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length, erected to prevent flooding, has saved large portions of the \
surrounding country from inundation. Steps have been taken with I
success for draining the swampy area, by which iioo acres of marsh j
land have already been reclaimed, and the process still continues at I
the rate of about 150 acres yearly. The lake formerly swelled to much j
larger dimensions, but the dam now confines the water of the Beas to
a narrower bed. [

Kahror {Karor). — Town and municipahty in Mailsi fahsil, Multan :
(Mooltan) District, Punjab. Lat. 29° 37' n., long. 71° 57' 41" E.
Situated on an old bed of the Beas (Bias), known as the Bhatiari 7idla,
about 8 miles from the present right bank of the Sutlej (Satlaj).
Ancient town, the legendary scene of Vikramaditya's victory over the
Saka or Scythian invaders in the ist century B.C. Captured by Chach
after the fall of Multan in the 7th century. Population (1868) 5069;
in 1881, 4804, namely, Hindus, 2967; Muhammadans, 1832; and
Sikhs, 5 : number of houses, 848. Municipal income (1881-82),
;£"358, nearly all derived from octroi duties ; average incidence of
taxation, is. 6d. per head. The town, which is built on an undulating
site, consis's chiefly of brick houses. Kahror is the commercial centre



KABUTA—KAILANG. 295

of the southern half of Multan District, and has a fine broad bazar
running east and west. It contains two schools, police station,
dispensary, and rest-house.

Kahuta. — Eastern tahsil of Rawal Pindi District, Punjab, lying
between 33° 19' and 33° 47' n. lat., and between 73° 18' and 73° 41'
E. long. ; partly in the tract known as the Murree (Marri) Hills. The
Narh Mountain, rising to a height of 6000 feet, is situated in the
north-east corner of the tahsii. The northern and eastern tracts are
mountainous, the remainder resembles the plain iahsils in character.
Area, 434 square miles. Population (1881) 87,210, namely, males
46,188, and females 41,022 ; average density of population, 201
persons per square mile. Classified according to religion, Muham-
madans numbered 77,563; Hindus, 6201; Sikhs, 3364; and 'others,'
82. Number of houses, 13,622; families, 21,308. Of the 226 villages
in the tahsil, 185 contain less than five hundred inhabitants; 24 from
five hundred to a thousand; 12 from one to two thousand; and 5
from two to five thousand. The average annual area under the
principal crops for the five years ending 1881-82 is returned as
follows: — Wheat, 24,194 acres; bdjra, i9j945 acres; Indian corn,
10,945 acres; moth, 3499 acres; barley, 2064 acres; and cotton, 3209
acres. The revenue of the tahsil in 1882-83 was ^6896. The
administrative staff consists of a tahsilddr and a miinsif, who preside
over I criminal and 2 civil courts. Number of police circles {thdnds),
2 ; strength of regular police, 606 men ; rural police or village watch-
men {chaukiddrs), 1057.

Kaidala {'The Restored Hand').— '^iWd.go. in Tiimkiir District, Mysore
State, Southern India ; situated 3 miles south of Tiimkiir town. Lat.
13° 18' N., long. 77° 8' E. Population (1881) 454. Said to have been
formerly called Kridapura, and the capital of a powerful State; also
regarded as the birthplace of Jakanachari, the great architect and
sculptor, to whom all the temple carving in Mysore is attributed. The
two temples at Kaidala, now in ruins, belong to the period of the
Ballala dynasty (loth to 14th centuries). Tradition relates that
Jakanachari, on being informed that there was a defect in one of the
images of the Chennakesava temple in course of construction at Beliir,
vowed to cut off his right hand should any blemish be found. A
cavity was discovered, and he kept his vovv. Subsequently he was
directed in a vision to dedicate a temple to the god Kesava in
Kridapura, his native place. No sooner w^as this temple completed
than his hand was restored, and in commemoration of this incident
the village has ever since been called Kaidala.

Kail.— Ancient port in Tinnevelli District, ^Madras Presidency. — See
Kayal.

Kailang {Kllang, Kyelang), — Village in the Lahul Sub-division of



296 KAILAS—KAIMGANJ,

Kangra District, Punjab ; situated in lat 32° 34' 15" n., and long. 77° 4'
E., on the main trade route between the Rohtang and Bara Lacha Passes,
on the right bank of the river Bhaga, about 4 miles above its junction
with the Chandra. A station of the Moravian Mission has been
established in the village for several years past, and a post-office is
maintained during the summer months. A Government school was
formerly managed by the missionaries, but they have now entirely
ceased their connection with it, in consequence of the hostile feeling
which it excited in the minds of the natives.

Kailas. — A sacred mountain of the Hindus in the inner Himalayas,
near the source of the Indus and Sutlej, beyond British territory.
Height, 20,226 feet. Kailas lies to the north-west of the Manasarowar
Lake in Tibet, and is famous in Sanskrit literature as Siva's paradise.
Its distance, however, prevents it from being largely resorted to by
pilgrims ; although it is still a favourite retreat of Hindu hermits, who
like to end their days on Kailas. — See article Manasarowar.

Kailashahr.— Sub-division of Hill Tipperah State, Bengal. Popula-
tion (1881) 22,238, namely, males 12,060, and females 10,178. Hindus
number 3452; Muhammadans, 4348; Christians, 3; and aboriginal
tribes, 14,435.

Kailashahr. — Town and head-quarters of Kailashahr Sub-division,
in Hill Tipperah State, Bengal. Prettily situated at the foot of a low
range of hills, in lat. 24° 19' \o" n., long. 92° 2' 15" e. The town
contains a magistrate's and munsifs court, jail, hdzdr^ dispensary, and
school. A military guard is stationed at Cherakuti, two miles from the
town.

Kailwara. — Town in the Native State of Udaipiir (Oodeypore),
Rajputana. Kailwara lies in the heart of the Aravalli mountains,
once the great refuge of the Rajputs, and is situated below the hill
fort of Kumalgarh, on the western frontier of the State. It was
to Kailwara that Rana Ajeysi, the survivor of the twelve Rajput
princes, eleven of whom sacrificed themselves to save the royal line of
Chittur, is said to have escaped when the Pathan Ala-ud-din sacked
that city.

Kaimahra. — Village in Kheri District, Oudh ; situated on the road
from Lakhimpur via Muhamdi to Shahjahanpur, about \\ mile east of
the Jamwari river, and surrounded on all sides by groves of mango
trees. The property of the Kaimahra tdlukddr, and the head-quarters
of his estate. Population (1881) 1569, namely, Hindus, 1293, and
Muhammadans, 276. Land revenue, ^132. Large artificial tank, 4
Hindu temples, and 10 mosques. Four sugar manufactories, good
market, and vernacular school.

Kaimganj.— North-western ta/isil of Farukhabad District, North-
western Provinces, lying along the southern bank of the Ganges, and



KAIMGANJ. 697

comprising the pargajids of Kampil and Shamsabad west. The tahsil
is divided into an ui)land {bdngar) and a lowland {tardi) tract. The
first and largest division consists of a plateau occupying the whole area
west and south of the old Ganges cliff, and watered by the Bagar river.
On either bank of the stream stretches a wide expanse of sandy land
{bhur\ showing \n parga?id Kampil some of the worst soil of its class in
the District. North of this tract is a belt of fine yellowish loam, tilled
by Kurmis, and famous for its sugar-cane cultivation, and its numerous
and durable unbricked wells. South of the sandy tract extends a
l)0orer loam, interspersed with saline plains, containing much uncultiv-
able soil, dhdk jungle, and many lagoons and flooded spaces of rice
land {jhabar). The lowlands, which skirt the present course of the
Ganges, occupy nearly half of the whole tahsil^ and consist of a flat
alluvial tract, long since deserted by the Ganges, and liable to inunda-
tions from channels of the river. The belt of land skirting the river
itself, some miles in breadth, is subject to almost yearly floods, and
bears as a rule only a spring crop. An autumn crop is indeed sown,
on the chance of the year being a dry one ; but the floods usually
sweep from the fields all hope of an autumn harvest. This tract
is succeeded by a sandy and comparatively sterile belt, beyond which,
below the cliff marking the old bank of the Ganges, runs a belt
of fine loam about half a mile in breadth. The principal crops are
wheat, barley, gram, jodr^ bdjra, sugar-cane, and cotton. Area of the
tahsil^ 371 square miles, of which about 240 square miles are returned
as under cultivation. The population of the tahsil, in common with
that of the District as a whole {see Farukhabad District), has
decreased of late years from 182,873 in 1872, to 167,156 in 1881.
In the latter year, the males numbered 88,779, ^^<^ ^^^^ females
78,377. Hindus numbered 144,011; Muhammadans, 22,998; Jains,
136; and 'others,' 11. Land revenue, ;2{^2i,964; total Government
revenue, ^25,464 ; rental paid by cultivators, ^39,962. The tahsil
contains i civil and i criminal court, with 4 police circles {thdnds)\
strength of regular police, 42 men ; besides 444 village watchmen
{chaukiddrs).

Kaimganj. — Town in Kampil pargand, Farukhabad District, North-
Western Provinces, and head-quarters of Kaimganj tahsil. Situated in
lat. 27° 33' 10" N., and long. 79° 23' 45" e., on the high cliff which
marks the former bed of the Ganges, about a mile south of the
Burhganga river. It is the terminus of a metalled road from Fatehgarh,
the head-quarters of the District, 22 miles to the south-east. Kaimganj
is a long and narrow town, consisting chiefly of one wide metalled bdzdr,
measuring about a mile from east to west, from which branch many
narrow unmetalled lanes. It was founded in 17 13 by Muhammad,
the first Nawab of Farukhabad, who named it after his son Kaim. It



298 KAIMUR—KAIRA.

has always been a stronghold of Pathans. Many Pathans hold small
plots of land around the town, while other Pathan townsmen have taken
military service under the British Government, or in Native States.
During the Mutiny in 1858, the tahsili wvi^ ineffectually besieged for a
short time by a band of fugitive insurgents from Kalpi, The popula-
tion of the town, which was 8650 in 1865, had risen to 10,323 in 1872,
and to 10,443 in 1881. In the latter year, Hindus numbered 6763;
Muhammadans, 3546; Jains, 124; and Christians, 10. Area of town
site, 578 acres. For police and conservancy purposes, a house-tax
realized ;£'2 23 in 1878-79. Fields yielding three crops annually
extend up to the very walls of the houses, and Kaimganj is noted for
its mangoes, tobacco, and potatoes. It is also a prosperous com-
mercial town, and has superseded Shamsdbad as the chief place of
trade on the road from Farukhabad to Budaun. Several kinds of cloth
are manufactured, one for turbans, another for the fine apparel of
women, and a third for stronger and coarser garments. The profession
and habits of its Pathan population fostered in former times a manu-
facture of swords and matchlocks, which has now dwindled down
to a trade in ordinary knives and betel-nut cutters. Besides the
ordinary tahsili courts and offices, the town contains a first-class police
station, imperial post-office, English school, dispensary, sardi (native
inn), and public garden.

Kaimur. — The eastern but detached portions of the Vindhyan
range, commencing near Katangi in Jabalpur (Jubbulpore) District
of the Central Provinces, and running through the State of Rewa and
Shahabad District of Bengal, dividing the valley of the Tons from that
of the Son (Soane). In the Central Provinces, this range almost
disappears in places, and never attains many hundred feet above
the plain ; but in Shahabad District it rises precipitously to a height
of about 1500 feet above sea-level, the summit forming a long table-
land, with a series of saucer-shaped valleys, each a few miles in
diameter, containing a deposit of rich vegetable mould in the centre,
and producing the finest crops. The formation is primitive sand-
stone, intermixed with schistose limestone. The ruined fortress of
Rohtas is situated on these hills. Several ghats or passes lead to
the summit, some of which are practicable for beasts of burden.
The Kaimur range commences in lat. 24° 31' 30" N., and long. 83
24' E., within the Central Provinces, and occupies more or less con-
tinuously the great hilly area which extends from that point to lat.
25° N., and long. 84° 3' 30" e., within the Lieutenant-Governorship of
Bengal.

Kaira {Kheda). — District in the Northern Division of Gujarat
(Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. Lies between 22° 26' and 23° 6' n. lat.,
and between 72° 33' and 73° 21' e. long. Bounded on the north by



KAIRA. 299

Ahmadabad District, Mahi Kantba, and the small State of Balasinor
in the District of Rewa Kantha ; on the west by Ahmadabad District
and the Native State of Cambay ; on the south and east by the river
Mahi and the Gaekwar's territory (Baroda). The breadth of the
District varies from 25 to 40 miles. Area, 1609 square miles;
population (1881) 804,800 persons.

Physical Aspects. — Excepting a small corner of hilly ground near
its northern boundary, and in the south-east and south, where the land
along the Mahi is furrowed into deep ravines, the District of Kaira
forms one unbroken plain sloping gently towards the south-west. The
north and north-east portions are dotted with patches of rich rice land,
broken by untilled tracts of low brushwood. The centre of the District,
called the charotar or goodly land, is very fertile and highly cultivated ;
the luxuriant fields are surrounded by high-growing hedges, and the
whole country is clothed with clusters of large shapely trees. West-
wards, this belt of rich vegetation passes into a bare though well-
cultivated tract of rice land, growing more barren and open to the
south till it reaches the maritime belt, whitened by a salt-like crust, on
the Gulf of Cambay.

Rivers. — The Mahi, the largest river of Kaira, and the third in im-
portance of the Gujarat rivers, flows for nearly a hundred miles along the
east, south-east, and south boundary of the District. Its deeply cut bed,
sandbanks, and scanty summer channel, unlit it for either irrigation or
navigation. This river is specially sacred to the Kolis, who believe that
no guilty person can succeed in swallowing its waters. Its banks were
formerly inhabited by predatory tribes, and there is a Koli saying
that ' when the Mahi is crossed, there is safety.' One hundred miles
of the course of the Mahi lie within or border on Kaira District.
This hundred miles may be divided into three sections, first a stretch
of forty miles over a rough and rocky bed, then ten miles of a still
stream with a sandy bed, and forty-live miles of a tidal river.
The fords in the District are at Kavi, Dehvan, Gajna, Khanpur,
and Ometa. At Verakhandi, the limit of the flow of the tidal
wave, the bed is in the dry season 500 yards wide, the stream 120
yards, and the average depth \\ feet. A small 'bore' rises in the
estuary at springs and dashes iiself on the Dehvan. The Sabarmati,
the fourth largest river in Gujarat, flows for 14 miles along the
western boundary, and is much used for irrigation. The Shedhi, being
charged with soda, is not adapted for irrigation. The Khari, one
of five smaller streams, waters a large area by means of canals and
sluices, but fails at the end of the rice season, that is to say, about
November. Except in two small tracts in the north-east and south-
west of the District, where the land is saturated with salt, the supply
from wells, reservoirs, and rivers is plentiful. Number of wells in



3 DO KAIRA.

1876, 9341; water-lifts, 531; ponds, 4600; besides 9 canals and
dams.

Minerals.— \roxi-oxQ was at one time worked in the neighbourhood
of Kapadwanj. In the bed of the Majam river, about 15 miles from
Kapadwanj, are found varieties of agate and moss stone. The bed of
the Mahi contains masses and boulders of trap ; while on its upper
portion, on the Balasinor frontier, rock is plentiful, including trap, with
occasional limestone, quartz, and granite. At Lasundra, about 24 miles
from the Nariad railway station, and about 12 miles from the Dakor
railway station, springs of hot water rise to the surface in ten or twelve
cisterns, the hottest having a temperature of 115° F. The water,
slightly sulphurous, is thought to be useful for the cure of skin diseases.
The place is held sacred by the Hindus, and is called Ram Kshetra, as
Ramchandra, the hero of the Rdmdya?ia, performed here the shrddh
ceremonies for the soul of his father.

Wild Animals. — Tigers and leopards, a^few years ago always to be
found in the bed of the Mahi, are now rarely heard of, owing to the
spread of tillage and their pursuit by European sportsmen. Hyaenas,
jackals, foxes, wild hog, antelope, gazelle, and hares are common.
Of game birds, besides many varieties of duck, snipe and quail abound ;
while geese, bustard, partridge, quail, and florican may occasionally be
shot. Poisonous snakes are common. A reward of from is. 6d. to 6d.
is paid for killing a cobra, and from is. to 3d. for killing other kinds.
In 1877, 19 persons died from snake-bite. Mdhsir and other fresh-
water fish are caught in the waters of the most considerable rivers.

History. — Y^-:m2i District is made up partly of lands acquired
from the Peshwa in 1802, by the treaty of Bassein, partly of terri-
tory transferred by the Gaekwar of Baroda in 1803 and 18 17.
Rajputs reigned in Kaira from 746 to 1290. The most celebrated
dynasty was the Anhilwara. At the end of the 14th century Kaira
passed to the Muhammadan kings of Ahmadabad, and in 1573 was
transferred to the Mughals. In 1720, the Marathas appeared; and
from that time to the fall of Ahmadabad in 1753, the District was the
scene of perpetual struggles between the Marathas and the Muham-
madan viceroys. The Marathas were victorious, and in 1753 the Dis-
trict was shared between the Peshwa and his lieutenant the Gaekwar.

Part of the lands of the District came into British possession in
1803, and the rest in 18 17. Under the terms of the treaty of Bassein
(31st December 1802), the Napad group of villages was handed over
by the Peshwa. In 1803, for the maintenance of troops supplied by
the British Government, the Gaekwar ceded Nadiad, Matar, and
Mahudha, as well as the fort and town of Kaira. Again, by treaty
dated 6th November 181 7, to provide for the payment of additional
troops, the Gaekwar ceded Mehmadabad, Ah'na, Thdsra, Antroli, and



KAIRA. 301

half of the town and district of Petlad. At the same time, Kapadwanj
and Bhalaj were received in exchange for the district of Bijapur in
North Gujarat.

The territories acquired in 1803, together with Dholka, Dhandhuka,
Ranpur, and Gogha, which now form part of Ahmadabad District,
remained in charge of the Resident at Baroda from the date of their
cession till May 1805. During this time a European assistant and
native officers administered, according to local usage, the police and
justice of the country. In 1805, a Collector was appointed, with juris-
diction over the ceded tracts, both those to the north of the Mahi and
those to the west of the Gulf of Cambay. In the same year the town
of Kaira {q.v.) was selected as a large military station.

The increase in the British possessions consequent on the treaty of
November 181 7 necessitated fresh administrative arrangements. The
territory north of the Mahi was, from the ist January 18 18, divided
into the two Districts of Kaira and Ahmadabad. In 1830, Kapadwanj
was included in Ahmadabad, and Kaira reduced to a Sub-Collectorate
under the principal Collector of Ahmadabad. In 1833, Ahmadabad
and Kaira were again separated. Since then, more than once, villages
have been moved from one District to the other, and the original
irregular groups and collections of villages have been gradually con-
solidated into seven Sub-divisions.

Population. — In 1846, the population of the District was returned at
566,513, or 354 to the square mile. By 1872 it had risen to 782,733
persons, residing in 591 villages and 218,596 houses; density per
square mile, 489. This latter density indicated a pressure of popu-
lation higher at the time than in any other part of the Bombay
Presidency.

By the Census of February 17, 1881, the population of the District
was returned at 804,800; area, 1609 square miles; density of popula-
tion, 500 to the square mile. The increase of population since 1872
has been nearly three per cent., and the District is still the most
densely peopled part of the Presidency, outside the city of Bombay.
The number of towns in the District was in 1881 returned at 10;
villages, 571; occupied houses, 191,282; unoccupied houses, 51,396.
Males numbered 426,781; females, 378,019; proportion of males, 53
percent. In 1881, there was a town or village to each 277 square
miles ; houses to the square mile, 150 ; persons per occupied house, 4'2.

Of the 581 towns and villages in the District in 1881, 38 contained
less than two hundred inhabitants ; 124 from two to five hundred; 158
from five hundred to one thousand; 155 from one to two thousand;
61 from two to three thousand; 30 from three to five thousand; 10
from five to ten thousand ; 4 from ten to fifteen thousand ; and i
from twenty thousand to fifty thousand.



302 KAIRA.

Classified according to occupation, the males were divided into six
main groups: — (i) Professional class, including State officials of every
description and the learned professions, 8431 ; (2) domestic servants,
inn and lodging-house keepers, 2578; (3) commercial class, including
bankers, merchants, carriers, etc., 5547 ; (4) agricultural and pastoral
class, including gardeners, 190,826; (5) industrial class, including all
manufacturers and artisans, 43,115; (6) indefinite and non-productive
class, comprising general labourers, male children, and persons of un-
specified occupation, 176,284.

Classified according to religion, there were, in 1881, 383,207 male
and 337,659 female Hindus; total, 720,866, or 89-6 per cent, of the
total population. Muharamadans numbered 72,954, or 9'i per cent. ;
Christians, 1041 ; Jains, 9603; Parsis, 131; Jews, 7; aboriginal
tribes and 'others,' 198. Under the term Hindu are included the
following caste sub-divisions: — Brahmans, 41,499; Rajputs, 25,973;
Chamars, 10,874; Darjis, 2256; Dhobis (washermen), 1035; Hajjams
(barbers), 10,859; Kunbis (agriculturists), 143,151; Kolis (agricul-
turists), 279,344; Kumbhars, 8982; Lohanas, 3196; Lobars (black-
smiths), 5964; Mall's (gardeners), 1106; Mahars or Dhers, 42,800;
Sonars (goldsmiths), 2710; Sutars, 7807 ; Telis (oilmen), 83 ; Banjaris,
113; and 'other Hindus,' 133,114. The aboriginal tribes are mostly
(187) Bhils. The Muhammadans include Pathans, 8703; Sayyids,
2953; Shaikhs, 6482; and Sindhis, 270.

Among Hindus, the most important classes are the Lewa and Kadwa
Kunbis, numbering 142,774; they are the best farmers in the District,
and a sober, peaceable, and industrious race. The Kunbis of certain
villages are held in honour, as descended from the leading men among
the original settlers in Gujarat. The Rajputs, with the exception of a
few who with the title of Thakur still retain landed estates, have sunk
into the mass of ordinary peasant proprietors. The Kolis number
279,340, or 34*7 per cent, of the entire population. Idle and turbulent
under native rule, they are now quiet, hard-working, and prosperous.
Among Hindu low castes, the Dhers or Mahars (42,800) are distin-
guished for industry and good behaviour. They formerly lived in
comfort by weaving coarse cotton cloth, but the competition of the
Bombay and local steam mills is now shutting them out of the
market.

The Bhats or Barots, Rajput bards and genealogists, have their
head-quarters in Kaira District. Many of the caste, formerly of much
sanctity and importance, have had to turn themselves to ordinary
pastoral occupations ; but some remain who travel to distant parts of
India. Their different places of call are visited in order, generally at
two or three years' interval. At each station they claim hospitality
from castes which claim a Rajput descent. They are entertained in



KAIRA.



303



some patron's house, remaining in one place several months, and
during their stay they note down the births, marriages, and deaths that
have happened in the family since the last visit. These particulars are
carried away and duly recorded on the return to Kaira.

Of the Musalman population, about one-third, under the name of



Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 7) → online text (page 36 of 57)