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bordering on the Bhutan frontier, who dam the hill streams, and lead
the water over their fields by small artificial channels. Manure is
nowhere used. The principle of the rotation of crops is unknown, but
it is customary to allow dus land to lie fallow. The agricultural stock
of the District in 1882-83 is approximately returned as follows : — Cows
and bullocks, 301,136; horses and ponies, i486; donkeys, 13; sheep
and goats, 34,555; and pigs, 35,478.

The State is the supreme landlord throughout Assam, and settles its land
revenue demand directly with the cultivators. The number of tenants in
Kamriip in 1874-75 amounted to 109,504; in addition to whom there
are the nisf-khirdjddrs^ who pay half the ordinary rates for cultivated land.
Since 1867, ^^e following have been the rates of rent charged, which
show an increase of about twofold on those previously current : — Bdsiu,
or homestead lands, 6s. an acre ; rupit, or moist lands, 3s. 9d. an acre ;
pharmghdt'i., or dry lands, 3s. an acre. The total annual produce of an
acre of rupit land is returned at about 11 J cwts. of rice from the sdli
harvest, valued at about ;£"i, 2s. 6d. ; pharinghdti land yields about
8 J cwts. of dus rice, and 3 J cwts. of oil-seeds or pulses, valued alto-
gether at about ^i, 7s.

Ordinary coolies are paid at the rate of 12s. a month ; agricultural
labourers, 4jd. a day; skilled artisans receive as much as is. a day.
It is found extremely difficult to obtain coolies for Government
employment. Nearly all the inhabitants of the District are engaged
in tilling their own little plots, and they can take up spare land in


abundance at easy rates. Moreover, there is a deeply rooted pre-
judice in Assam, handed down from the days of Aham taskmasters,
that to work for Government entails irremediable disgrace. Young men
I prefer to emigrate to remote tea plantations, rather than assist in con-
■ str.ucting a road near their own villages. The average price of common
i rice is about 2s. 8d. a cwt. ; fine rice from Bengal fetches as much as
8s. a cwt. Indian corn sells at half a farthing per ear, sugar-cane at
one farthing per cane. During the Orissa famine of 1866, the highest
price reached by common rice was 8s. rod. a cwt.

The only natural calamity to which Kamriip is exposed is flood.
Drought and blight are alike unknown. The rising of the Brahmaputra,
and of the minor rivers, annually lays under water a considerable
portion of the country ; but these inundations have never been known
to affect the general harvest, because the flooded area is only occa-
sionally cultivated in patches. There are ten important lines of em-
bankment in the District of old date, and a demand exists for more of
these protective works.

The means of communication are amply sufficient to prevent a local
scarcity from at any time intensifying into famine. The main stream
of the Brahmaputra, intersecting the District, is at all seasons navigable
by steamers. During the rains, nearly every village is accessible by
boat ; and during the rest of the year, the country roads are in fair
order. These roads usually run along the ridges of old embankments,
and cross the rivers by wooden bridges. The Assam Trunk Road,
under the management of the Public Works Department, runs through
the south of the District for a distance of 96 miles. The Trunk Road
along the northern bank of the Brahmaputra is now in bad repair, and
hardly at all used. The new cart road from Gauhati to Shillong in the
Khasi Hills, the administrative head-quarters of the Province of Assam,
runs through Kamriip District for a distance of 15 miles as far as the
Kalang river. But the main goods traffic is nearly all carried by the
trading steamers on the Brahmaputra.

Manufactures, etc. — Manufactures can hardly be said to exist in
Kamriip. In each family there is a rough loom, on which the women
weave from silk and cotton the articles required for domestic use.
There is a special class called Marias, who support themselves by
making brass cups and plates. The cultivation and manufacture of tea
is conducted almost solely by European capital and under European
supervision, but the soil and climate are not so favourable as in Upper
Assam. The statistics for 1881 show 145 plantations, with 6186
acres under cultivation; the out-turn was 955,509 lbs.; 16 European
planters or assistants were employed, with 172 imported and 1197 local

The trade of the District is mainly in the hands of Kaya or Marwari

364 K AMR UP.

merchants from Rajputana (chiefly from Bikaner), and of Muhammadan
shopkeepers. The latter confine their operations to the towns of Gau-
hati and Barpeta. The main thoroughfare of trade is the Brahmaputra,
which is always open to steamers and large boats. Business is con-
ducted at a few permanent bazars, and at weekly hats or markets.
Three large trading fairs are held in the course of the year. The chief
export from the District consists of oil-seeds and timber; cotton and
various jungle products are also despatched down the Brahmaputra.
The articles received in exchange are Bengal table-rice, salt, piece-
goods, sugar, betel-nuts, cocoa-nuts, and hardware.

The American Baptist Mission at Gauhati is the only institution
established in the District.

Administration. — In 1870-71, the total revenue of Karnrup amounted
to ;£"i 19,980, towards which the land-tax contributed ^79,726, or 66
per cent., and abkdri or excise, ^2^30,41 2, or 25 per cent.; the total
expenditure was ^113,729, of which ;=^i5,577 was for charges of
collection, ^^20,62 2 for the Military Department, and ;Q\Z,\oo for
Public Works. In 1881-82, the total revenue had increased to
;£"i25,oo4 (of which ^90,777 was derived from the land); while the
expenditure had decreased to ^51,612. The land revenue is collected
directly from the cultivators, as throughout the rest of Assam proper.
The receipts from the land have nearly quadrupled within the last
thirty years. In 1850, the land revenue realized ;£"24,745 ; by 1881
this had increased to ^90,777. In addition, a house-tax, a relic of
the ancient revenue system, still levied from the nomadic cultivators
along the foot of the Bhutan Hills, at the rate of 4s. per house, yielded
^154 in 1881-82.

In 1 88 1, there were 7 magisterial and 5 civil courts open, besides 10
honorary magistrates with limited jurisdiction. In 1881, the regular
police force numbered 295 officers and men, maintained at a total
cost of ^^463 1. These figures show i policeman to every i3'07
square miles, or to every 2186 of the population. In addition, there is
a municipal police of 39 men in Gauhati town. There are no
chaukiddrs, or village watch, in any part of Assam proper. The
District contains one jail and one sub-divisional lock-up. In 1881,
the daily average number of prisoners was 304, of whom 298 were
labouring convicts, showing i person in jail to every 21 21 of the
population. The total cost amounted to ^1549, or ^5, 2s. lod.
per prisoner ; the jail manufactures yielded a net profit of ^87.
The prison death-rate was 1 1 "05 per thousand.

Education has made more progress in Kamriip than in any other
part of Assam. In 1856 there were 26 schools in the District, with
74 pupils. In 1870 these numbers had risen to 66 schools, with 2 114
pupils; by 1872, after the introduction of Sir G. Campbell's reforms.


the schools had further increased to 146, and the pupils to 3969 ;
and by 1882, when that system had received full development, the
schools numbered 232, and the pupils 6297. These last figures show
T school to every 16 square miles, and 9 pupils to every thousand of
the population. In 1882 the school expenditure was ;£'4455, towards
which Government contributed ^{^1882. The chief educational
establishment is the High School at Gauhati.

Kamriip District is divided into two administrative Sub-divisions, and
10 thdfids or police circles. The number of fiscal divisions in 1881-82
,was returned at 128, with 74 estates or tracts under a separate
viaiizdddr or revenue collector. The only municipality in the District
is Gauhati town, with an area of 2 square miles, and a population of
11,695 persons. In 1880-81, the municipal revenue amounted to
^2927, the average rate of taxation being 2s. 3|d. per head.

Medical Aspects. — The climate of the District does not differ from

that common to the whole of the Assam valley. The neighbourhood

of Gauhati is exceptionally unhealthy, being shut in between the

. Brahmaputra and a semicircle of low hills ; but much has recently

' been done in the way of sanitary improvements. The mean annual

, temperature is returned at 76° F., the thermometer seldom rising higher

I than 90°. The annual rainfall at Gauhati over a period of about thirty

I years has averaged 69-64 inches. The total rainfall in 1881 was 72-12

' inches, or 2*48 inches above the average. The prevailing direction of

the wind is from the north-east. During the cold weather, fogs gather

daily in the early morning over the valley of the Brahmaputra.

The endemic diseases are malarious fevers, dysentery, diarrhoea,
splenitis, scorbutis, and various forms of leprosy. Cholera, also,
periodically makes its appearance in an epidemic form. Small-pox is
said to be giving way before the growing practice of vaccination. It
has been observed that the universal habit of opium-eating renders the
natives less capable than elsewhere of recovering from the attacks of
disease. Vital statistics are collected in Assam by the viauzdddrs^
i a somewhat less inefficient agency than the chaukiddrs of Bengal. In
' t88i, their returns showed a death-rate of 14*9 per thousand. Out of
a total of 9614 deaths reported, 1503 were assigned to cholera, 988 to
bowel complaints, 5725 to fevers, and 429 to small-pox. There are
two dispensaries in the District, one at Gauhati and the other at
Barpeta, which were attended in 1881 by 257 in-door and 3630 out-
door patients ; the total income was ^335, towards which Government
contributed ^14. Kamriip is liable to be ravaged by several forms of
cattle disease, of which that known as inaiir^ and described as a
combination of cholera and dysentery, is especially fatal. [For further
information regarding Kamriip, see the Statistical Account of Assam,
by W. W. Hunter, vol. i. pp. 17-100 (London, Triibner & Co., 1879);


A Descriptive Account of Assam, by W. Robinson (1841) ; Report on the
Province of Assam, by A. J. Moffat Mills (Calcutta, 1854). See also
the Assam Census Report for 1881, and the several Annual Administra-
tion and Departmental Reports from 1880 to 1883.]

Kamsoli Moti and Kamsoli Nani.— Petty estates of the Sankhera
Mehwas, Gori group, in Rewa Kantha, Bombay Presidency. Together
with Jiral, these estates are owned by the same three proprietors who
hold the latter. The area of the three estates together amounts to 5
square miles. The revenue derived from Kamsoli Moti \s £120, and
the tribute paid to the Gaekwar of Baroda, £1^- The revenue from
Kamsoli Nani is ^100, and the tribute to the Gaekwar, ^12. The
revenue of Jiral is ^£"170, and the tribute to the Gaekwar, ^7. Owing
to disputes among the shareholders, the estates have been under British
management since 1870. — See Jiral.

Kamta Raj aula.— Petty State under the Bundelkhand Agency,
Central India. Area, 4 square miles. Population (1881) 1543, namely,
Hindus, 15 19, and Muhammadans, 24. Estimated revenue, ^300.
Kamta is a celebrated place of Hindu pilgrimage, being one of the
places where Rama is said to have stayed during his wanderings. The
chief, Rao Bharat Prasad, is a Hindu Kayasth. He holds a sanad of

Kamtaraild,la.— State forest, thickly wooded with sal, in Raipiir
District, Central Provinces, lying along an affluent of the Jonk river.
Area, 25 square miles.

Kamtha. — Zamlnddri estate in Tirora tahsil, Bhandara District,
Central Provinces, paying a quit-rent to Government of £\^^o,
and comprising 126 villages, with 13,511 houses. Area, 271 square
miles. Population (1881) 78,816, namely, males 38,891, and females
39,925. Conferred more than a century ago on a Kunbi family, it
was confiscated on their rebelling against the Rajd of Nagpur in 18 18,
and granted to the ancestor of the present chief, a Lodhi, whose
family, by payment of heavy fines, acquired the zamlnddri tenure or


Kamtha.— Village in Kamtha estate, Bhandara District, Central
Provinces. Lat. 21° 31' n., long. 80° 21' e. Population (1881)
161 2, chiefly agricultural. The chief of Kamtha has a handsome
residence, surrounded by a wall and moat. He provides the
conservancy, and has built a large dispensary at his sole expense. The
dispensary, however, was allowed to fall out of repair, and the establish-
ment has been removed to Tirora on the line of railway. Government
school, District post-ofhce.

Kamthi {Kamptce ; Kdmpti).—l.:ixgQ town and cantonment in Ndg-
pur District, Central Provinces. Lat. 21° 13' 30" n., long. 79° 14' 3°" e- ;
nine miles north-east of Nagpur city, immediately below the junction

KAN. 367

of the Kanhan with the Pench and Kolar rivers. Population
(1877) 48,831 ; (1881) 50,987, namely, males 26,344, and females
24,643. Classified according to religion, there were, in 1881 — Hindus,
36,364; Muhammadans, 11,076; Christians, 2396; Jains, 380;
Kabfrpanthis, 11; Parsis, 39; and aboriginal tribes, 721. The town
and cantonments form one municipality, but affairs are managed by
separate committees. Total municipal income in 1882-83, ^^S^'^^ of
which ;£^6245 was derived from octroi duties ; average incidence of
taxation, 2 s. 5|d. per head.

The military lines and Mzdrs are laid out along the right bank
of the Kanhan on the principle of a camp, except that the cavalry
are on the extreme left. A broad road, about four miles long, runs
right through, and is maintained at the expense of the cantonment
fund. In 1870, the military force, which till recently was a first-class
brigade command, belonging to the ]\Iadras establishment, consisted of
three batteries of European artillery, a regiment of Native cavalry, a
rec^iment of European infantry, and a regiment and a half of Native
infantry. The strength of the European troops has lately been reduced,
and now there is only one battery of European artillery stationed at
Kamthi. An extensive parade ground, south-east of the cantonment,
separates it from the town, which is built in broad and regular streets,
and in 1881 contained 14,391 houses. A considerable trade is carried
on in cattle, country cloth, salt, and European piece-goods. The
Marwaris have the grain trade almost entirely in their hands. There is
also a brisk traffic in timber, floated down the rivers to the town. The
latest town improvements are — an excellent masonry tank, constructed
partly at the cost of Bansilal Abirchand Rai Bahadur, an influential
resident; the Temple Gardens, for recreation; a good sanii ; and a
large central market-place.

A fine bridge, erected at a cost of about ;£'9o,ooo, spans the Kanhan
river at the east end of the cantonment, and is crossed by the Nagpur
and Chhatisgarh State Railway, which has a station at Kamthi. The
town has its dispensary, schools, and dharmsdlds for travellers ; and
the cantonment contains a large building used for public purposes.
There is a commodious Protestant church, built in 1833 ; and a Roman
CathoUc establishment of the order of St. Francis de Sales, with a
convent and church ; in addition to 5 Muhammadan mosques and 70
Hindu temples.

Kamthi dates only from the establishment of the cantonment in
1821. It used to be thought unhealthy, but, owing to sanitary
improvements, the death-rate of late years has greatly decreased. The
supply of water is drawn chiefly from the Kanhan, supplemented by a
large tank and 460 wells.

Kan. — River of Malwa, Central India. — See Khan.


Kana-Damodar. — Watercourse in Hiigli District, Bengal; for-
merly one of the main outlets of the Damodar into the Hiigli. It
branches off from the present Damodar near the point where the Kana
nadi leaves that river, and flows southwards through Hiigli District
parallel to the Damodar. In the lower portion of its course it is known
as the Kansona khdl, under which name it enters the Hiigli river
about 5 miles above Raipur and i mile north of Ulubaria.

Kand-igiri. — Fort in Nellore District, Madras Presidency.— 6"^^


Kana-nadi.— Watercourse in Hiigli District, Bengal ; formerly the
main channel of the Damodar, but now a petty stream. It branches off
from the present Damodar near Salimabad in South Bardwan, whence
it flows south-east and east through Hiigli District till it joins the Ghia
7iadi, when, under the name of the Kunti nadi or Naya-sarai khdl, it
falls into the Hiigli river at Naya-sarai, thus establishing a connection
between the Damodar and the Hiigli. A cutting was recently made
through the silted-up mouth of this river ; the silt having shut off the
villages from their water-supply. It now carries off a considerable
portion of the Damodar water, and is largely made use of for irrigation.

Kanandaglidi.— Town in the Tanjore taluk of Tanjore District,
Madras Presidency. Lat. io° 39' n., long. 79° 20' e. Population
(1871) 2840; (1881) 1779, occupying 236 houses. Hindus numbered
1700, and Christians 79. Formerly an important station of theS. P. G.

Kanara (Canara), North. — District of Bombay Presidency, in
the western Karnatic, between lat. 13° 52' and 15° 31' n., and between
long. 74° 10' and 75° 7' e. Bounded on the north by Belgaum
District ; on the east by Dharwar District and Mysore State ; on the
south by South Kanara, in the Madras Presidency ; on the west for
about 76 miles by the Arabian Sea; and on the north-west by the
territory of Goa. Area, 391 1 square miles. Population {1881)
421,840 persons. Chief town and seaport, Karwar. The District is
not 'to be confounded with the District of South Kanara in Madras.
North Kanara is the most southerly of the coast Districts of the
Bombay Presidency.

Physical Aspects.— i:\iQ Sahyadri range of the Western Ghats, vary-
ing in height from 2500 to 3000 feet, runs through the District from
north to south, dividing it into two parts, viz. the uplands or Balaghat
(area, about 3000 square miles), and the lowlands or Payanghat (area,
about 1300 square miles). The coast-line is only broken by the
Karwar headland in the north, and by the estuaries of four rivers and
the mouths of many smaller streams, through which the salt water finds
an entrance into numerous lagoons winding several miles inland. The
shore, though generally sandy, is in some parts rocky. Fringing its


margin, and behind the banks of the brushwood-bordered lagoons, rise
groves of cocoa-nut pahiis, and inland from this line of palms stretches
a narrow strip of level rice land. The whole breadth of the lowlands,
never more than 15 miles, is in some places not more than 5 miles
From this narrow belt rise a few smooth, flat-topped hills, from 200 to
300 feet high ; and at places it is crossed by lofty, rugged, densely-
wooded spurs, which, starting from the main range of the Sahyadri
Hills, maintain almost to the coast a height of not less than 1000 feet.
Among these hills lie well-tilled valleys of garden and rice land. The
plateau of the Balaghat is irregular, varying from 1500 to 2000 feet in
height. In some parts the country rises into well-wooded knolls, in
others it is studded by small, isolated, steep hills. Except on the banks
of streams and in the more open glades, the whole is one broad waste
of woodland and forest. The open spaces are dotted over with hamlets
or parcelled out into rice clearings.

Stretching across the watershed of the Sahyadri Hills, North Kanara
contains two sets of rivers — one flowing west to the Arabian Sea, the
other east towards the Bay of Bengal. Of the eastern streams, the
Warda, a tributary of the Tungabhadra, alone calls for mention. Of
those that flow westwards, four are of some importance — the Kali in
the north, the Gangawali and Tadri in the centre, and the Shirawati in
the south. The last of these, plunging over a cliff 825 feet in height,
about 35 miles above the town of Honawar, forms the famous Gersoppa
Falls. Along the coast, the quality of the water is good, and the supply
throughout the year abundant. Total number of wells in 1881, 25,744.

The prevailing rocks are granite and trap, the former largely pre-
dominating. At the base of the granite hills, laterite formation is
common. Along the coast from Karwar to Honawar, the surface rock
is almost entirely hard laterite, a stone admirably adapted for building
purposes. Iron-ore occurs in some portions of the District, and lime-
stone is found in the valley of Yan, about 18 miles from Kiimpta

The forests of North Kanara give its character to the District.
They flourish both below and above the line of the Sahyadri Hills,
and have, during past years, yielded an average annual net revenue
of ;£"39,307. Though all the forests contain many varieties of trees,
they may be arranged in three classes, severally distinguished by the
predominance of ain (Terminalia tomentosa), teak (Tectona grandis),
and the Karvi bush. Along the Kali river and its affluent, the Renery,
stretch fine forests of teak trees, with smooth, shapely stems, rising
without a branch to a height of 70 feet. The working of the reserves is
under the direct charge of the Forest Department. Each season, the
trees suited for felling are marked by the forest officers; and the timber,
when cut, is removed by contract to a depot, and there sold by public



auction. The cultivators are allowed to gather dry wood for fuel, and
leaves for manure, and to cut bamboos and brushwood for their huts
and cattle-sheds. They are also supplied, free of charge, with such
timber as they require for their own use. In former years, most of the
produce of the Kanara forests went westwards to the sea-coast, finding
its chief markets in Bombay and Gujarat (Guzerat). Of late years the
sea trade has fallen off, and the bulk of the timber is now taken eastward
to the open country in and beyond Dharwar.

Kanara is almost the only part of the Bombay Presidency abounding
in wild animals. Tigers, common and black leopards, bears, hyaenas,
wild dogs, bison, sdmbhar, and wild hog are still numerous. Several
varieties of deer, porcupines, hares, jackals, foxes, and wild cats
are also to be found. Of winged game there are pea-fowl, jungle-
fowl, florican, spur-fowl, partridges, snipe, quail, duck, widgeon, and

History. — The early history of the North Kanara District is included
in the succeeding article on South Kanaka. Until 1861, North
Kanara formed part of the Presidency of Madras. In that year, on the
ground of its nearness to Bombay and the close mercantile relations
existing between the Bombay merchants and the traders of Karwar,
Kumpta, and Honawar, the District was transferred to the Bombay

Popiilatioji, etc. — The Census of 1872 disclosed a total population of
398,406 persons, residing in 1065 villages and 91,593 houses; density
of population, 94 per square mile ; houses per square mile, 2 1 ; persons
per village, 374; persons per house, 4*35. The Census of 17th
February 1881 discovered a population of 421,840 ; so that in the nine
years since the previous Census the population had increased by 23,434.
The population (421,480) occupied 7 towns and 102 villages, dwelHng
in 68,832 houses ; average density, 107*9 persons per square mile.
Classified according to sex, there were, in 1881 — males 223,005, and
females 198,835; proportion of males, 52*8 per cent. Towns and
villages per square mile, 0*28 ; houses per square mile, 19*1 ; persons
per house, 6-12. Of the whole population, 153,214, or 36 per
cent., are under 15 years of age. The religious classification shows
381,328 Hindus, 24,282 Musalmans, 17 Parsis, 14,509 Christians,
1669 Jains, 25 Jews, and 10 Buddhists. Among Hindus, the most
noteworthy class is the Havik Brahmans (63,865), who make their
livelihood by spice and areca-nut gardens. Rajputs number 344;
Kunbis, 51,057; Kumbhars, 2161; Lobars (blacksmiths), 834; Mahar
or Dhers, 15,785; Sonars (goldsmiths), 10,158; Sutars, 3220; Telis
(oilmen), 1971 ; 'other' Hindus 231,933. Muhammadans are dis-
tributed as follows :—Pathans, 2155; Sayyids, 2773; Shaikhs, 18,9:4;
' others,' 400.

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 7) → online text (page 44 of 57)