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important items are excise (^12,282), stamps (;£"5896), and local funds.
The District local funds created since 1863 for works of public utility
and rural education yielded in 1881-82 a total sum of ^14,127.
There are (1882) 4 municipalities, containing an aggregate population
of 40,872 persons. Their total receipts (1882-83) are returned at
^2389, and the incidenceof taxation varies from 7|d. to is. 6d. a head.



320 KALADGI—KALAHASTL

The administration of the District in revenue matters is entrusted to a
Collector and four Assistants, of whom three are covenanted civilians.
The number of fiscal Sub-divisions is eight. For judicial purposes,
Kaladgi is included in the jurisdiction of the Judge of Belgaum.
There are 4 civil courts. Twenty-two officers share the administration
of criminal justice in 24 criminal courts. The total strength of the
regular police consisted in 1881-82 of 3359 officers and men, or i to
every 190 of the population; total cost, ;£9945, or ^i, 14s. 6d. per
square mile of area and 3M. per head of population. The number of
persons convicted of any offence, great or small, was 13 15, being i
person to every 485 of the population. There is one District jail.
Education has widely spread of late years. In 1855-56 there were
only 9 schools, with 395 pupils. By 1876-77 the number of schools
had risen to 137, attended by 6236 pupils, or, on an average, i school to
every 8 villages. In 1882-83 there were — schools, 182 ; pupils, 10,612.
On an average there is a village school to every 32 square miles. One
vernacular newspaper was published in the District in 1882-83.

Medical Aspects. — The rainfall in Kaladgi is very uncertain. The
average during the five years ending with 1876 was 22 inches. The
prevailing diseases are fever, rheumatism, guinea-worm, and cholera, k
civil hospital at Kaladgi town and 5 dispensaries afforded medical relief
to 352 in-door and 21,853 out-door patients in 1881-82, and 13,338
persons were vaccinated. The births registered in 1881 numbered
19,580; deaths, 13,517: death-rate, 21 per thousand. [For further
information regarding Kaladgi, see the District Gazetteer, published by
authority of the Bombay Government, and edited by Mr. J. M. Camp-
bell, B.C.S. (vol. xxiii. of the Bombay Gazetteer), Also Mr. Stack's
Memorajidum upon Cu?'re?it Land Revenue Settlements in temporarily
settled parts of British India, p. 487 ; the Bombay Census Report for
1881 ; and the several Presidency Administration and Departmental
Reports from 1880 to 1884.]

Kaladgi. — Town and municipality, Kaladgi District, Bombay
Presidency; situated on the right bank of the Ghatprabha river, iii
miles south by west of Sholapur station on the south-east line of
the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. Lat. 16° 12' 30" n., long. 75°
32' E. Population (1881) 7024, namely, 3628 males and 3396 females.
Hindus numbered 4420; Muhammadans, 2521; Jains, 19; Christians, 58.
Municipal revenue (1882-83), ;£"254 ; municipal expenditure, ^215;
incidence of municipal taxation, 8Jd. Kaladgi was formerly the chief
station of the District, but the head-quarters have now (1885) been
removed to Bijapur.

Kal^handi. — Zaminddri or estate in the Central Provinces. — See
Karond.

Kalahasti. — Tdluk in Kalahasti zim'inddri of North Arcot District,



KALAHASTI ZAMINDARI AND TO WN. 321

Madras Presidency. Area, 204,805 acres. Population (i88i) 52,037,
namely, 26,271 males and 25,766 females, dwelling in 10,103 houses.
Hindus numbered 50,003; Muhammadans, 19 10; and Christians, 124.
No places in the taluk, except Sri Kalahasti (9935) and Puranduru
(1138), possess more than 1000 inhabitants.

Kalahasti {Kdlastri, Calastri). — Zaminddri estate, situated partly
in North Arcot and partly in Nellore District, Madras Presidency ; one
of the largest estates in the Karnatik. Population (1881) 135,104 in
North Arcot. Number of villages, 612 in North Arcot, and 190 in
Nellore. Area, 736 square miles in North Arcot, and 415 square
miles in Nellore; peshkash (rent) to Government, ;2ri9,ooo.

The zaminddri came into British possession in 1792. The zaniinddr
of Kalahasti at one time could bring into the field a contingent of over
5000 men. His revenues are estimated at between ;£"4o,ooo and
;^5o,ooo per annum. The country is in a great measure covered
with scrub jungle, especially the portion in North Arcot District,
from which Madras city is supplied with firewood. Half of the
tract is reported to be cultivated ; the soil is a red clay mixed with
sand. There are few wells. For rent the zaminddr takes one-half of
the produce. Copper, iron, and limestone are found. Glass-making
is a staple industry. There are 5 1 miles of road.

The histor}' of the estate is obscure. The first pdlegdr, or hereditary
chief, was of the Vellama caste, and probably received the grant from
one of the Vijayanagar kings in the 15th century. The estate at one
time spread as far as the site now occupied by Fort St. George. The
chief has been created C.S.I., and the title of Raja has been bestowed
upon him.

Kalahasti {Sri Kdlastri, Calastri). — Town in North Arcot District,
Madras Presidency; situated in lat. 13° 45' 2" n., and long. 79° 44'
29" E., on the right bank of the Suvarnamukki river, 16 miles north-east
ofTripati (Tirupati) station on the Madras Railway, north-west line.
Population (1881) 9935, namely, 4750 males and 5185 females. Hindus
numbered 8627; Muhammadans, 1258 ; and Christians, 50. Kalahasti
is the residence of the Kalahasti zaminddr and of a sub-magistrate ;
has large bazars, and is a place of pilgrimage. It is some-
times called Sri Kalahasti. In its extensive suburbs a good deal of
cloth is woven. Grain, bangles, and the like commodities are the
chief articles of trade. A magnificent festival called Sivardtri is
held in March and continues for ten days. The great temple to
Parvati cannot be entered by Europeans. The centre of the old
town is occupied by a square filled with houses, around which four
broad streets run, meeting one another at right angles. To the east
and north-east the town has been extended irregularly. The temple,
dedicated to Siva, from which the chief importance of the town is

VOL. VII. X



322 KALAI—KALANA UR.

derived, stands at the base of the southern hill, and near the south-west
angle of the central square.

Kalai. — Port in the Umbargam customs division of Thana District,
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 19° 14 n., long. 73° 6' e. Average annual
value of trade for the five years ending 1873-74— imports, ;£737 ; ex-
ports, ;!^io,975. In 1881-82 the imports were ^199 ; exports, ;£"6646.

Kalak^d. — Town in the Nanguneri taluk of Tinnevelli District,
Madras Presidency. Population (1871) 6480; (1881) 7281, namely,
3492 males and 3789 females. Hindus numbered 6306 ; Muhammadans,
841; and Christians, 134. Area of town, 2797 acres. Police station;
weekly fair on Thursday.

Kald. Klisi.— River of Purniah District, Bengal ; marks one of the
old beds of the Kiisi. Although it still presents to some extent the
character of a river, it is so broken up by diverging, re-uniting, and
interlacing channels, that it is almost impossible to determine where it
begins or what is its course. It may, however, be considered to have
its rise under the name of the Kamla, near Rani'ganj, in the north of
the District; whence it flows southward to Purniah town, where it
receives its principal tributary, the Saura. Below Purniah it continues
a southward course, often by several channels, until it falls into the
Ganges (lat. 25° 16' 45" n., long. 87° 43' 30" e.) south-east of Manihari
police station, opposite Sahibganj.

Kalale.— Village in Mysore District, Mysore State, Southern India.
Lat. 12° 5' N., long. 76° 43' E. Situated close to the Mysore-
Utakamand (Ootacamund) road. Population (1871) 2306; (1881)
1975. Founded in 1504 by a local chief, whose family afterwards
supplied the Dalavayis or hereditary mayors of the Mysore palace,
who supplanted the Hindu Rajas of Mysore, and were themselves
overthrown by Haidar All. Large castor-oil trade.

Kalamb. — Town in Wiin District, Berar, Haidarabad Assigned
Districts. Lat. 20° 26' n., long. 78'' 22' 30" e. Situated 14 miles
east of Yeotmal, the head-quarters of the District. Population (1881)
2975; number of houses, 611. Bears signs of having once been a
large town. It gave its name to one of the Sarkdrs or Divisions of the
old Berir Subah. There is a remarkable underground temple here,
dedicated to Chintaman. Land revenue of town (1881), ^361.
School, post-office, and police station.

Kalanaur. — Town in Rohtak tahsil, Rohtak District, Punjab. Lat.
28° 49' 45" N., long. 76° 25' 15" E. Situated on the road from Rohtak
to Bhiwani, 12 miles from the former town. Population in 1868,
5646; in 1881, 7371, namely, Hindus, 4201 ; Muhammadans, 3061 ;
and Jains, 109. Number of houses, 970. A small market town with
some local trade, and noted for its manufacture of saddlery and leather
work, purchased to supply Native cavalry.



KALANA UR—KALASA. 323

Kalanaur. — Town and municipality in Gurdaspur tahsil^ Gurdaspur
District, Punjab. Lat. 32° i' n., long. 75° 11' 30" e. Situated on the
Kirran stream, 17 miles west of Gurdaspur town. Population (1868)
5646; (1881) 4962, namely, 3264 Muhammadans, 1577 Hindus, 46
Sikhs, and 75 Jains. Kalanaur was a place of considerable importance
in the 14th, 15th, and i6th centuries. Historically interesting as the
spot where Akbar received the news of his father's death, and ascended
the imperial throne. A third-class municipality, with a revenue in
1881-82 of ;£"289; expenditure, ;^264; average incidence of taxation,
IS. ifd. per head. Dispensary, school, second-class police station, and
post-office.

Kalang. — Important offshoot of the Brahmaputra in Nowgong
(Naugaon) District, Assam, which issues from the south or left bank a
few miles below Bishnath in Darrang on the opposite side of the river,
and, after many windings through the centre of the District, finally rejoins
the Brahmaputra at Panikhaiti, about 15 miles above Gauhati. For
the last few miles of its course it forms the boundary between the
Districts of Nowgong and Kamrup. Its tributaries — all on the south
or left bank — are the Misa, Diju, Nanai, Kapili, Kiling, and Digru.
The principal towns and centres of traffic are Nowgong, Raha, and
Chapari-mukh. Since 1858, a large sandbank has formed at the exit of
the Kalang from the Brahmaputra, which obstructs navigation during
the greater part of the year. In the rainy season, the Kalang has a
depth of 26 feet of water. A little south of Nowgong town are two
large bils or marshes, known as Mari Kalang and Pota Kalang, which
have evidently been formed by changes in the course of this river.
There is an important ferry at Raha.

Kalan Kot (or Kalia Kot, Kdla Kot). — Ruins of an ancient fort in
the Jerruck (Jhirak) Sub-division of Karachi (Kurrachee) District, Sind,
Bombay Presidency. It is seated on a limestone hill, which abounds
in marine shells, and is everywhere honeycombed with natural cavities.
Said to have been built in the 15th century, on the site of a still more
ancient stronghold. It must have been of great strength, and the
remains seem to show that it was destroyed by fire. The fort is three
miles south of Tatta.

Kalaro^. — Town and head-quarters of a police circle {thdna)^
Khulna District, Bengal; situated on the Betna river. Lat. 22° 42'
35" N., long. 89° 7' 55" E. Population (1881) 5995, namely, Hindus,
2109; Muhammadans, 3886. Area of town site, 3520 acres. Trade
in rice and sugar.

Kalasa. — Village in Kadiir District, Mysore State, Southern India.
Situate in a valley 30 miles west-south-west of Chikmagaliir. Lat.
13° 14' 20" N., long. 75° 24' 11" E. Contains a large temple dedicated
to Kaleseswara, surrounded with ruinous mounds and inscriptions of the



324 KALASTRI—KALGHATGI.

Bairasa Wodeyar family of Karkala, dating from the 12th to the i6th
century. Subsequently a residence of the Aigar chiefs. The town
then extended so as to include the present villages of Melangadi,
Kilangadi, and Rudrapada. Areca-nut produced in the neighbourhood
is reckoned the best in Mysore.

Kalastri (or Calastri).—Zami?iddri and village, Madras Presidency.
— See Kalahasti.

Kaldt. — Province or collection of chiefships, and chief town of the
territories of the Khan of Kalat, Baluchistan. — See Khelat.

Kalawar. — Town in Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency; situated
about 28 miles south-east of Nawanagar. The chief town of Kalawar
inahdl or revenue division. Population (1872) 2604; but this total
sank in 1881 to 2316, owing to the famine of 1878-79. The town
is famous in local legend as being the place where a Wala Rajput
married a daughter of a K^thi, and thus formed the present tribe of
Wala-Kathis. It was noted as far back as 1780 for fine dangari, or
coarse cotton cloth, worn by Rajas and great chiefs before the intro-
duction of English calico. Kalawar is a walled town.

Ka-le-gauk.— Island off the coast of Amherst District, Tenasserim
Division, British Burma. It is 50 miles long, and runs north by west
and south by east, with its northern extremity 30 miles from Cape
Amherst. The northern half of the island is described as consisting
of ' a long granite ridge, wath a perpendicular drop to the sea.' The
western side is broken into abrupt hills, with level, wxll-raised, inter-
vening spaces forming three bays ; one of which, Quarry Bay, furnished
the stones for the Alguada Reef lighthouse. The water-supply is
good, as a perennial spring of sweet water flows through the centre
of the island.

Kalesar.— Forest reserve in Ambala (Umballa) District, Punjab,
covering an area of 11,829 acres. It lies on the right bank of the
Jumna (Jamuna), and, running up the slopes of the Siwalik range, juts
into Sirmur (Sarmor) State. This tract possesses great importance on
account of the sal trees, which compose its principal timber.

Kalghatgi.— Sub-division of Dharwar District, Bombay Presidency.
Lat. 15° i' to 15° 29' 15" N., long. 74° 54' 40" to 75° 13' 40" e. Area,
279 square miles, with 105 villages and 8864 houses. Population
(1881) 50,769; density of population, 182 persons to the square
mile. The population is composed of 25,902 males and 24,867
females; and is divided into 44,219 Hindus, 4725 Muhammadans,
and 1825 'others.' Since 1872, the population has decreased by nearly
2000. Kalghatgi Sub-division is in the west of the District; bounded
on the north by Dharwar, on the east by Hubli and Bankapur Sub-
divisions, on the south by Yellapur in North Kanara, and on the west
by Yellapur and Haliyal in North Kanara. Most of the country is



KALGHA TGI—KALIANPUR. 325

broken by woody hills. The east and south are open and rolling,
with bushy uplands. The-north and west are wilder. The supply of
water is on the whole plentiful. The rainfall in the wooded west is
heavier than in the rest of the Sub-division ; average at Kalghatgi town,
29-25 inches a year. Land revenue, ;£"i2,985. In 1883, the Sub-
division contained 2 criminal courts ; police station {thdna)^ i ; regular
police, 34 men; village watchmen {chaiikiddrs\ 125.

Kalghatgi. — Town in the Kalghatgi Sub-division of Dharwar Dis-
trict, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 15° 10' n., long. 75° 2' e. Situated
20 miles south of Dharwar town, on the Karwar-Dharwar road. Rest-
house, and weekly market on Tuesdays, when rice is chiefly sold.

Kalhatti. — Village in Nilgiri Hills District, Madras Presidency.
Lat. 11° 27' 45" N., long. 76° 43' E. ; 8 miles from Utakamand (Ootaca-
mund), on the principal road to Mysore. Elevation above sea-level,
6700 feet. Situated 3 miles below the head of the Segiir^/^i/. There
is a travellers' bungalow, which is resorted to by tourists, who come
for the sake of the view of the waterfall (170 feet) close by; also a
botanical garden kept up by Government. Oranges, apples, peaches,
and pears thrive particularly well. Police station.

Kali. — River of the North-Western Provinces. — See Gogra.

Kalia. — Village and head-quarters of a police circle {thdnd) in Jessor
District, Bengal. The village contains settlements of Kayasths and
Baidyas, many of whom are employed in the courts and Government
offices at the head-quarters town, and only return to their homes for
the Durgd-pujd holidays, when they spend their time in boat-racing.
Good water communication with Naral to the north, and Khulna to
the south. Flourishing school.

Kaliabar. — Village and police station {thdnd) in the east of Now-
gong (Naugaon) District, Assam ; situated on the Brahmaputra, a few
miles below the point where the Kalang river issues from that river.
A calling station for river steamers.

K^lia-Chak. — Village and head-quarters of a police circle {thd?id)
in Maldah District, Bengal ; situated on the banks of the Ganges. Lat.
21° 51' 15" N., long. 88° 3' 1" E. This was formerly the head-quarters
of a large indigo factory known as the Kalia-Chak concern. The
residence and factory buildings still exist, although the factory is
closed.

Kalianpur. — North-westerly tahsil of Fatehpur District, North-
Western Provinces ; extending from the Ganges to the Jumna (Jamuna),
and traversed throughout by the East Indian Railway. Area,
279 square miles, of which 153 are cultivated. Population (1872)
116,391 ; (1881) 119,182, namely, males 61,416, and females 57,766.
Hindus numbered 109,384, and Muhammadans, 9798. Number of
villages, 216. Land revenue, £2^,606; total Government revenue,



32 6 KA LI BA ORI—KALIAIIYAR POINT.

including rates and cesses, ;2^2 9,893 ; rental paid by cultivators,

;^42,i43-

Kdli Baori. — Petty State of Dhar under the Bhil or Bhopawar
Agency of Central India. The chief, or Bhiimia, receives ;£"i37 from
the Dhar Darbar, and £,\2 za}?ii7iddri, on condition of guarding
the I>argand of Dharmpuri and being answerable for robberies. He
holds five villages of Dharmpuri pargand in perpetuity, for which he
pays annually ;^5o. He also receives ^^15 from Sindhia, and is
answerable for robberies in seventeen villages in Bankaner. These
three engagements are under British guarantee.

Kalibhd,nj. — Island in the estuary of the Dhamra river, Cuttack
District, Orissa. Lat. (centre) 20° 47' n., long. 86° 56' e.

Kaligdnj. — Village in Khulna District, Bengal; situated at the
junction of the Jamuna and Kanksiali rivers, on the boat route to the
south. Lat. 22° 27' 15" N., long. 89° 4' e. Population (1872) 3485 ;
(1881) 5554, namely, Hindus, 2946, and Muhammadans, 2648. Area
of town site, 1280 acres; number of houses, 697. Large bdzdr, and
considerable river trade. Manufacture of horn sticks. Village police
force of I petty officer and 6 men.

Kaliganj. — Village in Rangpur District, Bengal; situated on the
right bank of the Brahmaputra, and a port of call for the Assam river
steamers. Considerable exports of rice and jute.

Kdlighat. — Sacred village in the District of the Twenty-four Par-
ganas, Bengal ; situated on the bank of the old bed of the Ganges, a
few miles south of Calcutta. Lat. 22° 31' 30" n., long. 88° 23' e. The
temple in honour of Kali, the wife of Siva, derives sanctity from the
following legend. Her dead body was carried all over the world by
her disconsolate husband, until at length the corpse was cut in pieces
by Vishnu with his sacred disc {sudarsan chakra), and the 52
places where the different parts of the body fell became sacred as
places of pilgrimage. One of her fingers is said to have fallen at
this spot. The temple was built about three centuries ago by a
member of the Sabarna Chaudhari family, who allotted 194 acres of
land for its maintenance. A Brahman named Chandibar was the first
priest appointed to manage the affairs of the shrine ; and his descend-
ants, w^ho have taken the title of Haldar, are the present proprietors.
They have amassed great wealth, not so much from the endowments
as from the daily offerings made by pilgrims. The principal religious
festival of the year is on the second day of the Durgd -pujd^ when the
temple is visited by crowds of pilgrims from all parts of the District.

Kalikot {Kolikodu). — Taluk and town in Malabar District, Madras
Presidency. — See Calicut.

Kalimiyar Point (Kalli-medu, Tdmil). — Madras Presidency. — See
Calimere.



KALIMPONG—KALINDL 327

Kalimpong. — Hill tract of Ddrjiling District, Bengal. — See
Dalingkot.

Kali Nadi, East (properly Kdlindi). — River in T^Iuzaffarnagar,
Meerut (Merath), Bulandshahr, Aligarh, Etah, and Farukhabad Dis-
tricts, North-Western Provinces. Rises in Muzaffarnagar District, east
of the Ganges Canal, and between that channel and the great sand-
ridge of Sarai. During the earlier part of its course it bears the name
of Nagan, and forms an ill-defined waterway, running through grassy
fields. Lower down it gradually expands, and in the latitude of
Bulandshahr becomes a perennial stream, running southward through
a valley marked by high banks, and draining the whole eastern portion
of the Doab. Its channel here is very tortuous. At Khurja the river
trends south-eastward, and holds the same direction for the remainder
of its course until it falls into the Ganges, in lat. 27° i' n., and long.
80° E., a few miles from Kanauj. The valley is inundated almost
every year, but no injury is caused thereby, as the lands are seldom
sown with any but winter crops. The fertility of the valley was tem-
porarily destroyed a few years after the opening of the Ganges Canal
by the appearance of a saline efflorescence said to be due to the rise
of the spring level in consequence of the escapes by which the waste
water of the canal distributaries was let into the river. In a large
number of villages the revenue assessment was reduced, but as soon
as the escapes were closed, the soil recovered itself, and the revenue
was again raised. In Bulandshahr District the river is crossed by a
handsome masonry bridge of nine arches at Bulandshahr town, and
also by a bridge erected by a local landholder at Gulaothi on the road
to Garhmukhtesar. In Aligarh District there are three permanent
bridges. The water of the river is very little employed for irrigation,
on account of its great depth below^ the surface. The total length of
the East Kali Nadi is about 310 miles.

Kali Nadi, West. — River in Saharanpur and Muzafiarnagar
Districts, North-Western Provinces; rises 16 miles south of the
Siwalik Hills, at an elevation of about 1000 feet above sea -level,
and flows with a general south-westerly course to join the Hindan.
Lat. (point of junction) 29° 19' N., long. 77° 40' e. ; total length, about
70 miles.

Kalindi. — A distributary of the Jamuna river, Khulna District,
Bengal. It branches off from the parent stream at Basantpur, whence
it flows in a southerly direction through the Sundarbans, and falls into
the Raimangal in lat. 22° 7' n., and long. 89° 5' 30" e. Some distance
above the point where the Jamuna falls into the same estuary, about
seven miles below Basantpur, the Kalindi throws off a small creek, which,
communicating with the Kaligachhi and Atharabanka rivers in the
Sundarbans, and joining the Bidyadhari, forms the track for the large



328 KALINDRI-KALINGA,

boats from Calcutta to the eastward. The Kalindi is a fine deep river,
averaging 300 feet in breadth.

Kalindri (or Kdlindi).—K\\QX of Northern Bengal, an offshoot or
distributary of the Kusi in Purniah District, entering Maldah about
six miles north of Haiatpur town, near which place a natural connection
has been effected with the Ganges. The main stream, however, runs
a winding course in a south-easterly direction past Haiatpur for 20
miles, till it joins the Mahananda at Maldah town, in lat. 25° 2' 30" n.,
long. 88" to' 15" E. It receives no tributaries of any importance, the
drainage of the neighbouring country being carried off by means of
small creeks or ndlds, which only contain water in the rainy season.
The river is not wide, but flows in a very deep channel between banks
of hard red clay, nowhere fordable during the rains. Owing to its con-
nection with the Ganges at Haiatpur, the river is now divided into
two branches, the Upper and the Lower Kalindri. The river bed of
the Low^er Kalindri is now silting up at its mouth where it joins the
Ganges ; and throughout its channel to its junction with the Mahananda,
it is throwing up great sandbanks. Both the Kalindri and Mahananda
have much deteriorated in consequence during the eight years from
T875 to 1883.

Kaling^ (or Calingd). — One of the nine kingdoms of Southern



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