William Wilson Hunter.

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tanks and artificial canals. There are altogether 8740 tanks in the
District; and 115 anicuts or dams across the several rivers, irrigating
an area of 4928 acres, with a revenue of ^6128. The average rent
per acre for land suitable for rice is (1880-81) 8s.; for wheat, 4s.;
for cotton, 2s. ; for sugar-cane, 8s. The produce of land per acre in
1880-81 was— rice, 1143 lbs.; wheat, 1428 ; cotton, 280; sugar-cane,
1400. The principal 'dry' crop is ragi (Eleusine corocana), which is
preferred as food by the natives to rice as affording more sustenance.
The areca-nut palm flourishes in the moist and sheltered valleys through-
out the west.

But the main source of agricultural wealth in Kadur is derived from
coffee. The berry is locally stated to have been first introduced by
the Muhammadan saint, Baba Budan, about two centuries ago, who
planted it after his return from a pilgrimage to Mecca on the hills,
which are still the head-quarters of the cultivation. European capital
was not attracted to the enterprise until about 1840, but there are now
90,000 acres planted with coffee. The coffee zone extends over an
area of about 1000 square miles, and about one-tenth of this is excel-
lently adapted to the cultivation in respect of soil, aspect, and shade.
The statistics for 1875 show a total of 12,376 plantations, owned by 22
Europeans and 4760 natives, with about forty -four million plants.
Most native cultivators in this tract possess a few coffee plants at the
back of their houses. The returns for 1883 show a total of 23,090
plantations, covering an area of 139,707 acres, yielding approximately
4,955,076 lbs., or 2212 tons of the berry, valued at about ^149,140.
The plantations owned by Europeans numbered 486, covering 41,237
acres, yielding approximately 2,279,540 lbs., or 1018 tons, valued
at ^75,092. Those owned by the natives numbered 22,604,
covering 98,470 acres, yielding 2,675,536 lbs., or 1194 tons, valued at
;z{^74,o48. The Mysore Government has recently abolished the halat^ '\
or tax on coffee, and levies instead from the planters a light land-
tax varying from is. 8d. to 2s. 6d. an acre. This measure, while
securing a fair revenue to Government, has conferred on the planters a
better tenure, and induced an improvement of their estates.

Several attempts have been made to introduce the tea plant, but
hitherto without success. Efforts to extend the growth of mulberry
and of foreign cotton have been equally unsuccessful. The carda-
mom grows wild in the Malnad, and its systematic cultivation has



L



KADUR.



287



recently been undertaken by coffee planters. There is a Government
plantation of cinchona (the quinine plant) at Kalhatti, on the Baba
Budan Hills.

The following agricultural statistics are approximate:— Out of the total
area of 2984 square miles in 1880-81, 614 square miles were returned
as under cultivation, and 376 more as cultivable. There were (1875)
under rice, 42,646 acres ; wheat, 2500; other food-grains, 70,000; oil-
seeds, 3000 ; sugar-cane, 443 ; cotton, 300 ; tobacco, 6500 ; cocoa-nut
and areca-nut, 7800; coffee, 60,000; tea, 2. The agricultural stock
consisted of 5924 carts and 45woo ploughs. The cattle of the District
are generally small and of an inferior breed. The climate of the Malnad
or hill country is very fatal to them, and buffaloes are bred on the
plains to be imported into that tract. The returns show a total of
281,963 cows and bullocks, and 86,205 •'^l^eep and goats. No later
agricultural returns than those quoted are available.

Manufactures, etc. — The chief articles of local manufacture are coarse
cotton cloth, kainblis or rough blankets, oil and oil-cake. Jaggery is
also largely made from sugar-cane in certain tracts, and there is a con-
siderable production of iron. Arrack and other spirituous liquors are
distilled. A certain amount of catechu or Terra japonica is made, and
a little salt. The returns of manufacturing stock show 2000 weaving
looms and 115 oil-mills.

The statistics of trade appear to be more accurately kept than in
other Districts of Mysore. The total of the annual exports was (1876)
valued at p^^" 2 9 7,000, chiefly destined for Davangere and Bangalore;
the imports were valued at ;^2 17,000, of which the greater part came
from Bangalore and Hassan. The external trade passes by 31 recog-
nised kanaves or passes, the most frequented being those of Biranhalli
and Jodikatte for wheeled carts, and Tallagudde and Talmakki for
pack-bullocks. A considerable proportion of commodities is still con-
veyed on the heads of coolies. The interchange of goods between the
highlands and lowlands of the District is very brisk. It is estimated
that ^124,800 worth of dry grain, fine rice, piece-goods, kambiis, etc.
annually passes along five kanaves leading from the Maidan into the
Malnad; and that ^230,000 worth of paddy, areca-nut, cardamoms,
pepper, coftee, etc. is carried in the reverse direction. Statistics for
1880 estimate the value of the manufactures at ^77,617. The largest
weekly markets are held at the towns of Chikmagaliir, Birur, and
Tarikere, and at the village of Koppa; the most frequented annual fair
is connected with the Nava-ratri at Sringeri. The most numerously
attended religious festivals are the following: — Sringeri, Pura, Antar-
gatte, Karahalli, and Hoshalli. The total length of State roads in the
District is 245 miles, maintained at an annual cost of ^£"4005 ; of
District roads, 348 miles, costing ^1820.



2 88 KADUR TALUK.

Admi?iistra/wn.—lr\ 18S0-81, the total revenue of Kadiir District
amounted to £u,S^Z- The chief items were— land revenue, ^69,167 ;
sdyar or customs, ^20,806 ; dbkdri or excise, £62 4^]. The District
is divided into 6 taluks or fiscal divisions, which have, however,
recently undergone alteration. In 1870-71, the total number of
estates on the register was 62,462. During 1880, the average daily
l^rison population of the District jail was 3079, and of the tdhik lock-
ups, 3; total, 3379, of whom i"88 were women. In the same year,
the District police numbered 50 officers and 525 men, and the muni-
cipal police 2 officers and 15 men ; total, 592 men of all ranks, main-
tained at an aggregate cost of ^62 71. These figures show i policeman
to every 5 square miles of existing area or to every 554 persons of the
present population, the cost being £2, 2s. 3d. per square mile. The
number of schools aided and inspected by Government in 1874 was
176, attended by 3027 pupils, being i school to every i6"9 square
miles of the present area, and i pupil to every thousand of the popula-
tion. In addition, there were, in 1874, 121 unaided schools, with 1235
pupils.

Medical Aspects. — Kadiir District offers a great variety of climate.
At the station of Chikmagaliir, the mean annual temperature is 78° F. ;
during 1880, the maximum recorded was 99° in May, the hottest
month of the year; the minimum was 56*6°. The heat in Kadiir
would often be excessive, if it were not for the breezes that blow
from the mountains on the west and the north. The east winds, on
the other hand, exercise an unhealthy influence, and it has been found
necessary to shelter the town with a wide belt of trees. In the Malnad
the temperature falls much lower, and the cold at night about Christmas-
time is very sharp. The rainfall of the District is variable, owing to
the same geographical causes. The average at Chikmagaliir during the
twelve years ending 1881 was only 32-83 inches; whereas at certain
coffee plantations in the Malnad from 100 to 170 inches have been
registered in a single year.

In the Malnad, malarious or jungle fevers are always prevalent at
certain seasons of the year, from which neither Europeans nor natives
are exemj^t. In the plains, the violent east winds are dreaded as pro-
moting disease. The vital statistics are far from trustworthy ; but it
may be mentioned that, out of the total of 6357 deaths reported in
1880, 4187 wore assigned to fevers, 828 to bowel complaints, 19 to
small-pox, and 18 to snake-bite and wild beasts. In 1880, the dis-
l)cnsary at Chikmagaliir was attended by 216 in-patients, of whom 22
died ; the out-i)atients numbered 6984. There are also dispensaries at
Kadw and Hariharpur.

Kadiir.— Once a tdluk in Kadiir District, IMysore State, Southern
India, but now absorbed into Bandvar. The tdluk contained i criminal



KAD UR—KAFJRISTAN. 289

court and 6 police stations (thdnds) ; regular police, 71 men; village
watchmen {chaukiddrs), 391. Land revenue demand (1883-84),

Kadlir {^ Elk Toivn'). — Village in Kadiir District, Mysore State,
Southern India. Lat. 13° 33' n., long. 76° 2 45" e. Population (1881)
2193; situate 15 miles north-west of Chikmagalur on the Bangalore-
Shimoga road. Inscriptions and other monuments show that there
was a settlement of Jains here in the loth century. Subsequendy a fort
was built by a local chieftain. In 1863, the District of Kadiir was
formed, and two years afterwards the head-quarters were removed from
Kadlir to Chikmagalur, Till 1875 the head-quarters of Kadiir idhik^
now absorbed into Banavar tdliik.

Kafara. — Town in Kheri District, Oudh ; situated east of the
Dahraura river, on the high bank of an ancient channel of the stream.
Soil very fertile and drainage good. Population (1869) 2467 ; in 1881,
4031, of whom 3573 were Hindus and 458 Muhammadans. Land
revenue, ^341.

Kafiristan. — Tract of country lying between the north-western
frontier of India and the Hindu Kiish Mountains. On the west the
country of the Kafirs is bordered by Afghanistan, the boundary line
being the Alishang river ; on the east the line of the Kunar river may
be taken as the limit. Several descriptions of the tract and its people
have been published ; and writers like Elphinstone, Burnes, Masson,
Raverty, and Lumsden give highly-coloured accounts, based on the
tales of Muhammadan tribesmen who occupy the adjoining region.
But, as a matter of fact, the country is particularly difficult of access
to Muhammadans, for no Kafir is in his own neighbourhood
thought to be of any consideration unless he has managed during
his life to slay at least one follower of Islam ; and until 1883 no
European had penetrated Kafiristan. Consequently the statements of
Orientals concerning the Siahposh, who inhabit Kafiristan, have to
be accepted for the various theories and descriptions current about a
people always regarded by Europeans in a light more or less curious
and mysterious.

Some writers assign the origin of the Siahposh Kafirs to an Arab
tribe whose customs closely correspond to those of the Gabars of
Persia. Others have wildly conjectured them to be the descendants of
the Greek soldiers of Alexander, who were left behind in the country.
Lumsden believes them to be aborigines of the Indian plains driven to
the mountains they inhabit, as refugees before Moslem fanaticism. The
Kafir dialect, however, is said to have no affinity with either Arabic,
Persian, or Turki, but to be allied to Sanskrit; and for this reason among
others later writers think it probable that the Kafirs have no single
genealogical descent or well-defined tribal divisions like the Arabs or

VOL. VII. T



2 90 KAFIR] STAN,

the Afghans, but are valley communities, topographical rather than
ethnographical in their origin.

Masson mentions the following names of villages : — Kattar, Gambir,
Delhulz, Arans, Ishurma, Amisoz, Pundit, and Waigal. He makes no
attempt to estimate the total population ; but he is probably right in
giving the numbers of the village populations as ranging between one
and six thousand. An estimate, however, was roughly made in 1883.
In April of that year, Mr. W. W. M'Nair, of the Indian Survey Depart-
ment, paid a visit of two months' duration to the country, and he sets
down the total number of the people at 600,000. Mr. M'Nair is believed
to be the first European who has succeeded in penetrating the region.

The character and appearance of the Siahposh Kafirs have been
variously delineated, and particulars more or less reliable as to their
daily habits and modes of life are available. The general idea about
the Siahposh, and probably a correct one, is that they are a hardy,
strong, and daring race of mountaineers, rather undersized as are most
hillmen, extremely lazy, fond of pleasure, and constant wine-drinkers.
Lumsden, who knew the Kafir general Faramosh Khan, at Kandahar,
and who came into contact with several Kafirs who had been kidnapped
and were slaves in the houses of Afghan chiefs, says ' the Kafirs
are physically athletic, powerful men, leading an indolent, jovial life.'
Raverty on hearsay assigns to them a European cast of feature, blue as
well as dark eyes, and the lighter shades of hair ; and to the females
exceptional beauty and intelligence. Wood remarked that the Kafirs,
unlike all other Eastern races, are unable to sit cross-legged on the
ground, and prefer a chair, such as are seen in the Laghmani dwellings,
or indeed any form of support. Many travellers appear to have had an
impression that the Kafir presented some of the characteristics of the
Saxon type. The impression is not borne out by experience ; and Dr.
Trumpp describes three Kafirs sent to him by Colonel Lumsden for :
enlistment in the Guide Corps, as in no material way differing from the
natives of the Upper Provinces of India. Their faces. Dr. Trumpp 1
admits, were more reddish, but that he attributes to the great quantity
of wine they were in the habit of consuming. Being asked as to what j
they wished to eat and drink, they returned the answer * a inassak of '
wine a day.' A inassak of wine would be equivalent to about six English [
gallons. j

Mr. M'Nair describes the people of Kafiristan as of good appear-
ance and brave, but leaving all agricultural work in the orchards
which everywhere abound, to the women of the tribe. They are, I
Mr. M'Nair says, passionately fond of dancing, and most of their j
evenings are spent in this amusement. Mr. M'Nair adds: — 'Itj
is purely owing to their having no blood-feuds among themselves \
that they hold their own against the Muhammadans, who hem them in |



KAFIRISTAN.



291



on all sides, and with whom they are always fighting. Towards the
British they are exceedingly well disposed. Slavery exists to a certain
extent among them, but the trade in slaves would soon die out if human
flesh were not so saleable at Jalalabad, Kunar, Asmar, and Chitral.
Polygamy is rare ; mild corporal punishment is inflicted on a wife for
adultery, while the male offender is fined so many heads of cattle.
The dead are coffined, but never buried. One Supreme Being — Imbra
— is universally acknowledged. Priests preside at their temples, in
which sacred stones are set up, but to neither priests nor idols is exces-
sive reverence paid. In evil spirits, authors of ill-luck, the Kafirs firmly
believe. Their arms are bows and arrows ; a few matchlocks have
found their way among them from Kabul, but no attempts have
been made to imitate them. Wealth is reckoned by heads of cattle.
There are 18 chiefs in all, chosen for bravery mainly, but with some
regard to hereditary claims.'

Among the ordinary and extraordinary customs pertaining to the
Siahposh Kafirs, and selected now at random from the writings of earlier
authors, are the following : —

The Kafirs hold themselves to be firmly bound by an oath. Before
breaking a truce, a brace of bullets, or an arrow, is sent as a significant
hint of future intentions. When a guest has crossed the threshold
of a Kafir's house, the master of the house alone has the privilege
of waiting on him ; should another inhabitant entice away the stranger
a deadly feud will probably ensue. Women go uncovered, and wander
where they will : they are not allowed to eat at the same table
with the men. Special buildings are set apart in every village for the
lying-in of women. Enmities constantly arise among the Kafirs, but
the most bitter quarrel may be settled by one of the parties kissing the
nipple of his antagonist's breast as being typical of drinking of the milk
of friendship ; the other party to the quarrel kisses the suitor on the
head, and an everlasting friendship is entered into. It is said that Kafirs
do not sell their children to Muhammadans, but that when in distress
they may sell their servant or the child of a neighbour kidnapped for
the purpose. Major Biddulph, on the other hand, alleges that sale is
frequent, and that the Chitral ruler annually receives a tribute of children
of both sexes. When a Kafir crusade against the adjacent Muham-
madans is decided upon, no individual of the expeditionary party either
sleeps or eats in his own dwelling, but in whatever other house he
happens to be until all the plans of the raid are matured. When the
party arrives at the scene where the work is to be done, they separate
into companies of two and three, and wait in ambush for the object of
attack. When evening falls, they reunite and tell the exploits of the
day. Moslem reprisals consist of incursions into the Kafiristan valleys
for the purpose of kidnapping the inhabitants.



292 KAFIRKOT—KAGAL.

Bread is the staple article of food ; made of wheat, barley, and millet,
ground in a handmill, and converted into cakes or bannocks by being
kneaded and then baked on an iron dish suspended over a fire. Cattle
are slaughtered by severing the head at one blow from the neck.
Should more blows of the long, sharp knife be necessary, the carcase is
considered impure, and is handed over to the Pariah caste of Ban's.
Two kinds of Kafir wine are drunk, coloured according to the hue
of the grape from which they are pressed. None but children are
permitted to touch the vines before a certain season. When the proper
period arrives, the entire population set to work to secure the vintage.
The Emperor Babar notes that, 'so prevalent is the use of wine among
them, that every Kafir has a "khig" or leathern bottle of wine about
his neck.' ' They drink wine,' Babar adds, * instead of water.'

No complete investigation has been made by any European of the
country of the Kafirs. The safest way of entering their territory is to
obtain beforehand the promise of some Kafir as security. If this pre-
caution be adopted, the stranger may travel without apprehension;
otherwise he is almost certain to be attacked. Pedlars, passed into the
country by one of the Kafir inhabitants, make annual visits to the
Siahposh valleys, distributing the merchandise which they have purchased
in Peshawar. ^

Kafirkot— Ruins in Dera Ismail Khan District, Punjab. Lat. 32
30' 15" N., long. 71' 22' 45" E. Those known as Til Kafirkot or Raja-
sir-kot are situated a few miles to the south of the point where the
Kuram river joins the Indus, upon a spur of the Khisor Hills, and
consist of immense blocks of smoothly chiselled stone, with remains
of Hindu temples or sanctuaries. The carvings represent idols and
other designs, and retain their freshness to a considerable degree.
The ruin specially known as Kafirkot lies on the left bank of the
Indus, and is similar in character to the others, but smaller and less
perfectly preserved. For full details, see General Cunningham's
ArchcBological Survey Report, vol. xiv. p. 254.

Kagal.— Native State, subordinate to Kolhapur, under the South
Maratha Political Agency, Bombay Presidency. Watered by the
Dudhganga and Vedganga rivers. Area, 129 square miles. Population
(1881) 49,064. Annual gross revenue, ^21,196. Pays a yearly tribute
of ^200 to Kolhapur, of which it is one of the most important
feudatories. The present chief (1882), Jaya Singh Rao, Ghatge
Sarjarao Wazarat Maab, a Hindu of the Maratha caste, is grandson
])y adoption of Hindu Rao, who held a leading position at Gwalior
eighty years ago, and whose father (Sakharam Rao), by means of his
influence at the court of Sindhia, acquired in 1800 a grant of Kagal
from the Kolhapur chief. He administers his own estate, and has
been made Regent of Kolhdpur, with a salute of 9 guns, so long as he



KAGAL—KAHLUR. 293

holds that office. His fiimily has no sanad authorizing adoption ;
succession follows the rule of primogeniture. Retinue, 41 armed
police and militia ; schools, 10, with (1882) 697 pupils.

Kagal. — Chief town of Kagal State, Kolhapur, Bombay Presidency.
Lat. 16° 34' N., long. 74° 20' 30" E. ; 10 miles south-east of Kolhapur.
Population (188 1 ) 6371, namely, Hindus, 5414; Muhammadans, 588;
Jains, -^^GZ ; ' others,' i.

Kagan. — Mountain valley in Hazara District, Punjab, penetrating
far into the heart of the Himalayan system, and surrounded by Kashmir
territory on every side except the south. Area, 800 square miles ;
60 miles in length, with an average breadth of 15 miles. Lofty ranges
shut it in on either hand, their summits rising to a height of nearly
17,000 feet. Transverse spurs intersect the interior; and a thin popu-
lation inhabit the glen. The Kagan range comprises 22 rak/is or forest
and grazing reserves, with an area varying from 116 acres to 8776 acres,
the total area of which is 87,487 acres, or 89*8 square miles. Total
area of reserved and unreserved forest, 457 square miles. The rights
of cutting grass and grazing cattle are let out annually. The Govern-
ment Forest Department only fells timber, which is launched into the
river Kunhar, caught at the different timber depots, and rafted to
Jehlam, where it is sold by the Department. Through a narrow
central gorge the river Kunhar forces its way to join the Jehlam
(Jhelum), after draining the entire valley. The Kagan valley forms
the northernmost extension of British India, and stretches like an
intrusive arm far up into the mountain region. Its open mouth turns
towards the main body of Hazara District and the Murree (Marri)
Hills. The inhabitants consist almost entirely of Muhammadan
Swatis and Gujars. Kagan village is situated in lat. 34" 46' 45" n.,

long- 75° 34 15" e.

Kahan (or Ga/ian). — River or torrent in Jehlam (Jhelum) District,
Punjab ; rises in the Salt Range, on the southern side of its northern
spur, and, running nearly due east, passes through the southern or Tilla
spur near Rohtas, falling into the Jehlam about 2 miles above Jehlam city.

Kahlgaon. — Tow^n in Bhagalpur District, Bengal. — See Colgong.

Kahllir (Bildspur). — One of the Simla Hill States under the political
superintendence of the Punjab Government, lying between 31° 12' 30"
and 31° 35' 45" N. lat., and between 76° 26' and 76° 58' e. long. Area
448 square miles, with 1073 villages and 9626 houses; number of
families, 18,600. Total population (1881) 86,546, namely, males
47^133) and females 39,413 ; average density, 189 persons per square
mile. Hindus number 85,280; Muhammadans, 1263; and Sikhs, 3.
The Gurkhas, who had overrun the country at the beginning of the
present century, were driven out by the British in 181 5, and the
Raja was reinstated in his possessions of Bilaspur. In 1847-48, when



294 KAHNUWAN—KAHROR.

the Punjab was conquered, the Raja was confirmed in possession
of the territory of Kahlur, including part of a tract on the right
bank of the Sutlej (Satlaj), which he had previously held on terms
of allegiance and payment of tribute to the Sikhs. The British
Government waved its right to tribute, but required the Raja to
abolish transit duties in his dominions. Subsequently, about 1865, the
pargand of Basse Bachertu was given up to the Raja, on condition of
an annual payment of ^800 to the British Government. In acknow-
ledgment of his services during the Mutiny, the Raja received a dress
of honour of the value of ^500, and a salute of 7 guns, since increased
to II guns. Raja Hira Chand, a Rajput by caste, was born about
1835, and after a reign of 32 years, died in October 1882, on his way
back to his own territory after a visit to Simla. He was succeeded by
his son Amar Chand, the present Raja (1883). Revenue about
;^'86oo. Principal products — grain, opium, and ginger. Sentences of
death passed by the Raja require the confirmation of the Superintendent
of the Hill States ; other punishments are awarded by the Raja on his
own authority.

Kahnuwan. — Swampy lake {jhil) in Gurdaspur tahsil., Gurdaspur
District, Punjab ; lying south-east of Gurdaspur town, below the high
bank of the Beas (Bias), and evidently marking an ancient course of
that river. It is 9 miles in length, by 2000 feet in width ; depth from
12 to 20 feet in the deepest parts. In the centre stands a pavilion,
erected by Maharaja Sher Singh. Rice and singhdra, or water nut
(Trapa bispinosa), are cultivated in the shallows. A dam, 13 miles in



Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 7) → online text (page 35 of 57)