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above the river, and shows by its construction that defence rather than
comfort was its chief object. The collection of straggling huts below
the fort and castle scarcely deserves the name of town. Ahmad Shih,
the last native prince, bore an excellent character as a just and mode-
rate ruler. His country finally fell into the hands of Gulab Singh of
Kashmir, who annexed it to his dominions.

Islamabad. — Chief town of Chittagong District, Bengal. — See

Islamabad. — Town in Kashmir State. Lies in lat. 33° 43' N.,
long. 75° 17' E., on the north bank of the Jehlam (Jhelum), here about
80 yards wide, and crossed by a wooden bridge. Islamabad crowns
the summit of a long low ridge, extending from the mountains eastward.
Below the ridge a low reservoir contains a spring of clear water, slighdy
sulphurous, from which volumes of gas exhale. A legend connects the
origin of the spring with a creative act of Vishnu. The water swarms
with sacred fish. Large manufacture of Kashmir shawls, also of
chintzes, cotton, and woollen goods. The original name of Anat
Nag, derived from the holy reservoir, gave place to Islamabad in
the 15th century. Here the Hindu pilgrims to the famous shrine of
Siva at Ambarnath, 60 miles distant, halt to take in a supply of
provisions for their journey. Islamabad is the second town in
Kashmir, and is the terminus of the upper navigation of the
Jehlam. It is described by recent travellers as a miserable place
of about 1500 houses, but supporting as many as fifteen Muham-
madan temples. Crocus flowers are grown for satfron, which is largely
used as medicine, and for the making of caste marks on the foreheads of
orthodox Hindus. In good seasons about 20,000 lbs. of saffron are

Islamabad Bijhauli. — Village in Unao District, Oudh ; about 20
miles from Safipur, and 27 from Unao town, in a north-westerly direction.
Population (t88i) 2163 Hindus and 161 Muhammadans — total, 2324,


residing in 369 houses. Government school. Seat of 3 small annual
religious trading fairs.

Islamgarh (or Nohar).—Yo\\. in Bahawalpur State, Punjab, close to
the borders of Rajputana. Lat. 27° 50' n., long. 70° 52' e. : lies on
the route from Khdnpur to Jaisalmer (Jeysulmere), 65 miles north of
the latter town. Consists of an ancient structure of small bricks, about
80 yards square, with lofty ramparts, from 30 to 50 feet in height. The
situation is unfavourable for defence, being surrounded on every side
by sandhills of considerable elevation. A few buildings occupy the
enclosed space, while some straggling houses lie without the wall. The
fort formerly belonged to Jaisalmer (Jeysulmere), but was wrested from
the Rajputs by the Khan of Bahawalpur.

Islamkot.— Town in the Mitti idluk, Thar and Parkar District, Sind,
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 24° 41' 30" n., and long. 70° 13' e.
Population (1872) 862 : not over 2000 in 1881. The municipal revenue
in 1873-74 was ^£"48, but the municipality was abolished in 1878 on
the introduction into Sind of Bombay Act vi. of 1873. An old native
fort stands outside the town. Islamkot is connected by good roads with
the neighbouring villages.

Isldmnagar. — Town in Bisauli tahsil, Budaun District, North-
Western Provinces. Lies on the road from Bisauli to Sambhal, 1 2 miles
west of the former town. Lat. 28° 19' 45" n., long. 78' 46' e. Popu-
lation (1881) 5890, namely, Hindus, 3616; Muhammadans, 2245 ; and
* others,' 29. Area of town site, 60 acres. The town contains a second-
class police station, post-office, dispensary, sardi or native inn, cattle
pound, and school. A market is held every Monday and Friday. For
police and conservancy purposes, a small house-tax is levied under the
provisions of Act xx. of 1865. The outskirts of the town are well
planted with groves of mango trees.

Isldmpur. — Tov/n and municipality in the Walwa Sub-division of
Satara District, Bombay Presidency. Population (1872) 8390; (1881)
8949, namely, Hindus, 7801 ; Muhammadans, 771 ; Jains, 377. Area
of town site, 115 acres. The income of the municipality was
£,Z^^ i^ 1882-83 ; incidence of municipal taxation, 4s. 7d. per

Ita. — Small detached group of hills in the centre of Sylhet District,
Assam. Area, about 49 square miles ; highest point, 300 feet above
sea-level. The slopes, which were formerly overgrown with dense jungle
and brushwood, are now converted into flourishing tea-gardens.

Itarsi. — Town in Hoshangabad District, Central Provinces, and
station on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, at the junction of that
line with the recently opened Bhopal State Railway. Population (1881)
2138, namely, Hindus, 1820; Muhammadans, 147; Jains, 8; abori-
ginal tribes, 163.


Itawa. — Estate in Khurai tahsil, Sagar (Saugor) District, Central
Provinces; 48 miles north-west of Sagar town, containing 44 villages, on an
area of 77 square miles. At the cession of Sagar to the British Govern-
ment by the Marathas in 1818, this tract, which then consisted of 46
villages, yielding £%()6 per annum, was assigned rent free for life to Ram
Bhaii, a Maratha Pandit, in lieu of Malhargarh and Kanjia, the former
being an estate in the extreme north-west of Sagar District, beyond
the Betwa river, which was made over to Sindhia. At the late settle-
ment, 16 villages were awarded to the tdlukddr in proprietary right,
and in 28 villages he received the superior proprietary right only. The
chief village contained (in 1881) 540 houses, with a population of 2177.
Hindus numbered 1786; Muhammadans, 122; and Jains, 269. It
is said to have been founded by Indrajit, a Bundela officer of Akbar,
and at the beginning of the i8th century was held by Diwan Anup
Singh, Raja of Panna, who built the small fort and embellished the
town. In 1 75 1 he made over the place to the Peshwa, in return for
assistance against the Bundelas. The Marathas improved the fort and
town, and some of the buildings contain remarkably fine stonework and
carving. The chief sales at the weekly market consist of grain and
native cloths. Two schools for boys and girls.

Itkuri.— Coal-field in Hazaribagh District, Bengal; situated in the
valley of the Mohani river. Greatest length, 15 miles; average
breadth, \\ mile. The coal is only worth working for rough purposes,
and the average is considered to contain more than 30 per cent, of ash.
The coal-bearing area is very small, but its position and the metalled
way connecting it with the Grand Trunk Road are points in its favour.
An approximate estimate gives the amount of coal available at from a
million and a half to two millions of tons.

Itria Gadhala.— Petty State in North Kathiawar, Gujardt, Bombay
Presidency; 14 miles nort.h-west of Dhasa railway station. The State
consists of 2 villages, with i separate tribute-payer. Population, 774 in
1872, and 909 in 1881. The revenue is estimated at ^400; tribute
of ;^2 5, 4s. is paid to the British Government, and of ^8, 6s. to the
Nawab of Junagarh.

Ittamukkala {'Date-Palm TY^r^ '— Telugu).— Town in Ongole taluk,
Nellore District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 15° 22' 30" n., and long.
80° 9' 11" E. Population (1872) 3811; (1881) 3028. Seaport with
coasting trade, and the second customs station in the District. In 1880,
the value of the exports was ;^7o ; imports, ;^2o6. The assistant-
superintendent of sea customs at Ittamukkala has power to grant ships'
papers, and thus save the delay of reference to the principal port,
Kottapatnam. The anchorage is good.

Itwad.— Petty State of the Pandu Mehwas, in Rewa Kantha, Gujarat,
Bombay Presidency. Area, 6 square miles; number of villages, 11.


There are four shareholders. The revenue is estimated at £,\^o.
Tribute of ;£6o is paid to the Gaekwar of Baroda.

Iviker {or Aibikd). — Town in Travancore State, Madras Presidency;
situated on the sea-coast in lat. 8° 57' n., and long. 76° 37' e., at
the mouth of the river Aibika, which is navigable only by small craft.
Export trade in timber, spices, and lac. Distance from Quilon town,
5 miles.

Jabalpur (Juhhdpore). — One of the four Divisions or Commis-
sionerships of the Central Provinces, comprising the Districts of
Jabalpur, Sagar (Saugor), Damoh, Seoni, and Mandla. Area, 18,688
square miles, with 11 towns and 8501 villages; houses, 504,080.
Total population (1881) 2,201,633, namely, 1,128,083 niales and
1,073,550 females; average density of population, 11 7*8; towns and
villages per square mile, '46; persons per village, 259; houses per
square mile, 27 ; persons per house, 4*37. Classified according to
religion, Hindus numbered 1,655,103, or 75*18 per cent. ; Sikhs, 47 ;
Kabirpanthis, 25,014, or 1-13 per cent; Satnamis, 702; Muham-
madans, 87,060, or 3-95 per cent; Christians, 3769; Buddhists, 11;
Jains, 30,295, or 1-38 per cent.; Parsis, 69; non-Hindu aborigines,
399,559, or 18-13 per cent ; and unspecified, 4. Total adult agricul-
turists, 763,871, or 3470 per cent of the total divisional population,
the average area of cultivated and cultivable land being 10 acres
per adult agriculturist Of the total area of 18,688 square miles, 12,833
square miles are assessed for Government revenue, of which 5483 square
miles were returned in 1881 as under cultivation ; 3956 square miles as
cultivable ; and 3394 as uncultivable. Total amount of Government
assessment, including local rates and cesses on land, ;!£^i 62,739, or an
average of 9|d. per cultivated acre. Total amount of rent actually
paid by cultivators, ;£"4i 7,707, or an average of 2s. 3|d. per cultivated
acre. Justice is afforded by 38 civil and 29 criminal courts. Number
of pohce stations {thdnds), 49, besides 133 outpost stations. Total
revenue of the Division in 1882-83, ;^i94,242.

Jabalpur {Jublmlpore). — District in the Chief Commissionership of
the Central Provinces, lying between 21° 12' and 23° 56' n. lat, and
between 76° 40' and 81° 35' e. long. Bounded on the north by Panna
and ]Maihar States ; on the east by Rewa State ; on the south by the
British Districts of Mandla, Seoni, and Narsinghpur ; and on the west
by Damoh District Area, 3918 square miles; population in 1881,
687,233. The administrative head-quarters of the District are at
Jabalpur, which is also the principal town.


Physical Aspects. — Jabalpur consists of a long, narrow plain,
running north-east and south-west, and shut in on all sides by highlands,
forming an offshoot from the great valley of the Narbada (Nerbudda).
This plain is covered in its western and southern portions by a rich
alluvial deposit of black cotton-soil, merging towards the north-east
in an undulating tract of metamorphic and lateritic formation. The
south-eastern parts, lying parallel with the black-soil country, belong
to the great trappean area of Central India. Granitic rocks occupy
larger areas than elsewhere. Near Jabalpur town the granite forms
a range of low hills running from the Narbada towards the north-
east, and attaining its highest point near the ancient town of Garhd,
where it is crowned by a ruined building called the Madan Mahal.
Here the hilly area of the granite extends over about 2 miles,
consisting chiefly, says Mr. J. G. Medlicott, of ' a porphyritic syenite,
whose matrix is a mixture of glassy quartz, with pale pink or
pale green felspar, along with a small proportion of hornblende, and
which contains embedded crystals of dull lead-grey felspar (adularia),
about one-third of an inch long, and in great number, frequently form-
ing a large proportion of the mass.' At Jabalpur itself the soil is
sandy, and water plentiful near the surface ; so that even in the sultry
blaze of an Indian summer there still appear a freshness and verdure
such as no station situated on basaltic soil can enjoy.

The highlands in the distance relieve the monotony of the fertile
plain. On the north and west the Bhanrer Hills, which belong to the
Vindhyan sandstone series, and the low rocky Kaimur chain, on the
east the Bhitrigarh heights, and on the south spurs and ridges pro-
jecting from the Gondwana range, ring in the District with a border of
picturesque scenery, in which hill and valley, forest and stream, succeed
each other in rapid variety. The Bhanrer and Kaimur chains form
a watershed, the northern side of which is drained by the Ganges.
The other and more important watershed of the District starts from
the Bhitrigarh range, and crosses the Great Northern Road between
Sleemanabad and Sihora. Rain falling to the north and east finds
its way into tributaries either of the Ganges or the Jumna, while
rivulets rising on the south and west swell the rapid stream of the Nar-
bada (Nerbudda). Thus, the traveller from Jabalpur to Mirzapur
passes over the great watershed between the Gulf of Cambay and the
Bay of Bengal. The principal rivers are the Mahinadi (not to be
confounded with the more important river of that name), which, rising
in Mandld, District, flows in a northerly direction till near Bijeragho-
garh it bends towards the east and falls into the Son (Soane) ; the
Gurayya, between Jabalpur and Damoh ; the Patna, which separates
the District from Panna ; and the Hiran, which flows into the Narbada
at Sankal. But besides these streams, the Narbada flows through


the District for 70 miles from east to west, passing about 9 miles
below Jabalpur town through the famous Marble Rocks. There the
river, which above this point had attained a breadth of 100 yards,
flings itself tumultuously from a rocky ledge with a fall of 30 feet,
called Dhuan-dhar or the Misty Shoot, and then flows on in a deep
and narrow channel nearly 2 miles long, through a mass of beautifully
white limestone. On each side, a dazzling row of marble bluffs, rising
sheer up to a height of 100 feet, confines the swirling waters.

History. — The early history of Jabalpur is unknown ; but in-
scriptions record the existence during the nth and 12th centuries
of a local line of princes of that Haihai race which is so closely
connected with the history of Gondwana. In the i6th century,
Sangrani Sa, the Gond Raja of Garha Mandla, extended his power
over fifty-two Districts, including the present Jabalpur. During the
minority of his grandson, Prem Narayan, the Gond Queen Durgavati
administered the government. The rule of a woman appeared a
favourable time for aggression ; and Asaf Khan, the Viceroy of Kara
Manikpur on the Ganges, sought and obtained permission to conquer
the Garha principality. The decisive battle was fought under the
castle of Singaurgarh, and Asaf Khan proved victorious. Stung by
her defeat, the high-spirited Durgavati put an end to her life. At first
Asaf Khan held Garha as an independent ruler, but eventually he
resigned his pretensions, and submitted himself to the Emperor Akbar.
In the list of Akbar's dominions given in the Ain-i-Akbari^ Garha
appears as a division of the Government of Malwa. The Delhi
power, however, enjoyed little more than a nominal supremacy ; and
the princes of Garha Mandla maintained a practical independence
until their subjugation by the Governors of Sagar (Saugor) in 1781.
Though Bakht Buland never brought Jabalpur under his sway, this
District, like the rest of Gondwana, felt the effects of his liberal and
enlightened policy ; and it was in his time that the industrious Lodhis
and Kayasths settled here.

In 1798, the Peshwa granted Mandla and the Narbada valley to the
Bhonsla Princes of Nagpur, who continued to hold the District until
the British occupied it after an engagement on the 19th December 1817.
By the provisional Government then formed, Raghunath Rao, Raja of
Inglia, was appointed acting siibdhddr ; and a petition which he presented
throws a curious light upon the Maratha system of rule. The subdhddr
inquired whether all widows were still to be sold, and the purchase
money paid into the treasury? whether all persons receiving any moneys
through an order, or by the interposition, of any person in ofiice, should
still pay one-fourth of such moneys to the State? and whether any
person selling his house or his daughter should still pay to the State
one-fourth of the purchase money? These rules the British had found


in full force ; and one of the earliest acts of the provisional Government
was to order the release of a young woman named Pursia, who had
been sold by auction for £i, 14s. At first, the Sagar and Narbada
territories were governed by a Commissioner in subordination to the
Resident at Nagpur. Subsequently, these Districts were separated from
the Nao-pur Agency; and in 1843 Lord Ellenborough recast the whole
system of administration. The chief feature of his reforms was the
separation of the judicature from the departments of revenue and
police. The system which he instituted lasted until November 1861,
when Jabalpur was formed into a District of the Central Provinces,
under the control of a Chief Commissioner resident at Nagpur.

Population. — In 1872, the population of the District, with an area
the same as at present, was returned at 528,859. In 1881, the total
population amounted to 687,233, showing an increase of 158,374, or
29-9 per cent, in the nine years. This large increase, apart from the
normal growth of the population in prosperous years, is stated to
be partially due to the gradual return of famine-stricken peasantry
who fled the District at the time of the scarcity of 1869 ; to a large
immigration from neighbouring Native States, induced by the spread of
cultivation and the opening of public works ; and also (to the extent
of about 3 per cent) to defective enumeration in 1872. The Census
of 1881 disclosed a population of 687,233 persons, on an area of
3918 square miles, residing in 2310 villages or towns, and 174,5^2
houses; persons per square mile, i75'4; villages per square mile,
0-59; houses per square mile, 44*54; persons per village, 298; persons
per house, 3-9. Classified according to sex— males, 3495251 ; females,
•237,982. According to age — the male children under 12 numbered
117,279; the female children, 112,604.

The ethnical division of the population is as follows : — Europeans,
1125; Eurasians, 267; Indo-Portuguese, 30; non-Hindu aboriginal
tribes, 67,804 ; Hindus and people of Hindu origin, including abori-
ginal tribes which have embraced Hinduism, and Christians who are
Hindus by descent, 565,361; Muhammadans, 34,79°; Buddhists and
Jains, 5515; Parsis, 51; and 'others' and unspecified, 337. The
most numerous of the aboriginal tribes, Hindu and non- Hindu,
are the Gonds, 98,384, and Kols, 46,383 ; the remainder consist
of Bharias, Baigas, etc. Among the higher classes of Hindus,
Brahmans numbered 60,420; Rajputs, 19,910; and Kayasths,
5278. The Baniyas or trading caste numbered 11,923. The
other numerically important castes are the Lodhis, 45»76o; Kurmis,
34,513 ; Ahirs or Gaulis, 32,911 ; Chamars, 32,905 ; Dhimars, 29,278 ;
Kachhis, 25,945; Telis, 17,817; Mehras, 14,037; Koeris, 11,558;
Lobars, 10,484; Nais, 10,832; Kumbhars, 9786; and Gadariyas,
6559. The Muhammadan population are divided according to sect


into— Sunnis, 33,452; Shias, 418; and 'others,' 920. The Christians
include— Church of England, 855 ; Roman Catholics, 1094; Presby-
terians, ?ii\ Protestants not otherwise distinguished, 357 ; etc. Native
Christians numbered 721. The language commonly spoken is the
Hindi dialect known as Baghela, a peculiarity of which is the elision
of nearly all short vowels ; but Urdii is generally understood, and is
the language of the courts.

Divisioji into Town and Country. — The only towns in Jabalpur
District in 1881 were Jabalpur, with a population of 75,705 ; Murwara,
8612; and SiHORA, 5736. These towns, which are also the only
municipalities, contain an aggregate urban population of 90,053,
leaving 597,180, or 87 per cent., as representing the rural population.
Of the 2310 towns and villages in 1881, 1307 contained less than two
hundred inhabitants; 737 between two and five hundred; 218 between
five hundred and a thousand; 32 between one and two thousand; 10
between two and three thousand ; 3 between three and five thousand ;
2 between five and ten thousand ; and i upwards of fifty thousand.

As regards occupation, the male population is classified as follows
in the Census Report of 1881 : — Class (i) Professional, including
Government officials and professions, 9022; (2) domestic servants,
inn and lodging-house keepers, etc., 4850 ; (3) commercial, including
merchants, traders, carriers, etc., 7244; (4) agricultural and pastoral,
140,342; (5) industrial, including all manufacturers and artisans, 48,144;
(6) indefinite and non-productive, comprising general labourers, male
children, and unspecified, 139,649.

Agriculture. — Of the total area of 3918 square miles, only 1563 were
cultivated in 1882; and of the portion lying waste, 11 15 square miles
were returned as cultivable, and 1240 square miles as uncultivable
waste. Total area assessed for Government revenue, 3456 square miles.
Of the cultivated land, 3824 acres are irrigated — entirely by private
enterprise. Cereals constitute the principal crop, 352,883 acres being
devoted in 1881-82 to wheat, and 430,352 to inferior food-grains. The
production of rice has decreased, occupying 124,409 acres in 1881-82,
as against 155,894 acres in 1876. The area under cotton has also
fallen off from 28,027 acres in 1872, to 22,919 in 1882. During
the same period, the area of land devoted to the growth of oil-seeds
has more than doubled, being returned at 42,215 acres in 1872,
91,362 acres in 1876, and 101,753 acres in 1881-82. The District
is rich in garden produce, raising, in addition to the ordinary Indian
fruits, peaches and pine-apples and strawberries, as well as potatoes
of an excellent quality. Both the plain country and the highlands
are well wooded ; and the forest produce is of considerable value,
consisting of lac and gum, and silk from the cocoons of the tasar
moth. The timber has suffered greatly from fires caused either by

VOL. vn. c


accident or by the annual burnings of the hill tribes; since, where
these conflagrations do not destroy, they effectually scar the bark of
the young teak tree. The Forest Department now use every means
to prevent this destruction ; and tracts of forest land in the Sangrdmpur
valley, and on the west bank of the Mahanadi in Bijeraghogarh, have
been marked off as State reserves.

The Census of 1881 showed a total of 6946 proprietors. The tenant
cultivators numbered 157,121, of whom 24,226 had either absolute or
occupancy rights, while 36,331 were tenants-at-will. The remaining
tenants consist mostly of assistants in home cultivation, cultivators on
sharing tenures, etc. Agricultural labourers numbered 76,991. The
total adult agriculturists of all classes amounted to 241,847, or 35*19 per
cent, of the District population, the average area of cultivated and
cultivable land being 7 acres for each adult agriculturist. Amount of
Government assessment, including local rates and cesses paid on land,
;£"6i,i67, or an average of is. i|d. per cultivated acre. Total rental
paid by cultivators, including cesses, ;^i69,i7i, or an average of
3s. ifd. per cultivated acre. The rent rates per acre in 1882 for the
different qualities of land are returned as follows : — Land suited for
wheat, 4s. 6d. ; for inferior grains, is. 3d. ; for rice, 3s. 6d. ; for cotton,
3s. ; for oil-seeds, is. 6d. ; the average produce per acre being — wheat,
542 lbs.; inferior grain, 299 lbs.; rice, 216 lbs.; cotton, 67 lbs. ; and
oil-seeds, 242 lbs. The ordinary prices of produce in the same year
were as follows : — Wheat, 5s. 3d. per cwt. ; rice, 7s. per cwt. ; cotton,
42s. per cwt. ; and linseed, 7s. per cwt. The daily wages for skilled
labour averaged 9d. ; for unskilled labour, 4d.

Natural CalamUies. — The famine of 1869, and the disease which
accompanied and followed it, visited this densely populated District
with greater severity than any other part of the Central Provinces. On
comparing the Census of 1872 with that for 1866, the population of
Jabalpur is found to have decreased by 70,358 ; and this diminution
must to a great degree be accounted for by the calamities of 1869.
Large numbers of persons fled the District in search of more favoured
localities, but the survivors mostly returned on the cessation of the
distress, and the Census of 1881 showed an increased population of
158,374 over that of 1872. It may be hoped that the improved

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 7) → online text (page 4 of 57)