiefs of the Rahtor clan of Rajputs.

Physical Aspects. — The river Liini is the most marked feature in the
physical aspect of Jodhpur. It rises in the lake at Ajmere, and is
first known as the Sagar Mati, taking the name of Luni after its
junction at Govindgarh with the Sarsuti (Saraswati), which has its source in
the Pushkar Lake. From Govindgarh the river flows in a south-westerly
direction through the State, and is finally lost in the marshy ground at
the head of the Rann of Cutch. It is fed by numerous tributaries,
chiefly from the Aravalli Hills. In heavy floods, which occur very
rarely, it overflows its banks in the separate District of Mallani. The
local name of this overflow is rel, and fine crops of wheat and barley
are grown on the saturated soil. Wells are dug in the bed of the
river in all the Districts of Jodhpur through which it flows, and in
this way large tracts producing wheat and barley are irrigated. There
is a saying in Marwar, that half the produce of the country, so far as
cereals are concerned, is dependent on the Luni. The river is,
however, capricious and erratic. On one bank it may be a blessing, on
the other a curse. This is seen in two villages in the Gura estate in
the Mallani District. One is rich with crops, the other arid and bare ;
on one side the stream flows over sand, and its water is sweet, — on the
other, over a hard bed, and its water is briny. The Liini attains its
greatest breadth in the Sachor and Mallani Districts. Its water is, as a
rule, saline or brackish, but that of wells sunk at a distance of 20 or 30
yards from the banks of the river is comparatively sweet, and the
inhabitants of all the villages situated in its neighbourhood depend for
their drinking supply on these wells. Melons and the singhdra nut

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 7) → online text (page 28 of 57)