William Wilson Hunter.

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I The indirect revenue represents the increase in the receipts from the
land-tax, in consequence of the benefits derived from irrigation. The

, works for the restored canal system above described, as based on the
old native works, were begun by Captain Blane and carried out by

I Major John Colvin. In addition, a costly work now (1884) nearly
completed, in the reformation of the middle section of the canal,
with a view to the reclamation of swamps and saline efflorescence,

. produced by the bad alignment of the old canal and its interference
with the surface drainage of the country, which have rendered barren
thousands of fruitful acres, ruined many populous homesteads, and
undermined the health of the whole country-side. This project
embraces new permanent head-works on the Jumna ; a new main line,
taking off from the old channel about 15 miles above Karnal, and
terminating at the 28th mile in new regulators for the Delhi and Hansi
branches; a new channel in substitution for the first 55 miles of the
former branch; the remodelling of the first 20 miles of that branch;
a navigation canal 9! miles in length to connect the Delhi branch with
the lately opened Agra Canal ; and drainage works in the irrigated

I tract and improvement of the outfall into the river Jumna from the

I Najafgarhy/^//, the natural receptacle for the drainage from a portion
of the irrigated districts. These rectifications have been rapidly pushed
on with. The new head-works on the Jumna have been in use since
1878. The remodelling of the canal and the construction of new
distributaries are (1884) approaching completion ; some of the drainage
schemes connected with them are in hand, while others are being
elaborated or are under consideration.

Junagarh (or Jimdgadh). — Native State under the Political Agency
of Kathiawar, Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. Lat. 20° 48' to
21° 40' N., long. 69° 55' to 71° 35' E. Area, 3283 square miles. Popu-
lation (1872) 380,921; (1881)387,499; number of towms, 7; number
of villages, 850; houses, 6578; estimated gross revenue, ^200,000.
Distributed according to religion, the population consists of — Hindus,
306,295; Muhammadans, 76,401; 'others,' 4803. Since 1872, the

i population has increased by 6578. The only elevation rising above

,the general level of the plain is the Girnar group of hills, the highest

jpeak of which, Gorakhnath, is about 3666 feet above sea -level.

|There is also a densely - wooded tract called the Gir, hilly in some
parts, but in others so low as to be liable to floods during the rainy
season. The soil is generally black, but in certain spots the lighter
varieties are found. Irrigation is commonly practised by means of

iwater brought in canals, or drawn from wells by the Persian wheel
and the leathern bag. The climate is upon the whole healthy, though,

except on the Girnar Hill, the heat is excessive from the beginning of
April to the middle of July. Fever and dysentery are the prevailing


diseases. Stone exists suited for building purposes. The agricultural
products comprise — cotton, shipped in considerable quantities from the
port of Veriwal to Bombay ; wheat ; the ordinary varieties of pulse
and millet ; oil-seeds ; and sugar-cane, both the indigenous and Mauritius
varieties. The manufactured articles are oil and coarse cotton cloth.

The coast-line is well supplied with fair-weather harbours, suited for
native craft. Of the harbours, the chief are Verawal, Nawa-bandar, and
Sutrapara. The main roads through the State are from Junagarh towards
Jetpur and Dhoraji, and from Junagarh to Verawal. The ordinary
country tracks serve in the fair season for the passage of carts, pack-
bullocks, and horses. There are 34 schools, with i960 pupils. Places
of interest include — the sacred mountain of Girnar, crowned with Jain
temples ; the port of Verawal ; and the ruined temple of Somnath.

Junagarh ranks as a first-class State among the many petty States
of Kathiawar. Its ruler first entered into engagements with the British
Government in 1807. The present (1884) chief, who is entitled to a
salute of II guns, succeeded his father, Sir Mohobat Khanji, K.C.S.I.,
who died on the 29th September 1882. His name is Bahadur Khanji,
and his title, Nawab of Junagarh. He is twenty-nine years of age, and
was installed on the ist October 1882. He is ninth in succession
from Sher Khan Babi, the founder of the family. He pays to the
British Government and the Gaekw^ar of Baroda a yearly tribute of
;£"656o, 8s., and maintains a military force of 2682 men. He holds a
sanad authorizing adoption, and the succession follows the rule of
primogeniture. He has power of life and death over his own subjects.
He has entered into engagements to prohibit sati^ and to exempt from
duty vessels entering his ports through stress of weather.

Until 1472 A.D., when it was conquered by Sultan Muhammad
Begara of Ahmadabdd, Junagarh was a Rajput State, ruled by chiefs
of the Churasama tribe. During the reign of the Emperor Akbar,
it became a dependency of the Court of Delhi, under the immediate
authority of the Mughal Viceroy of Gujarat (Guzerat). About 1735,
when the representative of the Mughals had lost his authority in
Gujarat, Sher Khan Babi, a soldier of fortune under the viceroy,
expelled the Mughal governor, and established his own rule. Sher
Khan's son, SaUbat Khan, appointed his heir chief of Junagarh, assign-
ing to his younger sons the lands of Bantwa.

Though himself tributary to the Gaekwar of Baroda and the
British Government, the Nawab of Junagarh receives yearly contribu-
tions, called zortalabi^ from a large number of petty chiefs in Kathiawar.
This levy, which is collected and paid to the Nawab by British officers
of the Kathiawar Agency, is a relic of the days of Muhammadan

Jundgarh.— Chief town of the Native State of Junagarh, Kathiawar,


Bombay Presidency. Lat. 21° 31' n., long. 70° 36' 30" e., 60 miles south-
west of Rajkot. Population (1872) 20,025: (1881) 24,679, namely,
13,605 males and 11,074 females. Hindus numbered 12,910; Muham-
madans, 11,287; Jains, 462; Christians, 19; and Parsi, i.

Junagarh, situated under the Girnar and Ddtar hills, is one of the
most picturesque cities in India, while in antiquity and historical
interest it yields to none. The Uparkot or old citadel contains
interesting Buddhist caves, and the whole of the ditch and neighbour-
hood is honeycombed with caves or their remains. The most interest-
ing of these, called Khaprakodia, have the appearance of having been
once a monastery, two or three storeys in height. Dr. Burgess, in
his Antiquities of Cutch and Kdthidiudr^ has fully described these caves.
The ditch is cut entirely out of the rock, and forms a strong defence.
In the Uparkot are two vavs^ said to be built by slave girls of Chudasama
rulers of olden times ; a mosque built by Sultan Mahmud Begara ; near
the mosque is a cannon 17 feet long, 7 J feet in circumference at the
breech, and 9^^ inches in diameter at the muzzle ; another large cannon
in the southern portion of the fort is 13 feet long, and has a muzzle 14
inches in diameter. The Uparkot has been many times besieged, and
often taken, on which occasions the Raja was wont to flee to the fort
on Girnar, which from its inaccessibility was almost impregnable. Of
late years a fine hospital and other public buildings have been erected,
and the town has been much improved by fine houses built by the nobles
of the court. A collection of shops called Mahabat circle is in front
of the Nawab's palace. Here is a clock tower. Uparkot is the ancient
Junagarh. The present town is more correctly called Mustafabad, and
was built by Mahmud Begada of Gujarat.

Junapadar. — Petty State in Gohelwar Sub-division, Kathiawar,
Bombay Presidency. It consists of i village, Junapadar, with i separate
tnbute-payer. The revenue in 1876 was estimated at ^'55 ; and
tribute of ^4, 4s. is paid to the Gaekwar of Baroda, and i6s. to
Junagarh. Population (1881) 199. The tdlukddrs ^XQ Khasia Kolis.

Jungle MaMls. — Formerly a Western District of Lower Bengal.
The Jungle Mahals was originally a vague term applied in the last
century to the British possessions and semi-independent chiefdoms
lying between the regular Districts of Birbhiim, Bardwan, and Bankura,
and the hill country of Chutia Nagpur. As the administration became
more precise, inconvenience arose from the vagueness of the jurisdiction,
the stoppage of writs, etc. Accordingly Regulation xviii. of 1805
erected the Jungle Mahals into a distinctly defined District, consisting
of i^pargafids ov mahdls ixom Birbhiim District (including Pachete),
3 from Bardwan (including most of Bishnupur), and 5 from Midnapur
(including Manbhiim and Barabhiim). The separate District of the
Jungle Mahals was abolished by Regulation xiii. of 1833, and the


territory redistributed among the adjoining Districts. It is now com-
prised within the western parts of Birbhiim and the Santal Parganas,
Bankura and Midnapur Districts, and within the eastern Districts of
the Chutia Nagpur Division, especially Manbhiim. The tract lies
between lat. 21° 51' 30" and 22° 48' 30" n., and long. 86' 36' and 87°
16' E. Regulation xviii. of 1805 affords an interesting illustration of
the elaborate rules and details involved in the erection of a separate
jurisdiction under the Company. There is now no specific tract of
country known as the Jungle Mahals.

Junnar. — Sub-division of Piina (Poona) District, Bombay Presi-
dency. Area, 611 square miles; contains i town and 153 villages.
Population (1881) 102,273, namely, 50,666 males and 51,607 females.
Hindus numbered 95,748; Muhammadans, 5006; 'others,' 1519.
Since 1872, the population has decreased by 4603. Revenue (1882-83),
;^i4,7i8. The Sub-division contains i civil and 2 criminal courts;
number of police stations {thd?ids), i ; regular police, 48 men ; village
watchmen (chatckiddrs), 93.

Junnar. — Chief town of Junnar Sub-division, Poona (Piina) Dis-
trict, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 19° 12' 30" n., long. 73° 58' 30" e.
Population (1872) 10,298; (1881) 10,373, namely, males 5043? ^"^
females 5330. Hindus numbered 7952; Muhammadans, 2006; and
Jains, 415. Area of town site, 233 acres. Municipal revenue (1882-83),
^512; municipal expenditure (1882-83), £i()S ) rate of taxation, lofd.
per head. Junnar contains a sub-judge's court, post-office, and dispensary.

Though fallen in size and importance since the time of Muhamraadan
rule, and by the subsequent transfer of the seat of government to
Poona under the Marathas, Junnar is still a place of considerable
note, being the chief market of the northern part of the District, and
a depot for the grain and merchandise passing to the Konkan by the
Nanaghat. It was formerly celebrated for the manufacture of paper,
but the low rates at which the European article is now sold, have
almost driven native paper out of the market. The fort of Junnar,
often noticed in Maratha annals, was built by Malik-ul-Tujjar in 1436.
In May 1557, Sivaji surprised and plundered the town, carrying off
about ;2{^i 00,000 in specie, besides other valuable spoil. About a mile
and a half south-west of the town of Junnar is the hill fort of Sivner,
granted in 1599 to the grandfather of Sivaji, who is said to have been
born here in 1627. During the turbulent times of Maratha warfare
Sivner was often taken and retaken, and once, in 1670, the forces of
Sivaji himself were beaten back by its Mughal garrison. Besides fine
gates and solid fortifications, it is celebrated for its deep springs.
They rise in pools of great depth, supposed to be coeval with the
series of Buddhist caves which pierce the lower portion of the scarp.

Junona.— Ancient village in Chanda District, Central Provinces.


Lat. 19° 55' 30" N., long. 79° 26' E. ; six miles north of Ballali)ur, and
perhaps connected with it when Ballalpur was the Gond capital of
Chanda. Possesses a fine tank, on the stone embankment of which
stand the ruined remains of a palace ; and in its rear are traces of a
wall 4 miles long. An elaborate system of under-channels, now im-
perfect, communicates with the tank. Population (i88i) 322.

JutOgh. — Small military station in Simla District, Punjab ; situated
on the top of a lofty and steep hill, a few miles from the town of
Simla. The quarters of a mule battery of mountain artillery, and of a
wing of the British regiment stationed at Subathu. Area, 365 acres.
Population (1881) 953.


Kabadak (or Kapotdksha, ' Dove's Eye '). — River of Bengal. A
deltaic distributary of the Matabhanga, branching off from that river
near Chandpur, in Nadiya District, whence it flows a winding easterly
course for a few miles, after which it turns southwards, marking the
boundary between Nadiya and the Twenty-four Parganas on the one
hand and Jessor on the other. Five miles east of Asasuni in the
Twenty-four Parganas, it is joined by the Marichhap Gang, which com-
municates with the series of boat passages and canals from Calcutta ;
and two miles below this junction it sends off the Chandkhali khd/
eastwards into Jessor District, continuing the boat passage towards
Khulna, Dacca, etc. Farther to the south, in lat. 22° 13' 30" n.,
and long. 89° 20' e., the Kabadak unites with the Kholpetua, and the
combined stream then takes the successive names of the Pangasi, Bara,
Panga, Namgad, Samudra, and near the sea, Malancha, under which
name it falls into the Bay of Bengal.

Kabar. — Lake or marsh in Monghyr District, Bengal, lying between
25° 35' 30" and 25° 39' 30" N. lat, and between 86° 9' and 86° 13' e.
long. The chief of a chain of marshes running along the north of the
District, with high and abrupt banks, which seem to indicate that they
owe their origin to a change of course in the Ganges or Gandak.
They are annually filled by the floods of these rivers, and abound in
crocodiles, fish, and wild-fowl.

I Ka-baung". — A river in Taung-gnu District, Tenasserim Division,
British Burma. Rises in the Pegu Yoma Hills, and after a south-west
course of 68 miles falls into the Tsit-taung just below Taung-gnu, and
for some distance up is a fine broad stream. Navigable for about 25
miles; teak, theng-gan (used for boat-building), sesamum, etc., are
brought down this stream for the Taung-gnii market.

Kabbal-durga. — Conical hill in ]\Ialvalli tdhik of Mysore District,
Mysore State, in the watershed between the Shimsha and Arkavati rivers.


Lat. 12' 30' N., long. 77° 22' E. It is fortified, and accessible only on one
side by narrow steps hewn in the rock. Used as a penal settlement under
the Hindu and Musalman dynasties, 'where the insalubrity of the climate
was mercifully added to the unwholesome water to shorten the suffer-
ings of State prisoners.' It was dismantled and abandoned in 1864.
The name of Jaffarabad, given by Haidar Ali, is now forgotten.

Kabbani. — River of Mysore and Madras Presidency. — See Kapini.

Kabrai.— Town in Hamirpur District, North-Western Provinces.
Population (1881) 2272. Situated near the Brahm Tal, an extensive
tank, now much silted up, but once a fine sheet of water, the construc-
tion of which is attributed to the Chandel Raja Babrahm. Ruins of
ancient temples and other architectural remains are still shown on its

Kabul {Kdbal). — Principal Province of Afghanistan, bounded on
the north-west by the Koh-i-Baba ; on the north by the Hindu-Kiish ;
on the north-east by the Panjsher river; on the east by the Sulaiman
range ; on the south by the Safed Koh and Ghazni ; and on the west
by the hill country of the Hazaras. The following articles on the
Province, city, and river of Kabul are condensed from General Sir
C. M. Macgregor's Account (187 1), brought up to 1882 by Lieut.-Col.
W. S. A. Lockhart :—

The Province of Kabul is mountainous, but contains many rich
arable valleys along the base of the hills. Wheat is the chief product,
and after it barley. The poorest classes consume a considerable pro-
portion of barley and pease in their food. There are none so poor
but that they occasionally indulge in animal food, and the rich in a
great measure subsist on it. Corn is imported from as far as the en-
virons of Ghazni. Rice is brought from Upper Bangash, Jalalabad,
Laghman, and even Kiinar ; in a dear year corn is sometimes brought
from Bamian in small quantities. The supply of ghi is chiefly from
Bamian and the Hazarajat. The quantity of grain annually imported
into the valley does not bear a great proportion to that produced in
it, and provisions are seldom dear. In the valleys a good deal of wood
is cultivated — willows and sycamores. In Kohistan and Kuram there
is abundance of timber. The orchards of Kabul, which are very
numerous, are chiefly in the Koh Daman ; and in it the valley of Istalif
is celebrated for the excellence and profusion of its fruits, and also
for its picturesque beauties. The chief pasturage is in Logar, and on
the south, as also towards Ghorband. The Division of Biitkhak is
that in which agriculture is most pursued. In the whole valley the
watered lands much exceed the unwatered, but in the southern skirts
there are some small spaces in which the reverse is true. Fodder is
plentiful in Kabul and most parts of the valley ; artificial grasses con-
stitute a considerable part of it in those quarters where pasturage is


much pursued. A part of the population live in tents in summer, but
otherwise stone or brick houses are used, and the most common kind
is the flat-roofed. The chief stock is in cows, except where pasturage
is followed, and there sheep are a more important object. A con-
siderable trade is carried on by the Kabulis, especially with Turkistan
and Hindustan. A trade in horses and ponies is carried on with

The villages are of various sizes, and on an average contain 150
families; they are not fortified, but invariably contain small castles
or private forts of no strength. There are few wastes or spaces ill
supplied with water in the whole Province ; such as do exist are
towards the south and the north-west limits. With respect to carriage,
bullocks are chiefly used within the valley; those who trade to
Khorasan employ camels ; in the east and south of the Province,
camels, mules, and ponies are used ; in the Hazara country, mules
and ponies. The Ghilzais, who trade to Turkistan by the road of
iBamian, use camels. The heavy custom dues imposed in Russian
I Turkistan have affected the trade of the Province. Cotton fabrics,
tea, and other products of British India no longer pass upward to the
extent of former years, and the Kabul authorities have therefore lost
ithe revenue accruing from transit dues. The hakim, or governor of
ithe Province, was in 1882 Sardar Ahmad Khan, half-brother to the
late Amir Sher All Khan. The revenue of Kabul Province amounts
to ;^i 80,000. Its military force is greater than that of any other
Province of Afghanistan. The country is by nature strong, and it has
good roads through it.

Kabul {Kdbal). — The capital of Afghanistan ; situated between the
rivers Kabul and Logar near their junction, 88 miles from Ghazni, 229
miles from Khilat-i-Ghilzai, 316 miles from Kandahar, 94 miles from
Jalalabad, 175 miles from Peshawar, and 687 miles from Herat by
Kandahar. Lat. 34° 30' n., long. 69° 18' e. Population, according to
a Census taken by order of the Amir Sher Ali in 1876, about

Physical Aspects. — The city of Kabul is situated at the west extremity
;of a spacious plain, in an angle formed by the approach of two inferior
ridges, the Koh Takht Shah and the Koh Khoja Safar. With the
excepdon of a suburb, it lies on the right bank of the Kabul river. It
is about three miles in circumference. To the east and south-east is the
Bala Hissar, or citadel. There are no walls round the city at the
present time, though formerly it was encircled by walls constructed
pardy of burnt bricks, and partly of mud, the trace of which remains
most abundantly in the east quarter. The space included within
the walls being largely filled with gardens, does not contain above
5000 houses ; anciently it may be presumed to have comprised a



lower number. Seven gates allowed ingress and egress to and from |
the old city : the Darwazas Lahori, Sirdar, Pet, Deh Afghanan, Deh '
Mazang, Guzar Gah, and Jabr. Of these, the Darwazas Lahori and '
Sirdar are the only ones now standing, being built of deeply coloured \
kiln-burnt bricks. That of Jabr was removed many years ago. The :
sites of those no longer existing, besides being well known, are the :
stations of officers appointed to collect the town duties on the neces-
saries of life brought in from the country. Some of the names by
which the gates are now known, or remembered, would seem to have
replaced more ancient ones.

The houses of Kabul are but slightly and indifferently built, ,
generally of mud and unburnt bricks. The few of burnt brick are (
those of old standing. Their general want of substantiality does '
not militate against their being conveniently arranged within, as \
many of them are, particularly those built by the Shias in Chandol
and other quarters. The city is divided into quarters {mahalas), \
and these again are separated into sections {kikhas). The latter
are enclosed and entered by small gates. On occasions of war or
tumult, the entrance gates are built up, and the city contains as j
many different fortresses as there are sections in it. This means of '
defence is called ' Kiichabandi.' It must be obvious that an insecure
state of society has induced this precautionary mode of arrangement |
in the building of the city. The necessity to adopt it has occasioned
the narrow and inconvenient passages of communication, or streets, if ,
they must be so called, which intersect the several sections. The
principal bazars of the city are independent of the sections, and extend
generally in straight lines.

There are no public buildings of any importance in the city.
The mosques, or places of worship, are far from being splendid \
edifices, although many are spacious and commodious ; convenience
and utility, rather than specious external appearance, has been sought
for in their construction. Outside the city lie the fine tombs of
the Emperor Babar and of Timiir Shah. The residence of former
monarchs was the Bala Hissar, but the present Amir, Abdur Rahman :
Khan, has his residence in the city. There is but one college, and
this without endowment or scholars. There are some 14 or 15 sardis
or kardvansardis for the accommodation of foreign merchants and
traders, named sometimes after their founders, as the Sarai Zirdad,
the Sarai Muhammad Riimi, etc., sometimes after the place whose
traders in preference frequent it, as the Sarai Kandahari, etc. These
structures will bear no comparison with the elegant and commodious
buildings of the same kind so numerous in the cities and country of
Persia. Hammauis or public baths, being indispensable appendages
to a ]\Iuhammadan city, are in some number, but they are deficient in


the matter of cleanliness. The approach to many of them is announced
by an unwelcome odour, arising from the offensive fuel employed to
heat them.

Of the several bazars of the city, the two principal, running irregularly
])arallel to each other, are the Shor bazar., and the bazar of the
Darwaza Lahori. The former, to the south, extends east and west
from the Bala Hissar Pain to the Zi'arat Baba Khiidi, a distance of
a litde more than three-quarters of a mile. The latter, stretching from
the Darwaza Lahori, terminates at the Chabutra, at which point there
is a street to the south, called Chob Farosh or the wood market,
communicating with the western extremity of the Shor bazar. To
the north, another street leads from the Chabutra to the Kishti.
The western portion of the bazar Darwaza Lahori is occupied by the
Char Chata, or four covered arcades, the most magnificent of the
Kabul bazars^ of which the inhabitants are justly proud. The structure
is inscribed to Ali Mardan Khan, whose name is immortal in these
countries, from the many visible testimonies to his public spirit
extant in various forms. It is handsomely constructed and highly
embellished with paintings. The four covered arcades, of equal
length and dimensions, are separated from each other by square

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 7) → online text (page 32 of 57)