William Wilson Hunter.

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and by cart tracks to three ferries on the Ganges. Owing to its liability
to inundation, the climate is damp; and when floods are subsiding,
fever is very prevalent.

Kachhi Baroda. — Thdkurate and town in Badnawar pargand of
Dhar State of Bhopawar Agency, Central India. The thdknr or chief
holds from the Dhar Darbar 16 villages under British guarantee, and
pays an annual tribute of ^966 ; his revenue is about ^3200. The
town is situated 8 miles from Badnawar, the capital of the pargand,
and 40 miles from the town of Dhar.

Kachhla. — Town in Budaun ta/isil, Budaun District, North-Western
Provinces, situated on the north or left bank of the Ganges, 18 miles
from Budaun town, where the imperial road from Bareli to Hathras


crosses the Ganges on a bridge of boats during the dry season. Agri-
cultural produce is largely conveyed by road from Bareli and Budaun
by road to Kachhla, where it is shipped in boats for transfer to Cawnpur
and Fatehgarh. Police station, post-office, opium storehouse, sarai or
native inn, and encamping ground for troops. Market twice a week.

Kachola. — Town in the Native State of Udaipur (Oodeypore),
Rajputana. Head-quarters of the Kachola district, comprising the
Mewar estate of the chief of Shahpura. In former times the town,
which apparently stood on the western bank of a large lake, must
have been a place of some importance ; for all around, to a consider-
able distance, the ground is strewn with fragments of sculpture of
a superior character, and half-way up the hill the ruins of a temple are

Kachua. — Village and police outpost station in Khulna District,
Bengal ; situated at the junction of the Bhairab and Madhumati rivers,
about 6 miles east of Bagherhat. Contains a considerable bdzdr^ and
is one of three market-places established in the Sundarbans by Mr.
Henckell in 1782. A khdl or creek, crossed by a masonry bridge,
divides the villages into two parts. The place probably derives its
name from kachu, a species of yam, which is grown here in great

Kadaba. — Tdluk in Tdmkiir District, Mysore State, Southern India.
Area, 498 square miles, of which 10 1 are cultivated. Population (1881)
68,158, namely, 32,541 males and 35,617 females; 65,203 were returned
as Hindus, 2919 Muhammadans, and 36 Christians. Land revenue
(1881-82), exclusive of water rates, ^9974, or 3s. per cultivated acre;
total revenue, £^\i\,<^2df. The tdluk is watered by the Shirasha,
which flows through it from north-east to south, forming large tanks at
two places, Kadaba and Gubbi. Soil a red mould, shallow and
gravelly. Near Dabbighata some hills yielding black hornblende were
formerly quarried for the pillars of temples, tombs, and public build-
ings. The tdluk contains i criminal court and 9 police stations
{thd?tds) ; regular police, 75 men ; village watchmen {chaukiddrs), 336.
The head-quarters of the tdluk are at Gubbi.

Kadaba. — Village in Tiimkiir District, Mysore State, Southern
India; 18 miles south-west of Tiimkiir town. Lat. 13° 14' 50" n.,
long. 76° 53' 20" E. Population (1881) 1679, including a settlement
of Sri Vaishnava Brahmans. Boasts a mythical antiquity, its large
tank, formed by a dam across the Shimsha river, being fabled to have
been constructed by Rama on his return from Lanka (Ceylon).

Kadaiyanalllir.— Town in Tenkasi tdluk of Tinnevelly District,
Madras Presidency. Lat. 9° 5' n., long. 77° 23' e. Population (1881)
7467; number of houses, 1854. A trading town on the road to
Travancore, by the Achinkoil Pass. Police station.


Kadallir {Kudalnr). — Taluk and town in South Arcot District,
Madras Presidency. — See Cuddalore.

Kadana. — Native State in Rewa Kantha, Bombay Presidency.
Kadana is bounded on the north and east by Dungarpur, Mewdr State,
on the south-east and south by Sunth, and on the south-west and west by
Luna Wara and Rewa Kantha States. Lat. 23° 16' 40" to it^'' 30' 30" n.,
long. 73° 43' to 73° 54' E. Area, 130 square miles. Population (1872)
12,689 ; (18S1) 14,220, namely, 7322 males and 6868 females. Kadana
is rugged, covered throughout with hills and forests. The Mahi river
crosses the southern portion of the State. In the extreme south-west,
on the left bank of the Mahi, the land is open and rich ; but to the
north, except a narrow fringe along the river bank, the country is barren
and rocky. Kadana is said to have been established as a separate
power about the thirteenth century by Limdevji, younger brother of
Jalamsingh, a descendant of Jalamsingh, the founder of the town of
Jhalod in the Panch jMahals. In spite of its small size, the wildness
and poverty of the country have saved it from being swallowed up by
any of its neighbours or from being forced to pay tribute to the para-
mount power. Estimated revenue, ^1000. The town of Kadana is
situated towards the south-east of the State on the left bank of the
Mahi. Lat. 23° 21' 30" n., long. 73° 52' e.

Kadapa. — District, tdluk^ and town in Madras Presidency. — See


Kadattanad {Kartinad). — One of the ancient chieftainships {?idds)
into which Malabar District of the Madras Presidency was formerly
divided; situated between 11° 36' and ti° 48' n. lat., and between 75°
36' and 75° 52' E. long. ; stretching from the sea-coast up the western
declivity of the Western Ghats. The level tracts near the sea are very
fertile, but suffered to such an extent from the devastations of Tipii
Sultan, that the people were unable to raise grain sufficient for their
support. The eastern hilly parts are well wooded, and contain indigenous
cardamom plants. The petty State was founded in 1564 by a Nair
chief, who probably inherited it (in the male line) from the Tekkalankiir
(Southern Regent) of the Kolattiri kingdom, and he and his successors
ruled the country until the invasion of Tipii Sultan. On the expulsion
of Tipii in 1792, the Nair Raja was restored, and his family have held
the estate ever since. Population, principally Nairs. Chief town,
Kuttipuram ; lat. 11° 42' n., long. 75° 44' e.

Kadi {Kari). — Northernmost Division of Baroda State (Gaekwar's
territory), Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. Estimated area,
3158 square miles. Population (1881) 988,487, namely, Hindus,
^935058; Muhammadans, 63,205; Jains, 32,126; Christians, 44;
Parsis, 49; 'others,' 5. Of the Hindus, 57,675 are Brahmans and
44:387 Rajputs; of the Muhammadans those of the Sunni sect pre-


ponderate. The main portion of the division lies west of the Sabarmati
river. It constitutes an uninterrupted plain, hilly only in the south
and east. There are no forests, and no lakes. The climate is hot,
but healthy. Rivers abound, and brick wells are numerous. The
average rainfall is 32 inches. The division is traversed by the
Rajputana-Malwa Railway; seven stations, viz. Siddhpur, Unjha,
Bhandu, Mesana, Jagudan, Dangarwa, and Kalol are in the division.

Kadi. — Sub-division of the Dehgam portion of the Kadi division of
Baroda State, Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. Area, 280
square miles; number of towns and villages, no. Population (1881)
^'^,']ZZ-> namely, 45,950 males and 42,783 females. Hindus numbered
78,489; Muhammadans, 8664; Jains, 1552; Parsis, 19; Christians,
4 ; and ' others,' 5. The general aspect of the Sub-division is an un-
interrupted plain bare of all trees. The Sub-division is bounded north
by the Mesana Sub-division, east by the Kalol Sub-division, south and
west by the Viramgam Sub-division of Ahmedabad District.

Kadi {Kari). — Tow^n in Baroda State, Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay
Presidency. Lat. 23° 17' n., long. 72° 21' 30" e. Population (1881)
16,689, namely, 8122 males and 8567 females. Kadi is 14 miles
west of Kalol station on the Rajputana-Malwa Railway. A heavy
sand road connects the two places. Hospital, Anglo - vernacular
schools, and post-office. Calico-printing is the chief industry. Round
the town and its neighbourhood are field trees in fair abundance and
numerous tanks. On the north is a broad sheet of water fringed with
trees. A well-preserved gate opens the way to the fort, which stands
on a slight elevation ; its brick walls and numerous buttresses are of
enormous thickness. The Rang and Supra Mahals and the arsenal
are some of the principal buildings in the fort. Several fairs are held
during the year.

Kadihati. — Town and municipality in the District of the Twenty-
four Parganas, Bengal, on the Calcutta and Barasat road. Lat. 22° 39'
10" N., long. 88° 29' 48" E. Population (1872) 5680; in 1881, the
population was below 5000, and the place is not returned as a town in
the Census Report of that year. Municipal income (1876-7 7), ^132 ;
expenditure, ;£"2 2i ; rate of municipal taxation, 5jd. per head. No
municipality in 1881. English school.

Kadipur. — Tahsil or Sub-division in Sultanpur District, Oudh, lying
between 25° 58' 30" and 26° 23' n. lat., and between 82° 9' and 82°
44' E. long. Bounded on the north by the Akbarpur taJisil of Faizabad
(Fyzabad) ; on the east by the District of Azamgarh in the North-
western Provinces ; on the south by the Patti tahsil of Partabgarh ; and
on the west by Sultanpur tahsil. Area, 439 square miles, of which 229
are cultivated. Population (according to the Census of 1869) 234,707 ;
in t88i, 246,171, of whom 229,843 were Hindus, and 16,328 Musal-


mans; number of males, 126,789, and of females, 119,382. Number
of villages or towns, 764; average density of population, 563 persons
per square mile. The tahsil comprises the 2 pargands of Chanda and

Kadirabad. — Town in Aurangabad District, Haidarabad (Hyder-
abad) State (Nizam's Dominions), Southern India. Population (1881)
I 9876. Situated opposite Jalna, on the Kundalika stream. Kadirabad
is a town of recent growth, and has a considerable trade in English
manufactured goods and country produce. — See Jalna.

Kadiri. — Tdluk in Cuddapah (Kadapa) District, Madras Presidency.

Lat. 13'' 48' 30" to 14° 28' N., long. 77° 43' to 78° 31' 30" e. The

j tdliik is irregular in shape, its extreme breadth being 35 miles, and

its extreme length 45 miles. In the north is a rocky range of hills.

I Area, 1416 square miles, with 143 towns and villages, and 26,299

: houses. Population (1881) 116,252, namely, 59,656 males and 56,596

females. Hindus numbered 106,967; Muhammadans, 9274; and

Christians, 11. The climate is hot and unhealthy. The rivers and

, almost all the tanks are dry during the hot months. The wells are

I very deep, and four pair of bullocks are frequently used during the

j day for drawing the water. The tdluk contains 3188 wells and 423

j tanks. The soil is poor, but patches of black soil are met wath here

I and there. Generally the country is scattered over with rocks and

' boulders of disintegrated granite. There are six roads covering 128

miles. Five of the roads meet in the kasba or head-quarters town.

Chief products — rice, gram, cholam (great millet), sugar-cane, and cotton.

The silk manufacture has been discontinued. Ironstone and granite are

the minerals. Pasture is scanty and precarious. In 1883 there were

2 criminal courts; police stadons, 14; and regular police, no men.

Land revenue, ;£"i 2,241.

Kadiri. — Town in Cuddapah (Kadapa) District, Madras Presidenc)\
Lat. 14° 7' N., long. 78° 16' E. Population (1881) 5004, namely, 2471
males and 2533 females, occupying 1141 houses: Hindus numbered
3555 \ Muhammadans, 1443 ; and Christians, 6. Head-quarters of
the Kadiri /i////^y dispensary; elementary school. There is a pagoda
here, the dancing girls of which contribute towards keeping up the bad
reputation of the town. The pagoda is resorted to by crowds of pilgrims
in the beginning of the year. Kadiri must have been at one time a
Muhammadan town, though the buildings show no signs of Muham-
madan architecture, yet for two miles outside the town there are many
tombs and mosques. The Muhammadan occupation must have been
previous to the building of the pagoda, which appears more recent than
the tombs.

Ka-do. — Village in Amherst District, Tenasserim Division, British
Burma. Ka-do lies on the bank of the Gyaing, at the mouth of

282 KADUR.

the Ka-do creek, close to the junction of the Gyaing and the Sahvin.
The town is well laid out with brick-tiled streets shaded by trees.
The Government timber station at which all logs brought down the
Salwin are collected, and the duty on them paid. Population (t88i)
2685. Within the jurisdiction of the Judge and Magistrate of Maulmain.

Kadlir. — District of Mysore State, Southern India. Kadiir District
forms the south - western portion of the Nagar Division of Mysore,
and lies between 13° 12' and 13° 58' n. lat., and between 75° 8' and
76"" 25' E. long. It is bounded on the west by the Western Ghats, which
separate it from the District of Kanara in the Madras Presidency ; on
the north by Shimoga District (Mysore) ; on the east by the Chitaldriig
District (Mysore) ; and on the south by Hassan District (Mysore).
Area, 2984 square miles. Population (1881) 328,327. The adminis-
trative head-quarters are at ChiKxMagalur.

Physical Aspects. — The larger portion of the District consists of the
Malnad or highlands, which contains some of the wildest mountain
scenery in Southern India. The frontier on the \vest is formed by the
lofty chain of the ghdts^ of w'hich the highest peaks are the Kudure-
mukha (6215 feet) and the Meruti Gudda (5451 feet). The centre of
the District is occupied by the horse-shoe range of the Baba Budans,
which boasts the loftiest mountain in Mysore — Mulaingiri — rising to
a height of 6317 feet above the sea. Companion heights of the
same group are Baba Budan-giri (6214 feet) and Kalhatti-giri (6155
feet). There are many minor ranges ; and the whole of the Malnad is
broken into hills and valleys, which are alike covered with primeval
forest, teeming with the characteristic fauna and flora of the tropics,
and little disturbed by the invasion of man. The Maidan or plain
country, lying towards the east, partakes of the general character of
the Mysore plateau. The elevation slopes from 3400 to 2400 feet.
The principal rivers of the District are the twin streams of the Tunga
and the Bhadra, which rise near each other in the ghats, and, after a
long separation, unite to form the Tungabhadra, itself a tributary of the
Kistna. The Hemavati has its source in the south of the District,
but almost immediately enters the District of Hassan. The eastern
portion of Kadiir District is watered by the river system of the Vedavati.
Where this river leaves the Baba Budan Mountains, it is embanked
to form two extensive tanks, which irrigate the lower valley. One of
these tanks, four miles north-west of Sakraypatna, forms an expanse of
water seven miles in circumference, dotted with islands. From all
the rivers water is drawn off into irrigation channels by means of
anicuts or weirs. The valley lying beneath the amphitheatre formed
by the Baba Budan Hills is the most fertile portion of the District.
It commands an unfailing supply of water from the hill streams, and
the soil is the famous ' black cotton-soil'



Among mineral products, iron is largely obtained and smelted along
the foot of the hills, and corundum is found in certain localities, liut
I the chief natural wealth of Kadiir lies in its forests, which contain some
fine timber, and also furnish shelter for the coffee plantations. 'Ihc
highest mountains are precipitous, and bare of trees ; but the slopes
and the valleys are clothed with valuable timber, arranged in park-
like clumps, between which stretch glades of luxuriant grass. Teak is
abundant, especially in the Lakwalli tdluk^ and sandal-wood is also
found. About 78 square miles have been reserved as State forests,
and trees are planted in avenues along the public roads. The eastern

■ taluks, on the other hand, hardly possess sufficient food for fuel. In
the IMalnad, wild animals are numerous. Wild elephants are occa-
sionally seen, and bison abound. Beasts of prey include the tiger,

'leopard, and bear; and the shivanga or hunting leopard is found.
Wild hog are very destructive to the crops, especially to plantations
of sugar-cane. Deer and antelope are common. The flying squirrel,

! porcupine, and different varieties of the snake are everywhere met with.

I Fish are abundant in both rivers and tanks, and are caught by rod and

' line, by nets, and in long conical traps of bamboo. At certain sacred

! spots in the rivers they are fed daily by the priests, and are so tame as

' to rise to the surface at call.

History.— ka containing the hallowed sources of the Tungabhadra,
Kadiir District abounds with scenes associated with the legends of the
Rdmdyana. Sringeri or Rishya-sringa-giri, on the Tunga river, takes

' precedence of all other places in its claims to mythical antiquity. Here
it was that the sage Rishya-sringa was born without a natural mother,
by whose intervention alone could ' the horse sacrifice ' be celebrated
and Rama himself be brought into the world. Here also, in historical
times, was the home of Sankaracharya, the great Sivaite reformer of
the 8th century ; and here at the present day resides the jiV^at-guni
or supreme high priest of the Smarta Brahmans. The most ancient
sites connected with local history are the ruins of Ratnapuri and of

■ Saka-rava-patna, both of which are described as the capitals of powerful
\ kings before the rise of the Ballala dynasty. On the overthrow of the

Ballalas by the Muhammadans, the Vijayanagar Empire established
itself over all Southern India ; but in this region, as in other outlymg
tracts, the Government really fell into the hands of feudatory chiefs,
who asserted all the attributes of independence. The three leading
famihes in Kadiir were those of Karkala, Aigur, and Tarikere. Sub-
sequently the greater part of the District was overrun by the Ikkeri or
Bedmir palegdr from the neighbouring District of Hassan, who^ was
in his turn defeated in 1694 by the conquering Hindu Rajas of
It was not until 1763 that Haidar Ali finally incorporated the whole

284 KADUR,

country in the Mysore dominions. In 1799, after the death of Tipu,
Kadur was restored to the Hindu kingdom then set up by the Marquis
of Wellesley. But the memories of local independence were strong in
this remote and wild country, and the abuses of the Brahman officials
provoked a general discontent both among the Lingayats and the
general body of the cultivators. In 1 831, the people broke out into
open insurrection, and found a natural leader in the representative of
the old family of the Tarikere palegdrs, who was also joined by a large
number of Thugs or professional stranglers. The insurgents seized
upon several forts, and proved themselves too strong for the native
government. In the early months of 1831, the insurrection was sup-
pressed by a British force ; and the inquiry that followed led to the
assumption by the British of the direct administration of the entire
State of Mysore. Kadiir was formed into a separate District in
1863; and two years later, Chikmagalur was fixed upon as the civil'
station in place of Kadur town, though the District retains its original

Fopulatio7i. — In 1838, a report by Mr. Stokes estimated the popula-
tion of the District, which was then much smaller in extent, at i45»394
persons; and a khdjia-siwidri house enumeration in 1853-54 returned!
a total for the present area of 236,178. The regular Census of 1871
ascertained the number to be 333,925, showing a comparative increase
of 88 per cent, in the interval of thirty-three years, and of 41 per cent,
in the latter period of eighteen years, if the earlier estimates can be
trusted. The Census of 188 1 showed a total population for the District
of 328,327, or a decrease of 5598 since 1871. This decrease is due to
the mortahty caused by the famine of 1876-78. The area of the District
is 2984 square miles, showing, when compared with population, an
average of tig persons per square mile. Classified according to sex,
there are 169,668 males and 158,659 females ; proportion of males, 51
per cent. There are, under 15 years of age, 60,943 boys and 56,728
girls; total, 117,671, or 35-8 per cent, of the District population. Of the
1373 towns and villages in Kadur District in 1881, 837 contained less
than two hundred inhabitants; 385 from two to five hundred; 126
from five hundred to a thousand ; 1 7 from one to two thousand ; 5
from two to three thousand ; i from three to five thousand ; and 2
from five to ten thousand. The Census classifies the male population
according to occupation into the following six main groups : — (i) Pro-
fessional class, including State officials of every description and the
learned professions, 5354; (2) domestic servants, inn and lodging- 1
house keepers, 2260; (3) commercial class, including bankers, mer-j'
chants, carriers, etc., 4117 ; (4) agricultural and pastoral class, including j
gardeners, 86,688 ; (5) industrial class, including all manufacturers and 1
artisans, 6995; (6) indefinite and non-productive class, comprising j

general labourers, male children, and persons of unspecified occupation,

The rehgious division of the people shows :— Hindus, 313,290, or
95-4 per cent. ; Muhammadans, 13,789, or 4 per cent. ; Christians, 1245;
and 'others,' 3. The Brahmans number 16,004, almost exclusively
belonging to the Smarta sect of Hindus, whose head-quarters are at the
sacred village of Sringeri ; those claiming the rank of Kshattriya arc
returned at 518, including 453 Rajputs. Komatis, who form the bulk
of the trading castes, number 1252; agricultural castes, including
'21,649 Lingayats, are returned at 183,478. The Lingayats have
always been influential in this part of the country. Out-castes arc
returned at 62,020; wandering tribes, 13,506; non-Hindu aboriginal
castes and tribes, 62. The Musalmans, who muster strongest in the
taluk of Lakwalli, are almost exclusively of the Sunni sect: there are
only 307 Shias. Out of the total of 1245 Christians, 84 are Europeans
i (mostly residing on the coffee plantations), and 92 are Eurasians,
^leaving 1069 for the native converts. According to another princii)le
of classification, there are 182 Protestants and 1063 Roman Catholics.

The District contains 1373 primary iasali) populated towns and
;villages, with 60,883 occupied and 11,303 unoccupied houses. As
'compared with the area and the population, these figures yield the
following averages : — Villages per square mile, "46 ; houses per square
mile, 24*2 ; persons per village, 239 ; persons per occupied house, 5 "39.
The only towns in the District with more than 5000 inhabitants are
Chikmagalur and Tarikere. The latter was the residence of an
old line of palegdrs, of w^hom the last representative was executed for
rebelHon in 1834. Chikmagalur, the head-quarters of the District,
has 7088 inhabitants; Tarikere, 5266 ; Kadur, the old civil station,
2193. Other places of more or less importance in the District are
— Ajimpur, a cotton centre ; Ayyankere, with a magnificent reservoir ;
Banavar, a village in a taluk that was once a small Jain State, but since
1875 the head-quarters of Banavar taluk as enlarged by the addition of
Kadiir taluk; Birur, a centre for the areca-nut trade; Hariharpur ;
Hiremagaldr, a village in which stands a spear-headed stone pillar,
said to be efficacious in restoring any one bitten by a serpent ; Kalasa,
the vicinity of which produces the finest areca-nut in Mysore ; and
Koppa. The most interesting sites in the District are to be found on
the Baba Budan range of hills, where the primeval forest is now dotted
with trim coffee plantations. These hills derive their name from Baba
Budan, a Musalman saint, who is said to have first introduced the
coffee plant into India from Mecca. His tomb is guarded by a
Muhammadan custodian, and is placed in a cave associated with
Hindu legends. At Kalhatti, on the Baba Budan hills, is the hot-
weather retreat for the European officials from all the neighbourmg

286 KADUR,

Districts. The sacred village of Sringeri, on the Timga river, has
already been referred to.

Agriculture. — The staple food-crop of the District is rice, of which
fourteen different varieties are enumerated. It is principally grown on
the slopes of the Malnad or hill country, where the natural rainfall is
sufficient, and in the river valleys, where the fields can be irrigated from

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 7) → online text (page 34 of 57)