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proportions, representing Kal Bhairan, with snakes for a head-dress, in
which is set the moon. It is the largest figure in Kd.linjar, and must
be 30 feet high. Formerly, a door below this figure led out to an
inclosure in front of a perpendicular rock in which is a cave (Siddh-
ki-gupha), but this gate has been closed by the British authorities, as
there was a path below it opening on native territory.



KA LINJERA—KALJA Nl. 3 3 7

There are many Muhammadan tombs on the fort ; some inscribed,
but these, as well as the relics of the Bundelas and Chaubes, are
uninteresting, as they invite neither speculation nor research.

The town of Kalinjar, which lies below the hill, is not large. It was
formerly enclosed ; and three gates still stand, called the Kamta, Panna,
and Riwa phataks, from the roads on which they open. [This account
of Kalinjar has been given at considerable length, as it forms the most
characteristic specimen of the strong places, originally hill-shrines con-
verted into hill-fortresses, of Northern and North-Central India. The
article has been amplified for the present edition from materials
collected on the spot by William Hoey, Esq., C.S.]

Kalinjera (or Kanjrd). — Town in Banswara State, Rajputana.
Situated in lat. 23° 5' n. and long. 74° 7' e., on the route from
Nimach (Neemuch) to Baroda, 99 miles south-west of the former
and 139 north-east of the latter. Formerly a place of considerable
trade, carried on by Jain merchants, who were driven away by
Maratha freebooters. Contains the ruins of a fine Jain temple,
described by Heber as being built on a very complicated and
extensive plan ; covered with numerous domes and pyramids ;
divided into a great number of apartments, roofed with stone, crowded
with images, and profusely embellished with rich and elaborate
carvings.

Kalipani. — Sacred spring in Kumaun District, North - Western
Provinces ; regarded by the natives as the source of the river Kali,
whose real head-waters lie 30 miles to the north-east. Lat. 30° 11' n.,
long. 80° 56' E. (Thornton). Situated on the slopes of the Byans
Rikhi Mountain, 5 miles south-west of Byans Pass, on the route to
Askot. Pilgrims visit the spring to bathe in its purifying waters on
their way to the sacred lake of Manasarowar.

Kali Sind. — River of Central India; rises in lat. 22° 36' n., and long.
76° 19' E., in the Vindhya mountains. About 90 miles from its
source, it receives, on the left, the Ludkunda, which also rises in the
Vindhyas; and on the same side, about 60 miles farther down, it is
joined by the Ahu and Amjar and Gagron. Near this place the Kali
Sind makes its way through the Mukandwara (Mokundurra) range.
Eventually, after a course of about 225 miles, it falls into the Chambal.
About 50 miles from its junction with the Chambal at Kandgaon,
the road from Kotah to Sagar (Saugor) crosses the river.

Kaljani.— River of Northern Bengal, formed by the combined waters
of the Alaikuri and Dima rivers, two streams rising in the Bhutan Hills,
which unite near Alipur in the Western Uwars Sub-division of Jalpaiguri
District. From the point of junction the united river takes the name
of Kaljani, and, after a course of a few miles, flows south through the
east of Kuch Behar State, and finally joins the Raidhak in the extreme

VOL. VII. V



338 KALKA—KALLIKOT.

north-east corner of Rangpur District. Used to float down timber from
the forests at the foot of the hills.

Kalka. — Village and camping ground in Simla District, Punjab.
Lat. 30° 50' 21" N., long. 76° 58' 57" E. Lies at the foot of the
Kasauli Hill, on the main road from Ambala (Umballa) to Simla, and
to the intermediate military posts of Kasauli, Dagshai, Subathu, and
Solan. Distance from Ambala, 38 miles; from Simla, 58 miles by
cart road. The route to Simla here enters the hills, and travellers must
leave the carriages in which they have come from Ambala. Several
hotels, staging bungalow, post-office, telegraph office, sardi. During
the Simla season, the Kalka hotels do a thriving business, and native
passengers to or from the hills throng the Mzdr. Elevation above sea-
level, 2000 feet.

Kalladaklirichi. — Town in the Ambasamudaram fd/i/k of Tinnevelli
District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 8° 40' 30" n., long. 77° 30' 15" e.
Population (1871) 11,580; (1881) 10,936, namely, 5181 males and
5755 females ; number of houses, 2520. Area of town site, 936
acres. Hindus numbered 9515 ; Muhammadans, 1383 ; and
Christians, 38. A wealthy trading and agricultural town, situated on
the Tambraparni. The town derives its importance from the rich
rice lands about it. Many of the inhabitants are wealthy and intelligent
Brahman landowners. Post-office.

Kallakurchi. — Tdluk or Sub-division of South Arcot District,
Madras Presidency. Lat. 11° 33' to 12° 4' to" n., long. 78° 42' to 79°
15' E. Situated in the south corner of the District. Area, 622 square
miles. Population (1881) 196,029, namely, 96,962 males, and 99,067
females, dwelling in 368 villages, containing 27,355 houses. Hindus
numbered 186,835; Muhammadans, 5806; and Christians, 3388. In
1883, the fdluk contained 2 criminal courts; police circles {thdnds\ 8;
regular police, 67 men. Land revenue, ^30,283.

Kallakurchi. — Head-quarters of the Kallakurchi Af///Z' of South Arcot
District ; lat. 11° 44' n., long. 79° i' 20" e. Area, 1465 acres. Popula-
tion (1881) 3555, namely, 1750 males and 1805 females, dwelling in 498
houses. Hindus numbered 3202 ; Muhammadans, 344; and Christians, 9.

Kalligal. — Town in Coimbatore District, Madras Presidency. — See

COLLEGAL.

Kallikot. — Zaminddri estate, ox paldyam, in Ganjam District, Madras
Presidency; situated between 19° 24' and 19° 48' n. lat., and between
85° 59' and 85° 14' E. long. Chief town, Kallikot. Population (1881)
3401. The estate has an area of 53,701 acres, or 84 square miles, and
contains 238 villages, with a land revenue of ;£'i9oo. The family
was founded by Rama Bhuiya, who was appointed zaminddr by Puru
Shottama Gajpati Das, king of Orissa, in a.d. 1374. The country was
occupied by British troops in 1769 ; and again, from 1771 to 1775, the



KALLUR—KALNA, 339

East India Company's agents and troops were employed in maintaining
order. The adjoining tdliik of Attigada was added to the estate by
purchase in 1854, by the present zaminddr.

Kalllir. — Pass in the Eastern Ghats, North Arcot District, Madras
Presidency. The Kalliir Pass leads from the lowland taluks to those
above the ghats. It runs along the Damalcheriiru valley, and through
the Kalllir paldyam or estate to the Piler tdluk of Cuddapah. Along
it passes the trunk road between Madras and Cuddapah. The
traffic is considerable, though less than before the construction of the
north-west line of the ^ladras Railway.

Kalmeshwar. — Town in Nagpur District, Central Provinces. Lat.
21° 14' N., long. 78° 58' E. ; situated 14 miles west of Nagpur city.
Built on a low-lying plain of black soil, with a fertile country on the
north and west, which produces opium, sugar-cane, and tobacco.
Population, 4738 in 1872, and 5318 in 1881. Hindus numbered 4842;
Kabirpanthis, 170; Muhammadans, 246; Jains, 31 ; Buddhist, i; and
aboriginal tribes, 28. In the centre of the town stands the old fort
where the village proprietor, a Kunbi by caste, resides. It was built by
a Hindu family from Delhi, who are said to have maintained, for the
service of Bakht Buland, a force of 400 infantry and 100 cavalry.
Kalmeshwar does a brisk trade in grain, oil-seeds, and country cloth.
Eighty mills are engaged in pressing oil-seeds; and the cloth manu-
factured in the town finds a market in Berar. From the proceeds of
the octroi duties, a commodious market-place has been constructed,
with wide metalled roads leading towards Nagpur, Katol, Dhapewara,
and Mohpa. The police station and school-house face the market-place.

Kalna (Culna). — Sub-division of Bardwan District, Bengal, lying
between 23° 7' and 23° 35' 45" n. lat, and between 87° 59' and 88°
27' 45" E. long. Area, 432 square miles, with 701 villages and towns,
and 59,844 houses. Population in 1872, 286,338 persons; 1881,
237,607 persons, namely, 113,625 males and 123,982 females.
Hindus numbered 175,855, or 74*0 per cent; Muhammandans,
61,739, or 26-0 per cent ; and Christians, 13. Proportion of males,
47*8 per cent.; average density of population, 550 persons per
square mile; villages per square mile, i-8i; persons per village, 338;
houses per square mile, 1*62 ; persons per house, 4*3. This Sub-
division, which was constituted in 1861, comprises the three police
circles {thdnds) of Kalna, Purbasthali, and Mantreswar. In 1881 it
contained i civil and 3 criminal courts, including a municipal bench,
and a bench of honorary magistrates; a regular police force 73 strong,
besides a village or rural police of 1973 men.

Kalna ( 0<f/;^^).— Town and head-quarters of Kalna Sub-division, and
an important seat of trade in Bardwan District, Bengal ; situated on the
right bank of the Bhagirathi, in lat 23° 13' 20" n., and long. 88° 24' 30" e.



340 KALNI—KALOL,

The population, which in 1872 was returned at 27,336, had, according
to the Census of 1881, dwindled down to 10,463. No explanation is
given of the cause of this great decrease ; but it is in all probability
due in a large measure to the fever epidemic, which has been raging
for many years throughout the Districts of the Bardwan Division.
Classified according to religion, the population of Kalna town in 188 1
consisted of— Hindus, 9023; Muhammadans, 1428; and Christians,
12. Area of town site, 2413 acres. The town, which is constituted
a second-class municipality, yielded in 1882-83 a municipal income
of ;^'986, of which ^850 w^as derived from taxation ; average
incidence of taxation, is. 7|d. per head. From ancient times Kalna
carried on a very extensive river trade, as all imports into the District
from Calcutta, and all exports to other Districts and to Calcutta,
passed through the town. The competition of the East India
Railway has not materially affected its prosperity, as it is still
found cheaper to import from Calcutta by river than by rail. Large
quantities of rice are imported from Dinajpur and Rangpur. The
bazar, or business part of Kalna, contains about a thousand houses,
mostly built of brick. In Muhammadan times, a large fort,
the ruins of which are still to be seen, commanded the river at
this point. A good road connects Kalna with Bardwan town ; it was
constructed in 1831 by the Maharaja of Bardwan, and has bungalows,
stables, and tanks at every eighth mile. The road was made chiefly
with a view to the Maharaja's comfort when proceeding to bathe in the
Ganges. The Maharaja has also a palace here, and has constructed
some handsome temples in the town. Two fine mosques, now in a
ruined condition, date from the time of Musalman supremacy. Kalna
is a station of the Free Church Mission, and contains an English
school.

Kalni. — One of the many channels of the Surma river in the south-
west of Sylhet District, Assam, which all finally unite to form the main
stream of the Meghna.

KaloL— Sub-division of Panch Mahals District, Bombay Presidency.
The Sub-division, including the petty division of Halol, is bounded on
the north by Godhra ; on the east by Baria ; on the south and west
by Baroda (Gaekwar's territory) and the Pandu Mehwas. Area,
including Halol petty division, 415 square miles. Population (1872)
66,431; (1881) 76,522, dwelling in 222 villages, and occupying
16,703 houses. The population is divided into 40,036 males and
36,486 females. Hindus numbered in 1881, 34,420 males and
31,145 females; total, 65,565; Muhammadans, 2551; and 'others,'
8406. Kalol forms a rich well-wooded plain, its fields fenced with
hedges and rows of brab palms, its villages compact and com-
fortable. Three rivers cross the Sub-division of Kalol proper from



KALOL—KALPl. 34i

east to west— the Mesri in the north, the Goma in the centre, and
the Karad in the south. These rivers are torrents in the rains and
trickhng streams in the winter season. Light or gordd soil lies all over

I this part of the country : the black cotton soil is not met with. The
petty division of Halol is a well-wooded and tilled plain surrounding

; the hill fort of Pawagarh. To the east and south, low isolated hills
stand out from a rich black soil plain, most of it waste. Especially
within four or five miles of the hills, the climate is unhealthy and the
water often deleterious. Three rivers, namely, the Karad, the Viswa-
mitri, and the Devnadi, cross the country from east to west. Water in
Kalol lies near the surface. Cultivation is rude, and the peasantry inert.
Average annual rainfall, 40 inches. Land revenue (including Halol),
^9807. The Sub-division, including Halol, contains 4 criminal courts;
police stations {thdfids)^ 2 ; regular police, 166 men. There are no
village watchmen {chaukiddrs), but village servants called Rawanias
perform both revenue and police duties.

Kalol.— Town in the Kalol Sub-division of Panch Mahals District,
Bombay Presidency. Kalol is the head-quarters of the Sub-division,
and lies in lat. 22° 37' n., and long. 73° 31' e. Population
(1872) 3993, mostly Kunbis, a caste of cultivators ; not returned
separately in the Census of 188 1. Of late the prosperity of Kalol has
been affected by the transfer of the trade of the region from Baroda
to Pali.

Kalol.— Sub-division of Baroda State, Bombay Presidency. Area,
288 square miles. Population (1881) 89,079, namely, 46,278 males
and 42,801 females, dwelling in 85 towns and villages, the density of
population being 309 persons to the square mile. Hindus numbered
84,296; Muhammadans, 2812; and Jains, 1971. The Sub-division is
a fairly-wooded and well-cultivated plain. No rivers or lakes exist ;
the Sabarmati just touches the western boundary. The rainfall in
1879-80 was 307 inches. Land revenue (1879-80), including
miscellaneous receipts from land, ^23,617. Total revenue, ;^27,i6i.
The number of holdings is 10,344 ; the average area of each
holding is 9J acres. The Rajputana-Malwa Railway crosses the
Sub-division.

Kalol.— Town in Kalol Sub-division, Baroda State, Bombay Presi-
dency. Lat. 23° 15' 35" N., long. 72° 33' E. Population (1872)
5585; (1881) 5859, namely, 2991 males and 2868 females; travellers'
bungalow; school; post-office. Kalol is a station on the Rajputana-
Malwa Railway.

Kalpi.— Town in Jalaun District, North- Western Provinces. Lat.
26° 7' 30" N., long. 79° 47' 15" E. Situated on the right bank of the
Jumna (Jamuna), among rugged ravines, 22 miles from Orai. Founded,
according to tradition, by Basdeo or Vasudeva, who ruled at Kamba.



342 KALPI.

from 330 to 400 A.D. In 1196 it fell to Kutab-ud-din, the viceroy
of Muhammad Ghori. In 1400 the country around Kalpi and
Mahoba was conferred upon Mahmiid Khan. Ibrahim Shah, the
Sharki prince of Jaunpur, laid siege to Kalpi several times during the
early part of the 15th century. In 1435, Hoshang, King of Malwa,
captured the city ; but seven years later, Mahmiid of Jaunpur, the
successor of Ibrahim, complained to the Malwa prince that his viceroy
at Kalpi neglected the laws of Islam, and obtained leave to chastise
him. On capturing the place, however, he refused to restore it. After
many intricate changes, Husain of Jaunpur was defeated in 1477, in a
great battle near Kalpi ; and the town with its dependencies was thence-
forth absorbed in the Provinces immediately subordinate to Delhi.
On the accession of Ibrdhim in 15 18, Jalal Khan obtained the govern-
ment of Jaunpur, and, having aroused the jealousy of the Sultan,
assumed the insignia of royalty at Kalpi, and marched to attack the
capital city of Agra. Being defeated, however, he fell ultimately into
the hands of a Gond prince, who delivered him up to Ibrahim. After
the battle of Panipat in 1526, the confederates who endeavoured to
drive out the Mughals occupied Kalpi, but were defeated by Babar at
Fatehpur Sikri.

During the Mughal period, Kalpi played so large a part in the
annals of this part of India, that it would be impossible to detail
its history at length. After the Marathas interfered in the affairs
of Bundelkhand, the head-quarters of their government were fixed
at Kalpi. At the time of the British occupation of Bundelkhand in
1803, Nana Gobind Rao seized upon the town. The British besieged
it in December of that year, and, after a few hours' resistance, it sur-
rendered. Kalpi was then included in the territory granted to Raja
Himmat Bahadur, on whose death, in 1804, it once more lapsed to
Government. It was next handed over to Gobind Rao, who exchanged
it two years later for villages farther to the west. Since that time,
Kalpi has remained a British possession. On the 23rd of May 1858,
Sir Hugh Rose (Lord Strathnairn) here defeated a large force of about
12,000 rebels, under the Rani of Jhansi, Rao Sahib, and the Nawab of
Banda.

Kalpi was formerly a place of far greater importance than at the
present day. It had a mint for copper coinage in the reign of Akbar ;
and the East India Company made it one of their principal stations for
providing their commercial investment. The town, which is situated
among rugged ravines, is in general meanly built, the houses being
chiefly of mud, though some of a better kind are built of nodular
limestone (kankar). The population, which appears to be steadily
decreasing, was returned at 18,514 in 1865, at 15,570 in 1872, and at
14,306 in 1 88 1. Classified according to religion, the population in



KALPI—KALSL 343

1881 consisted of — Hindus, 10,502; Muhammadans, 3802; and
Christians, 2. Area of town site, 852 acres. The municipal revenue,
' mainly derived from octroi duties, which in 1875-76 was returned at
;^i6o6, had fallen in 1882-83 '■O ^§38, or by one-half; average
incidence of municipal taxation, is. o^d. per head. A bridge of boats
on the Jhansi and Cawnpur road crosses the Jumna during the rainy
season, from June till October, and there are besides several ferries.
Good roads connect the town with Oral, Hamirpur, Banda, Jalaun,
and Jhansi.

The western outskirt of the town, along the river-side, contains a
large number of ruins, notably the tomb called the Eighty-four
Domes, and twelve other handsome mausoleums. At one time the
town adjoined these ruins, but it has gradually shifted south-eastward.
Ganeshganj and Ternanganj, two modern quarters in that direction,
at present conduct all the traffic. The buildings of the old com-
mercial agency crown some higher ground, but are now for the
most part empty. A ruined fort, situated on the steep bank of the
Jumna, overhangs the ghat. The principal business carried on is the
export of cotton, grain, etc., to Cawnpur, Mirzapur, and Calcutta, and
the town, although decreasing in population, is still a great emporium
of trade of the western states of Bundelkhand, via the Sagar road, and
also of a river traffic up and down the Jumna. Kalpi has also sugar-
candy and paper manufactures, which have a reputation throughout all
Upper India. The town is the head-quarters of an extra-Assistant
Commissioner, and contains, besides the usual sub-divisional courts, a
police station, dispensary, and good school.

Kalpi. — Village, with large bazar and market-place, on the right
bank of the Hiigli, in the District of the Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal ;
48 miles below Calcutta. Lat. 22° 4' n., long. Z'^" 18' e. The river at
this point forms an anchorage for vessels proceeding up or down.

Kalrayan. — Mountain range in Salem District, Madras Presidency ;
lying between 11° 38' and 11° 52' n. lat., and between 78° 31' 30" and
78° 46' E. long. ; averaging from 3000 to 4000 feet above sea-level.
Inhabited almost exclusively by Malayalis, who occupy about (id
hamlets. Total population (1872) 5992 ; (1881)6038. The principal
part of the group is in the middle of Atiir taluk. This portion is divided
into the Periya and Chinna (big and little) Kalrayan ; the latter is
held on favourable tenures by petty chiefs, who have nearly denuded it
of its forests. The forests on Periya Kalrayan are now under Government
care. The Malayalis pay tax, not on the land, but on their ploughs
and billhooks. Their great temple to Kari Raman is on the Periya
Kalrayan.

Kalsi.— Northern tahsil of Dehra Dun District, North-Western
Provinces, consisting of the rugged mountain region of Jaunsar BavvaR,



344 KALSI—KALU.

Area, 478 square miles, of which only 29 are cultivated. The popula-
tion of the tahsil was returned at 40,046 in 1872, and at 45^1 17 in
1 88 1, namely, males 25,400, and females 19,717- Classified according
to religion, there were in 1881— Hindus, 44,184 ; Muhammadans, 726;
Jains, 19; and 'others,' 188. Land revenue (1882), ;£262i ; total
Government revenue, including local rates and cesses, ^^30 17. In
1882-83, the tahsil contained 2 civil and 2 criminal courts, with
2 police stations ; strength of pohce force, 48 men.

Kalsi. — Town in Dehra Diin District, North- Western Province?, and
head-quarters of Kalsi tahsil. Lat 30° 32' 20" n., long. 77° 53' 25" e.;
situated close to the junction of the Jumna (Jamuna) with the Tons.
Probably a place of great antiquity, but containing in 188 1 a population
of only 854 persons. Tahsili school and charitable dispensary. The
famous Kalsi stone, found near this place, bears an inscription of
Asoka, the Buddhist emperor of Upper India (250 B.C.).

Kalsia.— One of the Cis-Sutlej States, under the Government of the
Punjab, lying between 30° 17' and 30° 25' N. lat., and between 77° 21'
and 77° 35' E. long. The founder of the family was Sardar Gur Bakhsh
Singh, who came from the village of Kalsia in the Punjab proper. His
son, Jodh Singh, a man of ability and prowess, effected considerable
conquests in the neighbourhood of Ambala towards the close of the
last century. When the Cis-Sutlej States came under British protection,
Sardar Jodh Singh, after some hesitation, followed the general example.
The present Sardar of Kalsia is Bishen Singh, a Sikh by religion, of a
Punjab Jat family. The area of the State is 178 square miles; esti-
mated revenue, ;^i 5,600. Population in 1881, 67,708, namely, Hindus,
41,636 ; Muhammadans, 19,930 ; Sikhs, 5923 ; Jains, 218 ; Christian, i.
Number of villages and towns, 179; number of houses, 11,933, of
which 931 1 were occupied, and 2622 unoccupied. Average density of
population, 380 per square mile. Principal products — wheat, cotton,
Indian corn, sugar, and saffron. The chief receives ^285 per annum
in perpetuity from the British Government, as compensation for the
abolition of custom duties. The military force consists of 50 cavalry,
260 infantry, 3 guns, and 8 artillerymen.

Kalsubai.— Hill in Nasik District, Bombay Presidency ; 5427 feet
high, and the most elevated point in the Deccan. Its summit is
crowned by a temple, ten miles south-east of Igatpuri, a station on
the north-east line of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. A priest of
Devi Kalsu daily climbs to the temple from Indor, a village at the foot
of the hill, to offer a sacrifice of fowls.

Kalu.— River in the Garo Hills District, Assam, which rises near the
station of Tura, in lat. 25° 29' n., and long. 90° 22' e., and flowing
west into Goalpara District, finally empties itself into the Brahmaputra.
Its chief tributary is the Baranasi or Rangkan. During the rainy season



KALUMBE—KALYAN. 345

it is navigable by boats of 2 tons burthen from Harigaon, on the frontier

I of Goalpara District, up to Damalgiri, which is within 1 2 miles of

iTura.

Kalumbe (or Kalumar).—T\i^ highest peak in the Bhanrer range,

I near Katangi, in Jabalpur District, Central Provinces ; 2544 feet about

I sea-level. Lat. 23° 28' n., long. 79° 47' e.

; Kalwan. — Sub-division of Nasik District, Bombay Presidency,
situated in the north-west of the District. Area, 554 square miles.
Population (1881) 58,486, namely, 29,930 males and 28,556 females,

! dwelling in 187 villages, and occupying 8847 houses. Hindus num-
bered 43,474; Muhammadans, 735; 'others' unspecified, 14,277.
Great part of the population (29,207) belong to the cultivating caste of
Kunbis. The west is covered with steep bare hills ; towards the east
the country, though flatter and more fertile, is divided by a spur running

I south-east from the Sahyadris ; in the south rises the high and rugged
Saptashring range, with its lower slopes fringed with teak. In 1880-81,
there were 4941 holdings, averaging 24 acres in extent, and paying an



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