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of the district cases are disposed of by the Iidkiuis. The Thakurs ■
within their estates assume independent magisterial authority; and
until lately, it was only the lower feudatories who would surrender
criminals or brook interference in criminal cases. Arbitration is I
generally resorted to in all civil disputes. The ceremonies of the i
Court are intricate and curious. The highest, honour the Maharaja
bestows on a visitor is to receive and dismiss him standing, and raise
his right hand a little in salutation on his arrival and departure ; to
the next in rank the Maharaja rises both on arrival and departure;
there is a third grade of visitors, on the arrival (not departure) of whom
the Maharaja rises. All the aristocracy of Jodhpur precede the Maharaja
in processions ; if the chief stops to address any one, it is a token of
particular honour. The great drum beats four times every night in the
fort at Jodhpur, and it is a special sign of respect for a deceased Thakur
to omit one of the beats. On the death of a considerable Thakur the
Maharaja pays a visit of condolence at the home of the Thakur's

There is one large newly-constructed jail at Jodhpur city, to which,
as a rule, all prisoners sentenced to more than three months' imprison-
ment are sent. At the head-quarters of each district there is a lock-up.
Police duties are generally conducted by the army, no separate establish-
ment existing. There are three dispensaries in the city of Jodhpur,
besides one at the town of Pali, one at Nagar, and one at Jasol in Mallani.
The Maharaja is very liberal in responding to any call for these charitable
institutions. Education in an advanced form is unknown in Jodhpur.
A large proportion of the population can read and write Hindi ; amongst
whom are included most of the ladies of good birth, a condition of
things almost peculiar to this State. The capital now possesses two
good schools, one for the sons of Thakurs and the higher classes, the
other for the children of trades-people and the lower classes. At both
these schools, English is taught, as well as the vernacular languages.
There are also schools supported by the State in some of the towns, and
every large village possesses one, presided over by the local Jain priest.
The language spoken in Jodhpur is a peculiar patois called Marwari,
considered to have an affinity to Hindi.

There is one metalled road, loo miles in length, running through
jodhpur ; it is the main route from Ajmere to Ahmadabad in Bombay.
The Rajputana-Malwa State Railway, on the metre gauge, from Ajmere,
connecting with the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway at
Ahmadabad, skirts the south-eastern border of Jodhpur. This railway
also touches the territory by the small northern branch line to the


Sambhar Salt Lake, which is on the boundaries of Jodhpur and Jaipur.
From Karchi station (now called Jodhpur Junction, 87 miles south-
west of Ajmere) of the Rajputana-Malwa State Railway, a short line
of 64J miles is under construction, at the expense of the State, to
the town of Jodhpur, of which 43I miles were open in 1884.
Fairs are held in March, at Tihvara, lasting 15 days; at Mundwa in
December, when from 30,000 to 40,000 people assemble ; at Parbatsar
in August, attended chiefly by Jats, who come to trade in bullocks ;
and at Bilara and Barkhana.

The revenue of the State is mainly derived from the land, salt, and
custom dues, a cess imposed on the feudatory nobles, succession dues,
etc. The total receipts may be calculated at about 40 hikhs of rupees
(say ^400,000). The numerous nobles of Marwar enjoy very large
incomes, and there are also a great number of religious and other free
grants, which amount probably altogether to more than double the
revenue receipts.

In the treaty of 18 18, it was stipulated that the tribute hitherto paid
to Sindhia by the Jodhpur State should be paid in perpetuity to the
British Government. This tribute amounted to Rs. t 08,000 (;£i 0,800),
but has been reduced to Rs. 98,000 (say ^9800), Rs. 10,000 {£\oo6)
having been remitted as compensation for the fort of Umarkot
in Sind. In the same treaty, it was agreed that the Jodhpur State
should furnish a contingent of 15,000 horse when required. In 1832,
a demand was made for a force to co-operate against freebooters who
occupied Nagar Parkar. The contingent failed in its duty, and proved
utterly useless. In 1835, therefore, the obHgation to furnish the force
was commuted to an annual payment of ^11,500 towards the Jodhpur
Legion which was then raised. This Legion mutinied in 1857. ^ Its
place is now supplied by the Erinpura Irregular Force. The military
establishment of the State, in addition to the Erinpura Force, consists
of 55 field and 125 other guns, more than half being unserviceable,
320 gunners, 3499^cavalry, and 5954 infantry.

Climate.— i:)\Q climate of Jodhpur at all seasons may be described
as dry. This dryness is due to the geographical position of the State,
the geological nature of the surface, and the absence of forest. The
Aravalli range separates the State from the more fertile districts of
Udaipur. The country is therefore beyond the range of the full
force of the south-west monsoon from the Indian Ocean, and entirely
removed from the influence of the south-east monsoon from the Bay
of Bengal. Also the clouds from the south-west, before arriving at
Jodhpur, must float above extensive arid Districts, as the sandy tracts
of Northern Gujarat, Cutch, the Rann, and the desert Districts of
Umarkot and Parkar. This results in a very small rainfall, which at
the centre of the country, i.e. the city of Jodhpur, does not often


exceed the average of 14 inches. In 1881 the rainfall was unusually
heavy, gauging over 22 inches at Jodhpur city. The Luni contains
only scai-ity°pools of water, and its tributaries are dry during the greater
part of the year. The sandy soil, the brackish water nearly everywhere
found, and the prevalence of the saline efflorescence known as reh, are
the principal reasons why there is so little of either wild jungle growth
or of cultivated ground. Thus all conditions unite in producing that
extraordinary dryness characteristic of Marwar. - The next most striking
peculiarity of the climate is the extreme variation of temperature which
occurs in the cold season between the night and the day. This depends
in a great degree on the dryness of the atmosphere, the heat given off
by the earth at night passing freely through dry air, whereas it is
absorbed and retained by the damp of a moist atmosphere. Thus it
happens that on the sandy soil of Jodhpur, while the nights may be
sufficiently cold for ice to form, the days are often marked by a tem-
perature of 90° F. in the shade of a tent. Similarly, although hot
winds prevail with great violence in the months of April, May, and
June, the nights are fairly cool.

Jodhpur.— Capital of the Native State of Jodhpur or Marwar,
Rdjputana. Lat. 26° 17' n., long. 73° 4 e. It was built by Rao
Jodha in 1459 a.d., and from that time has been the seat of Govern-
ment of the principality. It is placed in the southern slope of a
small range of hills running east and west, the prevailing geological
formation of which is red sandstone. The fort commanding the city
is built on a sandstone rock rising to the height of 800 feet, having
to the north cones of porphyry and masses of trap of various descrip-
tions placed in juxtaposition to the sandstone. The layers of this
sandstone are usually parallel with the horizon, and they generally rise
abruptly out of the sand below, but are sometimes visibly supported
by trap or metamorphic rock. In some places, porphyritic trap is ranged
in stairs, and has apparently been thrown up at a later date than the sand-
stone, without having materially damaged the stratification of the latter.
The city is surrounded by a strong wall nearly 6 miles in extent,
and there are seventy gates, each bearing the name of the place to which
it leads. The fort stands on an isolated rock, the highest point of
the range, and contains the Maharaja's palace, a large and handsome
building, completely covering the crest of the hill on which it stands,
and overlooking the city, which lies several hundred feet below. The
city contains many handsome buildings— palaces of the Maharaja, and
town residences of the Thakurs or nobles, besides numerous fine
temples and tanks. Building stone is plentiful, and close at hand, and
the architecture solid and handsome. Three miles north from Jodh-
pur are the ruins of Mandor, interesting from having been the site of
the ancient capital of the Purihar Princes of Marwar, prior to its


conquest by the Rahtors. Mandor contains the cenotaphs of the ruhng
chiefs of the country, erected on the spot where the funeral pyre
consumed the remains of those who in former days were seldom burned
alone. There are also stone effigies of gallant chieftains of Marwar,
curious as specimens of rude carving by workmen of the country. No
statistics of population, etc. have been supplied by the State authorities
for the town of Jodhpur.

Jogeshwari. — Name of a celebrated cave in Amboli village, Salsette
island, Thana District, Bombay Presidency. The cave is 2 i miles south-
east of Gurgaon station, on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India
Railway. It forms a temple of Brahma, and next to the Kailas
at Ellora is the largest known cave in India. Its length is 240 and
breadth 200 feet. This cave temple contains rock-cut passages, an
immense central hall supported by pillars, porticoes, and subsidiary
courts. The temple dates from the eighth century.

Jogigarh. — Fort in Hoshangabad District, Central Provinces ;
situated on a small island in the Narbada (Nerbudda) river. Lat.
22° 25' N., long. 76° 51' E. A rapid at this point renders navigation
impracticable except during the rains, when a passage can be effected
by small boats.

Jogi-ghopa. — Village in Goalpara District, Assam ; on the right or
north bank of the Brahmaputra, a few miles below the town of Goalpara.
In old days, before the conquest of Assam by the British, it possessed
considerable importance as a centre of frontier trade. It contains the
temple of Dudhnath, sacred to Siva, which is frequented by Hindu
pilgrims from distant parts of India ; and in the neighbourhood are
many artificial caverns, cut in the rocky face of the hills, which are
believed to have been occupied in former times by religious devotees.
Jogi-ghopa was at one time the head-quarters of Goalpara District. The
Bijni Raja has built a handsome residence here, and the place
promises to increase in importance,

Jogi-maradi. — Highest peak in a broken mountain range that
crosses Chitaldriig District, Mysore State; 3S03 feet above sea-

JoUarpet {Joldrampetti^ Jaldrapet), — Town in Tirupatiir tdink,
Salem District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 12° 34' n., long. 78° 38' e. ;
1320 feet above sea-level. Contains 142 houses, with (1881) 694
inhabitants, of whom one-half are Pariahs. A zaminddri village,
important only as a first-class station of the Madras Railway, south-
west line, and junction for Bangalore. Five miles from Tirupatiir, the
head-quarters of the tdluk.

Joma-male. — Mountain in Coorg. — See Soma-male.

Jorhat. — Sub-division of Sibsagar District, Assam; formed in 1869.
Population (1881) 143,985, distributed among 24 viauzds or unions of


villages. Total revenue in 1881-82, ^23,821. The sub-divisional
police force consists of 39 men stationed at the three thdnds of Jorhat,
Kamalabari, and Salang, and an outpost of frontier police at Debrapar.
The superior administrative staff usually includes an Assistant and
an extra-Assistant Commissioner. The tea-gardens numbered 95 in

Jorhat. — Village in Sibsagar District, Assam, and head-quarters of the
Jorhat Sub-division ; lying in lat. 26^ 46' n., and long. 94° 16' e., on the
eft or west bank of the Disoi river, about 1 2 miles south of Kokilamukh
on the Brahmaputra. Population (188 1) 1984. Situated amid valuable
tea-gardens, and at the centre of a system of roads, Jorhat has JM^me
the most important mart in the District, though the Disoi can scarcely
be called a navigable river. In 1865, out of a total of 160 shops in the
bazar, 28 were occupied by Marwari or Jain traders from the north-
west, who import cotton goods, salt, and hardware from Bengal, in
return for which they export silk, cotton, mustard seed, and jungle
products. A few shops are kept by native Muhammadans, who chiefly
sell ' Europe ' goods and furniture ; the remainder are petty stalls for
retailing rice, oil, and vegetables. Many of the tea-gardens consign
their produce by river steamer direct to England. The Jorhat Tea
Company is chiefly owned by shareholders in that country. The public
buildings include a lock-up, a charitable dispensary, and a Government
High School, which teaches as far as the University entrance examina-
tion. There is also an artisans' school, supported out of a bequest
from a European tea-planter of the District. Jorhat was erected into a
municipal union in October 1881. At the close of the last century,
the place was at various times the residence of Raja Gaurinath, the
last of the independent kings of the Aham dynasty.

Joriya. — See Jodhia.

Joshimath. — Village in Garhwal District, North-Western Provinces;
situated in lat. 30° 33' 25" n., and long. 79° 36' 35" e., at the con-
fluence of the Alaknanda and the Dhauli. Chiefly remarkable as the
winter residence of the Ravval, or priest of the temple of Badrinath,
who retires hither after the snows have rendered the higher shrine
inaccessible. The village contains several ancient temples. Elevation
above sea-level, 6200 feet.

Jotdar. — Channel of the Devi, or branch of the Mahanadi estuary,
in the south-east of Cuttack District, Bengal. Enters the sea in lat.
20° 11' N., and long. 86° 34' e.

Joura. — State in Central India Agency. — See Jaora.

Jowai. — Village and administrative head-quarters of the Jaintia
Hflls Sub-division, Khasi Hills District, Assam ; 4422 feet above sea-
level. Population (1881) 3229. Jowai is the residence of the Assistant
Deputy Commissioner ; and, as the centre of a system of hill roads, it


possesses a considerable trade. The chief exports are raw cotton and
caoutchouc ; the imports — rice, dried fish, cotton goods, and salt. The
average annual rainfall for the five years ending December 1881 was
362-63 inches. Jowai was the centre of the Jaintia rebellion in 1862.

JuangS, The. — One of the most primitive tribes of the Orissa
TkiBUTARV States {q.v.). Their principal habitat is in Keunjhar
State, where they numbered 4592 in 1872, and Dhenkanal State,
where they numbered 4120. There were also 367 of this tribe returned
in Pal Lahara State in 1872, with 290 in Hindol, and 290 in Baxki.
Total, 9398 within the Tributary States in 1872. Owing to changes in
classification, the Census of 1881 fails to disclose the number of this
tribe, and includes the Juangs among the Hindu low-castes. Colonel
Dalton was informed that there were 32 settlements of the Juang tribe
in Keunjhar, occupying the hill country southward from- Keunjhar fort
to Handah ; between 21° 20' and 21° 40' n. lat., and between 85^ 30'
and 85° 45' E. long.

In this tract, as in their other settlements, the Juang hamlets are
mingled with Bhuiya and Goala villages. The following description is
slightly condensed from Colonel Dalton's Ethnology of Bengal (pp.
152-158, Government Press, Calcutta 1872). The Juangs appear to
have been driven back by the Bhuiyas from the fertile valleys, and
their cultivation is now chiefly found upon the hill-sides. They have
no traditions which affiliate them with any other race ; and notwith-
standing a similarity in their languages, they repudiate all connection
with Hos or Santals. They aver very positively that they are autoch-
thones in Keunjhar, the direct descendants of the first human beings
that appeared or were produced in that country, or indeed in the world.
For they assert a claim to be the first produced of the human race,
though they make no pretensions to be the fathers of mankind. The
head-quarters of the tribe, or cradle of the race, they consider to have
been at Gonasika, in 21° 30' n. lat., and 85° 37' e. long., where a stream
which is the source of the Baitarani issues from two holes in a rock,
supposed to bear a resemblance to the nostrils of a cow. They assert
^hat the Baitarani, on whose banks they were created, is older than the
Ganges ; and that the present Juang inhabitants of the village of Gona-
sika, and other villages in the vicinity, occupy the very soil from which
the parents of their race were produced. They have no traditions to
record, except that very long ago nine hundred Juangs left the country
of their birth and moved to Dhenkanal, and that then the Bhuiyas came
and took up the land of the brethren who had left them ; but it is more
probable that they were driven out by the Bhuiyas, who are now the
dominant race in those hills. The Bhuiyas, however, deny this, assert-
ing that they are the true autochthones, and that the Juangs are inter-
lopers. There is a tradition of a Bora Raja (probably some allusion to

250 • JUANGS, THE.

the Baraha avatar^ or Boar Incarnation of Vishnu) having had a fort
in the heart of the country now occupied by Juangs, the remains of
which are still in existence ; and it is said that the Juangs are the
remnant of his people.

In Habits a7id Customs the Juangs are most primitive. They occupy
a hill country in which stone implements, the earliest specimens of
human ingenuity that we possess, are occasionally found ; and though
they have now abandoned the use of such implements, and have lost
the art of making them, it is not improbable that they are the direct
descendants of those ancient stone-cutters, and that we have in the
Juangs representatives of the stone age in situ. Until foreigners came
amongst them, they must have used such weapons, or none at all, for
they had no knowledge whatever of metals. They had no ironsmiths
nor smelters of iron. They have no word in their own language for
iron or other metals. They neither 'spin nor weave, nor have they
ever attained to the simplest knowledge of pottery. In the hills of
Keunjhar they are still semi-nomadic in their habits, living together in
villages during a portion of the year, but often changing the sites, and
occupying isolated huts in the midst of their patches of cultivation,
whilst the crops are on the ground.

Dwellings. — Gonasika, one of the largest of their villages, contains
about twenty-five houses of Juangs. The huts are amongst the smallest
that human beings ever deliberately constructed as dwellings. They
measure about six feet by eight, and are very low, with doors so small
as to preclude the idea of a corpulent householder. Scanty as are the
above dimensions for a family dwelling, the interior is divided into two
compartments, one of which is the storeroom, the other being used for
all domestic arrangements. The head of the family and all his belong-
ings of the female sex huddle together in this one stall, not much larger
than a dog-kennel. For the boys there is a separate dormitory. This
latter is a building of some pretensions, situated at the entrance of the
village. It is constructed upon a solid platform of earth raised about
four feet, and has two apartments. One of these is an inner and closed
one, in which the musical instruments of the village are kept, and in
which most of the boys sleep ; the other is open on three sides, — that
is, it has no walls, — but the eaves spread far beyond the platform, and
the inmates are effectually protected. This is where all guests are
lodged, and it makes a convenient travellers' rest.

Cultivation. — The Juangs cultivate in the rudest way, destroying the
forest trees by the process of girdling them, burning all they can of the
timber when it dries, and spreading the ashes over the land. They
thus raise a little early rice, Indian corn, pulses, pumpkins, sweet
potatoes, ginger, and red pepper, the seeds being all thrown into the
ground at once, to come up as they can.

JUANGS, THE. ' 251

Food. — They declare that they subsist every year more on wild roots
and fruits than on what they rear, but it is doubtful if they are so badly
off as they pretend to be. The area of their cultivation appears pro-
])ortionate to their numbers. They pay no rent, being under an
obligation to render personal service to the Raja, by repairing his house
and carrying his burdens when required. They are addicted to ardent
spirits, which they are obliged to buy, as they have not acquired the
art of distilling, or even of brewing rice beer. In regard to food, they
are not in the least particular, eating all kinds of flesh, including mice,
rats, monkeys, tigers, bears, snakes, frogs, and even offal. The jungles
abound in spontaneously-produced vegetables. In quest of such food,
the Juangs possess all the instinct of animals, discerning at a glance
what is nutritive, and never mistaking a noxious for an edible fungus
or root. Their favourite weapon is the primitive sling made of cord,
with rough unfashioned stones or pebbles for missiles. They also use
the bow and arrow.

Dress. — Until recently, the only clothing of the Juangs, particularly
among the females, consisted of a few strings of beads, with a bunch of
leaves before and behind. The Juangs take young shoots of the dsdn
(Terminalia tomentosa) or any tree with long, soft leaves, and arrange
them so as to form a flat and scale-like surface of the required size ; the
sprigs are simply stuck in the girdle, and the costume is complete.
The beads that form the girdle are small tubes of burnt earthenware
made by the wearers. The women wear also a profusion of necklaces
of glass beads, and of brass ornaments in their ears and on their wrists.
The males were first induced to adopt a scanty cotton loin cloth for
purposes of decency, but the women were long deterred by superstition
from following their example. Several traditions exist to account for this,
the simplest of which is connected with the origin of the Baitarani. The
river goddess, emerging for the first time from the Gonasika rock, came
suddenly on a merry party of Juang females dancing naked ; and
ordering them to adopt a garment of leaves, laid on them the curse
that they must adhere to the costume for ever or die. Some years ago,
the British officer in charge of the khedd operations in Keunjhar in-
duced a number of Juang females to clothe themselves, he supplying
the first robes. The Juangs under British influence have now been
clothed by order of Government ; and their native chiefs in the Tribu-
tary States have been persuaded to do the same work for others. In
1 87 1, the English officer called together the clan, and after a speech,
handed out strips of cotton for the women to put on. They then passed
in single file, to the number of 1900 before him, made obeisance,
and were afterwards marked on the forehead with vermilion, as a sign
of their entering into civilized society. Finally, they gathered the
bunches of leaves which had formed their sole clothing into a great


heap and solemnly set fire to it. It is reported, however, that a
number of the Juang women, their original garments wearing out, and
finding that they were not to be renewed gratuitously, have again lapsed
into their primitive leafy attire.

The p'edo/ninaiing physical characteristics of the Juangs are — great
lateral projection of the cheek bones, or zygomatic arches and general flat-
ness of features; forehead upright, but narrow and low, and projecting
over a very depressed nasal bone ; nose of the pug species ; alae spreading ;
mouth large, and lips very thick, but upper jaw rarely prognathous,
though the lower jaw and chin are receding; hair coarse and frizzly;
prevailing colour of a reddish brown. Some of them have oblique
eyes of the Indo-Chinese type, but in this feature there is considerable
variety. It is noticeable that the Juang women tattoo their faces with
the same marks that are used by the Mundas, Kharrias, and Uraons :
namely, three strokes on the forehead just over the nose, and three on
each of the temples. They attach no meanings to the marks, have no
ceremony in adopting them, and are ignorant of their origin.

The Juangs are a small race, like the Uraons, the males averaging less

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 7) → online text (page 30 of 57)