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than five feet in height, the women not more than four feet eight inches.
Religion. — The Juangs appear to be free from the belief in witchcraft,
which is the bane of the Kols, and perniciously influences nearly all
other classes in the Jungle Mahals and Tributary States. They have
not, like the Kharrias, the reputation of being deeply skilled in sorcery.
Their language has no words for '' God,' for ' heaven ' or ' hell ; ' and,
so far as can be learned, they have no idea of a future state. They ofl'er
fowls to the sun when in distress, and to the earth to give them its
fruits in due season. On these occasions an old man officiates as
priest ; he is called Nagam. The even tenor of their lives is unbroken
by any obligatory religious ceremonies.

Marriages and Funeral Ceremonies. — Marriage is recognised, but is
brought about in the simplest manner. If a young man fancies a girl,
he sends a party of his friends to propose for her; and if the offer is
accepted, a day is fixed, and a load of rice in husk is presented on his
behalf. The bridegroom does not go himself to the bride's house ; his
friends go, and return with her and her friends. Then they make merry,
eating and dancing, and all stay and make a night of it. In the morning,
the bridegroom dismisses the bride's friends with a present of three
measures of husked and three of unhusked rice ; and this is a full and
sufficient solemnization. A man may have more wives than one if he
can afford it, but no Juang has ever ventured on more than two at a
time. They are divided into tribes, and are exogamous. They burn
their dead, and throw the ashes into any running stream ; their mourn-
ing is an abstinence for three days from flesh and salt. They erect
no monuments, and have no notion of the worship of ancestors.



JUBA—JUHAR. 253

Jliba. — Deserted fortress in Sargiija State, Chutia Xagpur, Dengal ;
about 2 miles south-east of Manpura village. It stands on the rocky
shoulder of a hill, and commands a deep gorge overgrown with jungle.
Among the trees are the remains of carved temples, almost covered with
accumulations of vegetable mould. Here Colonel Ousely found a com-
plete linga^ with a well-carved face and head projecting from its surface.
Jubbal {Juhal). — One of the Hill States under the Government of
the Punjab, situated between 30° 46' and 31° 4' n. lat., and between
77* 27' and 77° 50' E. long. Jubbal was originally tributary to Sirmiir
(Sarmor), but after the Gurkha war it was made independent. The
Rana misgoverned the State, and in 1832 abdicated in favour of the
British Government. He very soon, however, repented the act, and
refused the allowance of jQAc\o a year which was made for his support.
After a lengthy correspondence, it was resolved in 1840 to restore the
State. In that year the Rana died, and Government approved the
succession of his son, Tika Kami Chand, who died in 1877 ^.nd was
succeeded by his son, Padam Chand, the present Rana. The family
is by caste Rahtor Rajput. The area of the State is 288 square miles.
It contains 472 villages and a population (1881) of 19,196, namely,
wales 10,605, and females 8591. Hindus numbered 19,159, and
^luhammadans 37. Estimated revenue, nearly ;£4ooo. The chief
products are grain and opium. Sentences of death passed by the Rana
require the confirmation of the Superintendent of Hill States and of the
Commissioner of the Division, Other punishments are awarded by the
Rana on his own authority.

Jubbulpore. — Division, District, taJisil, and city in the Central
Provinces. — See Jabalpur.

Juggaur. — Town and railway station in Lucknow District, Oudh ;
situated about three miles south of the Lucknow and Faizabad (Fyzabad)
road. A Musalman village conquered from the Bhars by a family of
Shaikhs, who colonized 52 villages in this part of the country, for
which they received 2,farmdn confirming them in the proprietary right.
Their descendants are still proprietors of Juggaur. Population (1881),
Hindus, 1613 ; Muhammadans, 653; total, 2266.

Juhar {Jawahir). — Valley in Kumaun District, North-Western Pro-
vinces. Lat. 30° 10' to 30° 35' N,, long. 79° 49' to 80° 19' e. One of
the Bhutia mahdls^ or tracts on the northern Himalayan slopes in-
habited by people of Tibetan origin. The population have, however,
adopted the language, customs, and religion of their Hindu neighbours.
They are chiefly engaged in commerce, being the only Bhutia's who
enjoy unrestricted intercourse with Gartoh, where a great annual fair
is held in September. During the ofiicial year 1876-77, the value of
the imports by Lilam from Juhar amounted to ^12,600, and that of
the exports to ;2{^4ioo.



254 JU-I-SHARKI— JUMNA.

Ju-i-Sharki. — Town in Rai Bareli tahs'il, Rai Bareli District,
Oudh; situated 12 miles from Bareli town, at a distance of 2 miles
from the Sai river. Population (1881) 2623, namely, Hindus, 2513,
and Muhammadans, tto. Government school.

JuUundur. — Division, District, tahsil^ and city, Punjab. — See
Jalandhar.

Jummoo. — Province and town in Kashmir State, Punjab. — See
Kashmir and JaMxMU.

Jumna (^Jannind). — A river of the North-Western Provinces and
the Punjab. It rises in the Himalayas, in the Native State of Garhwal,
about 5 miles north of Jamnotri, and about 8 miles north-west of the
lofty mountain Bandarpcinch (20,731 feet), in lat. 31° 3' n., and long.
78° 30' E. From this place the Jumna flows south for 7 miles, past
Jamnotri, and then turns to the south-west for 32 miles, receiving on
its right bank two small streams, the Badiar and the Kamalada ;
thence it runs due south for 26 miles, receiving the Badri and the
Aslaur as tributaries. Just below the point of junction of the latter,
the Jumna turns sharply to the west, and continues in this direction
for 14 miles, till it is joined on its right bank by the great river Tons
from the north, and at the same time it emerges from the Himalayas
into the valley of the Dun, in long. 77° 53' e. From this point it flows
in a south-westerly direction for 22 miles, dividing the Kiarda Dun on
the west from the Dehra Diin on the .east; and it receives in this
stretch two large affluents, the Giri from Sirmiir (Sarmor) on the west,
and the Asan from the east.

In the 95th mile of its course, the Jumna leaves the Siwalik Hills
and enters the plains at Faizabad in Saharanpur District. It now
flows for 65 miles in a south-south-west direction, dividing the Districts
of Ambala (Umballa) and Karnal in the Punjab from those of Saha-
ranpur and Muzaffarnagar in the North-Western Provinces. By the
time the Jumna debouches on the plains, it has become a large river,
and near Faizabad it gives off both the Western and Eastern Jumna
Canals {qq.v.). At Rajghat it receives the Maskarra stream from
the east, but no other tributaries of any size join it in this section.
Near Bidhauli, in Muzaffarnagar District, it turns due south, and runs
in that direction for 80 miles till it reaches the city of Delhi ; here it
turns south-east for 27 miles to near Dankaur, when it again resumes
its southerly course. In this portion it receives on the east the Katha-
nadi and the Hindan river, while on the west the Sabinadi joins it a
little north of Delhi. The Jumna here separates the Punjab Districts
of Karnal and Delhi and the Native State of Ballabhgarh from the
Districts of Muzafl'arnagar, Meerut (Merath), and Bulandshahr, in the
North-Western Provinces. From Dankaur to Mahaban, near Muttra
(Mathura), a distance of about 100 miles, the Jumna receives no affluents



JUMNA. 255

of any size; it divides the Punjab District of Gurgdon from the Districts
of Bulandshahr and Ah'garh in the North-Western Provinces, and near
Hodal it enters the North-Western Provinces altogether. It flows through
the centre of the District of Muttra till it leaves it near Mahaban to enter
the District of Agra. The Agra Canal forms a recent and an important
work.

From Mahaban the Jumna turns eastwards and flows a little south
by east for nearly 200 miles. In this part of its course the river winds
in a remarkable manner through the ravines of Agra and Etawah Dis-
tricts ; the bed of the stream is narrower, and the banks higher and
steeper than in its upper reaches. It receives on its left or northern
bank the Karwanadi near Agra, and on its right or southern the river
Utanghan. It passes the towns of Agra, Firozabad, and Etawah.
From Etawah the Jumna takes a more southerly direction, and flows
south-east for 140 miles to Hamirpur. In this portion of its course the
river passes through the southern tract of Etawah,. and then forms the
boundary between Etawah and Cawnpur Districts on the north, and
Jalaun and Hamirpur Districts on the south. On its north bank the
Jumna is joined by the Sengur a little below Kalpi ; and on its south
bank, by the great river Chambal from the west 40 miles below Etawah,
and by the Sind on the borders of Etawah and Jalaun.

From Hamirpur, till its junction with the Ganges at Allahabad, the
Jumna flows nearly due east. It separates the Districts of Fatehpur
and Allahabad on the north from that of Banda on the south, until it
enters Allahabad District, and finally falls into the Ganges, in lat. 25'
25' N., and long. 81° 55' e., three miles below the city of Allahabad, the
only important town which the Jumna passes during this last section
of its course. Total length from its source, 860 miles. Its chief
tributaries in this part of its course are the Betwa and the Ken.

The Jumna, after issuing from the hills, has a longer course through
the North-Western Provinces than the Ganges, but it is not so large
or so important a river, and above Agra in the hot w^eather it dwindles
to a small stream. This is no doubt partly caused by the two canals
(the Eastern and Western Jumna Canals) taken off from it at Faizabad,
where it issues from the Dun.

The trade on the Jumna is not now very considerable ; in its upper
portion, timber, and in the lower, stone, grain, and cotton are the chief
articles of commerce, carried in the clumsy barges which navigate its
waters. These have sails, and always take advantage of a favourable
wind ; at other times they float down with the current, or are slowly
and laboriously tugged up against stream by long strings of boatmen.
Its waters are clear and blue, while those of the Ganges are yellow and
muddy ; and at the point of junction belo\v the fort of Allahabad the
difference between the streams can be discerned for some distance



256 JUMNA CANAL, EASTERN

below the point at which they unite. Its banks are high and rugged,
often attaining the proportions of cliffs, and the ravines which run into
it are deeper and larger than those of the Ganges. It traverses in
great part the extreme edge of the alluvial plain of Hindustan, and in
the latter part of its course almost touches the Bundelkhand offshoots
of the Vindhya range of mountains. Its passage is therefore more
tortuous, and the scenery along its banks is more varied and pleasing
than that of the Ganges.

The Jumna at its source near Jamnotri is 10,849 f^et above the sea-
level ; at Kotnur, 16 miles lower, it is only 5036 feet ; so that, between
these two places, it falls at the rate of 314 feet in a mile. At its
junction with the Tons, it is 1686 feet above the sea; at its junction
with the Asan, 1470 feet ; and at the point where it issues from the
Siwalik Hills into the plains, it is 1276 feet. The catchment area of
the Jumna is 118,000 square miles; its flood discharge at Allahabad,
1,333,000 cubic feet per second; discharge per square mile of catch-
ment area, 1 1 "3 cubic feet per second.

The Jumna is now crossed by railway bridges at Delhi, Agra, and
Allahabad ; and there are bridges of boats at Etawah, Kalpi, Hamirpur,
Muttra, Chillatara, and other places.

Jumna (Jamund) Canal, Eastern. — An important irrigation work
in Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, and Meerut (Merath) Districts, North-
Western Provinces. Lat. 28° 38' to 30° 19' n., long. 77° 19' to 77°
38' E. It derives its supply from the left or eastern bank of the
river Jumna, irrigates the western portion of the Upper Doab, and
eventually tails into the Jumna (Jamuna) in Meerut District, after a
course of 160 miles. The frequent recurrence of famines in this part
of India, before the establishment of British rule, and for some years
subsequently, caused attention to be directed at an early period of our
occupation to the necessity for an extended system of canals. Owing
to the pressure of other important measures, however, it was not till
the close of 1823 that the actual work of excavation commenced, and
the canal reached its completion in 1830. Being the first large irriga-
tion scheme undertaken in India by our authorities, some changes in
detail became necessary at a later period, but the work as a whole
reflects the greatest credit upon its projectors. From the Jumna head-
works to the iTth milestone, the bed consists of boulders or shingle,
gradually decreasing in size ; thenceforward to Sarkari {26 miles), sand
and clay predominate on the bottom, interspersed between Sarkari and
Jauli (123 miles) with nodular carbonate of lime, and merging below
Jauli into pure sand.

On the sandy sections, erosion has been avoided by the construction
of falls, also utilized as motive-power for flour-mills. Rows of sal, sisi/,
teak, and tun trees fringe the bank, and their timber forms an important



JUMNA CANAL, EASTERN



257



item in the revenue. The total area irrigated by the Eastern Jumna Canal
during the year 1875-76 amounted to 195,846 acres, of which 87,294
belonged to the kharif or autumn harvest, and 108,552 to the rabi or
spring harvest. In 1880, the total area irrigated by the canal was
235,862 acres; and in id>%2-ZT„ 254,513 acres. Taking the average
of five years ending 1881-82, the total area annually irrigated by the
canal amounts to 245,933 acres, of which 140,807 acres belong to
the kharif, and 141,126 to the rabi harvest, the average water-supply at
Kalsia being 11 16 cubic feet for the kharif, and 933 cubic feet for the
rabi. The area irrigated for each cubic foot of supply was accordingly
93-89 acres in the former case, and 151 '18 acres in the latter. The
water was dispersed by means of main distributaries, having a total
length of 618 miles. The following table shows the tariff in force
in 1876 : —







Per Acre irrigated by-




Class.


Nature of Crop.




Per




Natural Flow.


Lift.








s. d.


s. d.




I.


Sugar-cane, . . .


10


6 8


Year.


11.


Rice, tobacco, opium,
vegetables, gardens,










or orchards, . . .


6


4


Crop.


III.


All rabi crops, indigo,










cotton, ....


4 6


3


Crop.


IV.


All kharif crops, or
crops not above










specified, ....


3 4


2


Crop.



By 'flow ' is understood water which reaches the fields from distribu-
taries above their level ; and by ' lift,' water which must be raised by
means of buckets or otherwise to the level of the fields.

The canal opened in 1830 with a debit against its capital account of
;^43,8oo. The following statement shows the financial position of
the undertaking in 1875-76, and in 1881 : — Outlay during 1875-76,
^12,273; ^rid ;£47,ooo in 1881. Outlay from date of opening to
the end of 1875-76, ordinary ;^2i8,293, extraordinary ^13,450 — total,
^231,743. Total outlay to end of 1881, ;^266,99o. The revenue
account in 1875-76 yielded the following gross results: — Revenue during
the year — direct income, ;^59,248 ; increased land revenue, ;£"46,857
total, ;^io6,io5 • revenue from opening — direct income, ;£^i5039,485 ;
increased land revenue, ^£221, 555; total, ^1,261,040: working
expenses — during the year, ;^23,o27; from opening, ;£459,5o8. In
1 88 1, the revenue account showed the following gross results : — Revenue
during the year — direct income, ;£" 73,918; increased land revenue {i.e.
indirect income), ^22,153 ; total, ^96,071 : working expenses during

VOL. VIL R



258 JUMNA CANAL, WESTERN.

the year, ^17,287, showing a profit of ^f 78,784. From the opening
of the canal up to the end of 1881, the total direct income has been
^1,450,472, and the total increased land revenue, ^354,476 ; grand
total, ;£"i,8o4,948. Total working expenses from opening to the end
of i88r, ^578,445, showing a profit of income over expenditure of
;^i,2 26,503. According to the principle of calculating profit and loss
officially adopted, the net revenue in 1875-76 shows a return of 15-63
per cent, on capital, or including increased land revenue, a return of
35-25 per cent. In 1881, the net revenue shows a return of 21-2 per
cent, on capital, or including increased land revenue, a return of 29-5
per cent.

The following are the details of direct income for 1875-76 : —
Water rates, ^54,649 ; mill rents, ^1145 ; canal plantations, ^2869;
miscellaneous, ^585 ; total actual receipts, ^■/^59,248. The details of
direct income for 1881 are as follow: — Water rates, ;z{J"7o,35i ; mill
rents, ^1171 ; canal plantations, ^1681 ; miscellaneous, ^715 ; total
actual receipts, ;£73,9i8,

Jumna {Jamund) Canal, Western. — An important irrigation work
in Ambala (Umballa), Karnal, Delhi, Rohtak, and Hissar Districts,
Punjab. Lat. 28° 54' to 30° 13' n., long. 76° 35' to 77° 26' E.
It takes its supply of water from the Jumna at Hathni Kiind, on
its western bank, at Tajawala, about a mile and a half below the point 1
where the river debouches from the Siwalik hills. The head-works
consist of a permanent vreir across the river bed, with scouring and
regulating sluices on both banks, those on the right bank feeding the \
Western, and those on the left the Eastern Jumna Canal. One-third
of the Jumna river has already been carried oft' for the Eastern Jumna ■
Canal, whose head stands 3I miles higher up the channel. Nearly the
whole river at Hathni Kiind is diverted by artificial cuts and dams,
first into the Budhi Jumna, and then into the Patrala torrent. The ^
latter shortly joins the Sombh, and just below their junction, at
Dadiipur, a dam crosses the united stream and turns the whole body
of water into the canal. The canal diverges at an acute angle from the
Sombh, and the water is admitted through a regulator on the western
bank of that river. The dam is 777 feet in length, and consists of a
series of masonry piers, 3 feet in thickness, with openings of to feet
wide. When it is required to stop the water back into the canal, these
openings are closed by boards ; while by the removal of the boards, the
whole water of the river can at any time be allowed to escape down
the bed of the Sombh, and thence into the Jumna.

The first irrigation cut from the Jumna, of which record remains, was |
drawn about the middle of the 14th century by the Emperor Firoz j
Shah Tughlak for the supply of his city of Hissar. The head-works j
probably coincided with those of the modern undertaking (although



I



JUMNA CANAL, WESTERN. 259



! the precise position cannot be determined), and the alignment followed
one or other of the natural channels intersecting the Jumna lowlands
as far as Karndl. Thence a short excavation led into a line of drainage
connected with the Chutang, whose bed may still be traced to its
junction with the Ghaggar. The old canal appears to have terminated
in a small masonry tank a little beyond Hissar ; and the absence of
distributaries or their remains along its course would seem to show that
it was not employed for intermediate irrigation, but simply for the supply
of the imperial grounds. Two hundred years later, the channel, which
had silted up in the interim, was reopened by order of Akbar, about
1568. About the year 1628, All Mardan Khan, the famous engineer
of Shah Jahan, took off a large branch for the purpose of bringing
water to the new city of Delhi. This work must have been executed
v.ith considerable skill and at great cost. Another branch was at the
same time carried in the direction of Rohtak.

During the decline of the Mughal Empire, however, and the
period of Sikh reaction, the canal gradually silted up once more, and,

, ceasing to flow about the middle of the 18th century, remained in
disuse until after the introduction of British rule. In 181 7, our

I Government undertook the restoration of the Delhi branch, and the

■ water re-entered that city in 1820. The restoration of the Hissar
branch followed in 1823-25, and during the succeeding year, irrigation

\ commenced in Hissar District. The famine year of 1832-33, how-

i ever, first roused the cultivators to a sense of its value. The total
length of canal now open amounts to 433 miles, with an aggregate of
259 miles of distributing channels, besides private watercourses. From
Dadiipur to Karnal (40 miles in a straight line), the canal takes a windin
course through the lowlands, by an old bed, parallel in the main to the
Jumna. Six miles below Karnal it passes south-westward through the
high outer bank of the river valley by a cutting. At Rer, 14 miles below,
the Delhi branch strikes off due south, traverses Delhi city, and terminates

' in a junction with the river. The Rohtak branch leaves the main line
Ti miles farther on, and, passing Rohtak, loses itself in a sandy tract
south of that town. The Butana branch strikes off 3I miles below the
Rohtak, and, dividing into two forks, ends after a course of 27 miles a
little beyond Butana. The main line continues along Firoz Shah's align-
ment, in a tortuous channel, till it meets the Chutang Nadi, whose bed
it utilizes for the remainder of its course. Flowing south-westward as
far as Hansi, and then slightly northward to Hissar, it divides into two
branches, one of them artificial, and finally ends in the sands beyond
the British frontier. After very heavy seasons, a small quantity of water
finds its way to the Ghaggar.

The following statement shows the area irrigated during the ten years
ending 1873, and also during the six years from 1877-7S to 1S82-S



&



J



26o



JUMNA CANAL, WESTERN



1863-64, 351,537 acres; 1864-65, 434,9^4 acres; 1865-66, 397,963
acres; 1866-67, 447,i7i acres; 1867-68, 331,037 acres; 1868-69,
486,878acres; i869-7o,496,542acres; 1870-71, 472, 404acres; 1871-72,
444,385 acres; 1872-73, 351,820 acres. In 1877-78, the irrigated
area was 507,974 acres; 1878-79, 39^,460 acres; 1879-80, 310,680
acres; 1880-81, 265,551 acres; 1881-82, 300,545 acres; 1882-83,
374,243. Average for the six years ending 1882-83, 359^576 acres.
The total capital outlay of the British Government upon this canal up
to the end of 1872-73, amounted to ;£"3 11,693, and up to the end of
1882-83, ;£884,952. No data exist upon which an estimate of its
original cost may be based. The canal, with its extensions now
(1884) approaching completion, is intended to protect an area of 1640
square miles. The following table exhibits the financial state of the
undertaking for fourteen years ending 1883-84 : —

Statement showing Area irrigated. Income, Working Expenses,
AND Profit on the Western Jumna Canal from 1870-71 to
1883-84.



Year.


Gross Income.


Working
Expenses.


Profit.


Percentage upon

Capital at the

beginning of the

Year.


Area
Irrigated
in Acies.


Direct.


Direct

with

Indirect.


Direct.


Direct

with

Indirect.


Direct.


Direct

with
Indirect.


1870-71


150,757


188,013




£
116,884


£
154,140


44-46


58-63


462,707


1871-72


109,296


146,552


37,645


71,651


108,907


25-66


39-01


444,385


1872-73


102,300


139,556


40,118


62,182


99,438


20-86


33-36


351,821


1873-74


100,328


137,585


37,298


63,030


100,287


22-21


32-17


311,747


1874-75


91,290


128,546


33,873


57,417


94,673


17-18


28-32


382,847


1875-76


100,871


140,999


37,515


63,356


103,484


16-64


27-18


309,595


1876-77


87,813


126,405


38,937


48,876


87,468


1-13


20-23


366,482


1877-78


99,210


136,586


41,872


57,338


94,714


11-74


19-39


507,974


1878-79


118,069


129,706


41,600


76,462


87,399


1328


1517


398,460


1879-80


113,086


140,669


47,563


65,523


93,106


9-96


14-17


310,686


I 880-8 I


91,012


181,774


40,825


50,187


140,949


7-17


20-13


265,556


1881-82


120,125


123,933


43,116


77,009


80,817


9-83


10-31


300,545


1882-83


"5,949


121,785


47,179


68,770


74,606


8-29


9-00


374-243


1883-84


139,240


145, 504


47,766



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