William Wilson Hunter.

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that goats or buffaloes did quite as well for the Earth-god under British
rule as human sacrifices. Hitherto they had consisted of separate
tribes, always at war with each other and with the world. Under able
English administrators (especially Campbell, Macpherson, and Caden-
head), human sacrifices were abolished, and the Kandhs were formed
into a united and peaceful race (1837-45). The British officer removed
their old necessity for tribal wars and family blood-feuds by setting
himself up as a central authority. He adjusted their inter-tribal disputes,
and punished heinous crimes. Major Samuel Charters Macpherson, in
particular, won over the more troublesome clans to quiet industry. He
made the chiefs vain of carrying out his orders by small presents of
cattle, honorific dresses, and titles. He enlisted the w^hole race on his
side by picking out their best men for the police ; and drew the tribes
into amicable relations among themselves by means of hill-fairs. He
constructed roads, and taught them to trade, with a view to " drawing
them from their fastnesses into friendly contact with other men." The
race has prospered and multiplied under British rule. " The voluntary
and permanent acknowledgment of our sovereignty," wTote Macpherson,
" must depend upon our ability to discharge beneficially and acceptably
towards them the duty of sovereignty. They will yield allegiance to us
only in return for advantages which are suited in form and in spirit to


their leading ideas, and to their social wants." The patriarchal authority
within each Kandh tribe was still perfect, but centuries of clan feuds
had taught them the evils caused by the want of any power sufficiently
strong to enforce arbitration between the various tribes. "Justice,"
continued Macpherson, " betwixt the independent societies, is, in a
word, the great want felt by all." Setting out with this idea of Govern-
ment having a right to exist only if it could discharge certain specific
functions really required by the people, this young officer gradually
gained over the priesthood and the village heads. He appealed to their
passionate desire to own land, by grants of jungle tracts of little use to
us but a paradise to them, and where he could keep them well under
his eye. But while he thus laboured by gentle and politic devices to win
the affections of the race, he made it distinctly understood that such
measures of conciliation would, if necessary, be enforced by the British
power. The Kandhs are now a peaceable, easily-managed race ; and
Hindu traders journey with safety through the recesses of their hills.'

Kandi. — Sub-division of Murshidabad District, Bengal. Area, 389
square miles, with 618 towns or villages, and 62,500 houses, of which
57,242 are occupied. Total population (18S1) 223,958, namely, males
106.166, and females 117,792 ; proportion of males in total population,
47-4 per cent.; average density, 57573 persons per square mile;
towns or villages per square mile, i'59; persons per village, 362;
houses per square mile, 160*67 \ persons per house, 3'9i. Hindus
numbered 156,807 ; Muhammadans, 66,936; and aboriginal tribes, 215.
In 1873, the Sub-division of Kandi was abolished in consequence
of transfers to and from Birbhiim. It was, however, reconstituted as
a Sub-division of Murshidabad, but with a reduced area, in 1879. It
comprises the three police circles of Kandi (including Baruah), Bharat-
pur, and Khargaon. In 1883 it contained i civil and i revenue court,
with a regular police force of 129 men, and a village watch of 1684

Kandi {ox /dmu Kdnd'i). — Town and municipality in Murshidabad
District, Bengal, and head - quarters of the Kandi Sub - division ;
situated in the extreme south-east of the District, at the point
where the river Mor enters from Birbhiim. Lat. 23° 58' n., long.
88° 5' \" E. Population (1872) 12,016; (1881) 10,661, namely,
Hindus 9309, and Muhammadans 1352. Municipal income in 1882,
^772. Kandi owes much of its importance to the circumstance that
it is the residence of the Rajas of Paikpara, a wealthy and devout
Hindu family. The founder of this family was Ganga Govind Singh,
the baniyd of Warren Hastings, who was born at Kandi, and retired
thither in his old age with an immense fortune, which he devoted
to the erection of shrines and images of Krishna. His name has
acquired a traditional celebrity for the most magnificent sraddha^ or


funeral obsequies, ever performed in Bengal. This was celebrated in
honour of his mother, and is stated to have cost 20 lakhs of rupees, or
;£'2oo,ooo. The guests on the occasion included the Rajas and
zammddrs of half Bengal, presided over by the Brahman Raja Sib
Chandra of Krishnagar, in Nadiya. They are said to have been fed ;
with fresh holy rice from Jagannath, brought by relays of posts from
Puri to Kandi.

Kandiaro. — Tdluk of Naushahro Sub-division, Haidarabad District,
Sind, Bombay Presidency, situated between 26° 54' 30" and 27° 15' n.
lat., and between 68° 7' 45" and 68° 30' 30" e. long. Population
(1872) 47,768; (1881) 39,336, namely, 20,471 males and 18,865
females, dwelling in 7180 houses. Muhammadans numbered 31,007,
or 78-8 per cent, of the total; Hindus, 1958; Sikhs, 6304; aboriginal
tribes, 59; and Christians, 8. Area, 315 square miles; number of
tapds^ 7; number of towns, 2; villages, 61. Revenue in 1880-81,
^^871, of which ;^8i8 was derived from imperial and ^£"53 from local
sources. In 1882-83, of the total area (55,831 acres) assessed for
land revenues, 41,927 acres were under cultivation. The tdluk con-
tains 2 criminal courts \ police stations {thdnds), 4 ; regular police,
23 men.

Kandiaro. — Town in the Kandiaro tdhik^ Naushahro Sub-division,
Haidarabad (Hyderabad) District, Sind, Bombay Presidency ; situated
on the Nasrat Canal, in lat. 27° 4' n., and long. 68° 15' e. Distant
north-east from Tharu Shah 10 miles, from Kamal Dero 6 miles,
Darbelo 6 miles, Bhiria 10 miles, Mohbat Dero Jatoi 7 miles, Mohbat
Dero Sial 10 miles, and Lakha 6 miles, with all which places it has
road communication. Kandiaro is the head - quarters station of a
■jiiukhtidi'kdr and tapaddr^ with their establishments, and has police
lines for 11 men. There are, besides, a subordinate judge's court,
post-office, market, school-house, District bungalow, and dhannsdla.
The municipality, established in February 1861, had an income in
1882-83 of ^145; municipal expenditure, ;£"io8; incidence of taxa-
tion, IS. per head of municipal population. Population (1872) 2578;
(1881) 2367. The principal occupation of the people is agriculture,
but the Hindu portion of the inhabitants are engaged in trade, which
is mainly in grain and cloth. Manufactures of coarse paper and
country cloth. The town of Kandiaro is said to have been built
during the reign of the Emperor Jahangir. Before it was built, there
was another in existence close to it, called Patoipur, which was aban-
doned, owing to an unusual rise of the inundation waters. The site of
the present town was then chosen as being somewhat more elevated ;
and having at the time a large number of kaiidi (Prosopis spicigera)
trees growing upon it, the place took, it is supposed, from this
circumstance the name of Kandiaro.


Kandili.— Town in Narsinghpur District, Central Provinces.— 6"^^

I Kandrawan.— Town in Salon iahsil, Rai Bareli District, Oudh ;
situated on the bank of the Ganges on the road from Salon to Mustaf-
abad, 30 miles from Rai Bareli town, and 6 from Manikpur. Popula-
tion (1881) 3599, namely, 3525 Hindus, and 74 Muhammadans.
I Government school. Temple to Mahddeo.

Kandukur. — TJzV//^ or Sub-division of Nellore District, Madras
Presidency. Lat. 14° 59' to 15° 30' n., long. 79' 40' to 80° 10' e.
Area, 718 square miles. Population (1881) 126,757, namely, 63,449
males and 63,308 females, dwelling in 168 villages, containing 23,552
houses. Hindus number 119,005 ; Muhammadans, 5249; Christians,
2501; and 'others,' 2. The country consists of extensive plains
devoted to dry crop cultivation on a superior soil. The cattle are
celebrated throughout the Presidency. Every village has a handsome
tope or cluster of trees. In the western part of the tdliik is situated
the zam'mddri of Chundi, separated from the Kanigiri taluk by a range
of hills running north and south for about 15 miles. They are of
considerable elevation, and the slopes are covered with dense jungle.
In 1883 there were 2 criminal courts; police circles {thdnds), 12;
regular police, 83 men ; land revenue, ^27,974.

Kanduklir. — Town in the Kandukiir tdliik of Nellore District,
Madras Presidency. Lat. 15° 12' 20" n., long. 79° 57' e. Population
(1871) 7101; (1881) 6601, namely, 3282 males and 3319 females,
dweUing in 1269 houses. Hindus numbered 5423; Muhammadans,
1117 ; and Christians, 61. It is the head-quarters of Kandukiir tdluk,
and contains an old hill fort. Noted for its breed of cattle. Tahsilddr's
court ; post-office.

Kaner. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency ; consisting
of I village. Situated three miles to the north-west of Lakhapadar
thdjid. Population (1881) 248. Estimated revenue in 1876,^200;
tribute of ^19, los. paid to the Gaekwar of Baroda.

Kanera. — Village in Udaipur Native State, Rajputana. Situated
80 miles east of Udaipur city. The site of an annual fair. A celebrated
temple is here built under a precipice, near which is a curious
horizontal cleft in the rock, containing a small pool, from which slightly
warm water constantly trickles. The temple is known as that of Sup-

Kangayam {Kongium, Kongu). — Town in the Dharapuram taluk of
Coimbatore District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 11° i' n., long. 77°
36' E. Population (1871) 6553 ; (1881) 5238, namely, 2515 males and
2723 females; number of houses, 11 78. Hindus, 5128; Muhammadans,
105 ; and Christians, 5. Head-quarters, till 1874, of a Sub-Collector.
Once famous for its breed of cattle. A market town, connected by


good roads with 3 railway stations. In the name of this town lingers
the only trace of the ancient kingdom of Kongu.

Kdngra. — District in the Lieutenant-Governorship of the Punjab,
lying between 31° 20' and 33° n. lat., and between 75° 39' and 78° 35' e
long. Kangraforms the north-eastern District of the J alandhar(Jullundu^
Division. This vast tract stretches eastwards from the plain country k
the Bari and Jalandhar Doabs over the Himalayan ranges, and far into
Tibet. It is bounded on the north-east by the great Himalayan ranje
which forms the valley of the Upper Indus, and separates the Distrpt
from the Tibetan region of Rakshu and the territories of the Chinee
Empire; on the south-east by the Hill States of Bashahr (Bassahir),
Mandi, and Bilaspur (Kahlur) ; on the south-west by Hoshiarpir
District ; and on the north-west by the Chaki torrent which divides it
from the hill portion of Gurdaspur District, and by the Native State of
Chamba. The District is divided into five tahsils or Sub-divisions, of
which those of Hamirpur, Dera, and Niirpur proceeding from east
to west lie along the south-western border, together with the
Kangra valley, among or below the outer Himalayas. The Kangra
tahsil occupies the centre of the District, and connects by a narrow
neck, known as Bangahal, the three first-named tahsils with the out-
lying tract that forms the Kiilu tahsil. This last includes Kiilu Proper
to the south of the Pir Panjab or mid-Himdlayan range ; and the out-
lying cantons of Lahul and Spiti, which may be said to belong
geographically rather to Tibet than to India. Kangra stands
second in order of area, and ninth in order of population, among the
32 Districts of the Punjab, comprising 8-51 per cent, of the total area,
and 3-88 per cent, of the total population of the Province. Area,
9069 square miles. Population (1881) 73O5S45 persons. The
administrative head-quarters are at the sanitarium of Dharmsala, '
among the spurs of the Dhaola Dhar, about twelve miles north-east of
Kangra town.

Physical Aspects.— T\iQ District of Kangra is an artificial administra-
tive division, comprising a vast and heterogeneous tract, which extends
eastward from the plain country of the Bari and Jalandhar (Jullundur)
Doabs, across two distinct Himalayan ranges, far into the heart of Tibet.
In shape it forms two separate blocks, lying on either side of the outer
Himalayan chain, which bounds the horizon of the Punjab plains. The
western block, which constitutes Kangra Proper, consists of an irregular
triangle, whose base lies upon the Hoshiarpur border, while the Native
States of Chamba and Mandi constrict its upper portion to a narrow |
neck, known as Bangahal, at one point less than ten miles in width. |
Beyond this point, the eastern block expands once more like an 1
hour-glass, and embraces the mid-Himalayan tract of Kulu, with i
the Tibetan Sub-divisions of Lahul and Spiti. The District thus.


naturally falls into three parts ; the sub-Himalayan country of Kangra
Proper, with an area of 2620 square miles, and a population of 613,626,
or 234 per square mile; the mid-Himdlayan tract, includmg the
Kiilu valley, and Bangahal (lying partly on the Kangra and partly on
the Kiilu side of the outer range), with an area of 2039 square miles
and a population of 108,497, or 53 per square mile; and the rugged
outer region of the Tibetan slopes, comprising the cantons of Lahul
and Spiti, with an area of 4410 square miles, and a population of 8722,
or only 2 persons per square mile.

The heights of these ridges and the interlying valleys increase m a
progressive ratio as they recede from the plains. Budi Pmd, on the
border of Hoshiarpur District, has an elevation of only 937 feet
above sea-level, the first or lower range has an average elevation of
between 3500 and 4000 feet, while the third range rises to elevations
varying from 3900 to 15,956 feet in the Dhaola Dhar or Snowy Range,
which forms the northern boundary of Kangra Proper. Beyond this, a
transverse ridge, the Bara Bangahal, towers in Kiilu into peaks of from
17,000 to over 20,000 feet.

The breadth of these ranges and the intervening distances are very
uncertain and arbitrary. The ridge which bounds the plams has a
uniform width of about twelve miles, and the sides descend m nearly
equal angles from the summit. The second range does not possess the
same simplicity of structure, though generally more regular than any of
the ranges to the north. In its upper portion, the declivities on either
flank slope gradually down, affording sites for villages and terraced
cultivation. But when the chain divides into two separate branches,
the aspect is essentially altered ; the hills rise abruptly from the valley
below, and the ascent on both sides becomes toilsome and severe ; the
inclination is too great for anything but forest and underwood to grow.
There is usually, however, a good deal of table-land at the top; and
though the sides are uninhabited, the crest of the range is occupied by
villages, and assiduously cultivated. To the north of this range, the
hills run into every variety of form and structure. As a general rule,
the southern slopes are wild and forbidding, and the crests rugged and
angular, affording scarcely room for the foot to tread. But the northern
flank of such a range will often offer a striking contrast. The descent
becomes gradual and easy, and the jungle and rocks which obstructed
the traveller on the other side give way to open fields and farm-houses,
extending in successive tiers to the stream below. The contour of the
snowy range itself, the Dhaola Dhdr. is of the same nature. Its appear-
ance towards the plains is abrupt and perpendicular ; while the northern
spurs sweep in long and gentle slopes to the river Ravi. In other
parts, again, the entire range will be covered with dense woods, unre-
lieved by a single trace of 'ivilised life. Here and there, on crags

41 o KANGRA.

more than usually steep, is a hill fort, once the scene of border hopes
and jealousies, but now a mass of dismantled ruins deepening the
original solitude of the place. Occasionally the hills subside into
undulating knolls, scarcely to be distinguished from the level of the
valleys. Here the accessible character of the country has early attracted
settlers, and the whole expanse teems with the fruits of human industry.

The Dhaola Dhar range cuts into two halves the taluk of Bangahal,
which, while forming a portion of the Kangra tahsil^ is the connecting
link between Kangra Proper and Kiilu. The northern half is called
Bara Bangahal, and is separated from Kiilu by the Bara Bangahal range,
a transverse range about 15 miles in length, with a mean elevation of
18,000 feet, connecting the Dhaola Dhar with the central Himalayan
range, which, with an area of 290 square miles, contains only one village
situated at the lowest point of the valley, some 8500 feet above the sea,
and inhabited by some forty Kanet families. A few years ago a number
of the houses were swept away, not for the first time, by an avalanche.
On more than three sides the mountains slope steeply up from the very
banks of the Ravi, whose head-waters are situated in this tract, and rise
into peaks of from 17,000 to over 20,000 feet in height. Near the
bottom of some of the ravines there is a good deal of pine forest ; higher
up come long bare slopes, which, when the snows are melted, afford
splendid grazing for some three months for numerous flocks of sheep
and goats. Above these grazing grounds come glaciers, bare rocks, and
fields of perpetual snow. The southern half of Bangahal is called
Chhota Bangahal, and is divided into two parts by a branch range of
over 10,000 feet in height thrown out by the Dhaola Dhar. Some
eighteen or nineteen small villages, inhabited solely by Kanets and
Daghis, are scattered here and there in the lower part of the valleys.
The slope of the ground is everywhere very steep, and the general
appearance of the country wild and gloomy. The rest of the taluk is
known as Bir Bangahal, and forms one of the prettiest parts of the
District. In physical features as well as in scenery it resembles the
country along the foot of the Dhaola Dhar.

The three parallel lines of mountain ranges, with a transverse ridge,
form four main basins, in each of which a great river takes its rise
— the Beas (Bias), the Spiti, the Chenab, and the Ravi. The Beas
has its origin in the Rohtang mountains, north of Kulu, and, after
flowing southward for about 50 miles, traverses the State of Mandi, and
then drains the whole valley of Kangra Proper, and passes on into
the Punjab plain. The Spiti, rising in the Tibetan valley of the same
name, runs due south to join the Sutlej (Satlaj) in the Native State of
Bashahr. The Chenab springs from the slopes of Lahul, and runs
north of the central Himalayas into the State of Chamba ; while the
Ravi, draining the Bangahal valley, keeps to the south of the same


chain and flows north-westward, also into Chamba. From the great
variety of the different tracts included in the District by modern arrange-
iments, it is impossible to assign any general physical peculiarities to
the whole beyond their common characteristic as mountainous regions,
intersected by snowy chains and scored by deep river valleys. The
western portion, abutting on the Punjab plains, admits of cultivation,
land supports a comparatively dense Hindu population ; while the bare
and sterile eastern glens of Spiti are sparsely inhabited by a Tibetan
race. Further particulars will be found under the separate headings
of Kangra Proper, Kulu, Lahul, and Spiti.

Forests.— 1:\\^ area occupied by forest is roughly estimated at 300,000
acres. The forests are situated for the most part on the northern slopes
of the ranges, and contain much useful timber ; while, owing to the
great range of elevation, all zones are represented, from the tropical
bamboo which clothes the lower hills, to the alpine vegetation, oak,
pine, and rhododendron of the higher ranges. Merchants from Ludhiana
: occasionally come up and cut the extensive bamboo forests in the neigh-
jbourhood of the river Sutlej. Of pines by far the commonest and most
! useful is the chil (Pinus longifolia), which grows luxuriantly on the
I northern declivity of the inner hills. Detached trees are found in the
'jawala Mukhi valley at an elevation of only 1600 feet above sea-level,
and the same species is found in the snowy ranges as high as 7000 feet.
The luxuriance and compactness of the timber increase with the eleva-
tion up to 5000 or 6000 feet, and the climate of this region is the best
' suited for its development ; above and below this point the tree gradu-
ally deteriorates. The wood of this tree is not held in much repute,
and if allowed to lie in the forest exposed to the weather, the timber
becomes perfectly decomposed in the course of two years. It is largely
used for conversion into charcoal ; and in the more accessible situations,
this tree has now become scarce. Two other species of pine are found
in the snowy range above Dharmsala, growing at an elevation of from
8000 to 11,000 feet— the rai (Abies Smithiana) and the tos (Abies
Webbiana); but although the trees are exceedingly handsome, with
straight stems, and attain a height of from 90 to 100 feet in height, the
timber is said to be inferior to that of the did, and is only utilized for
cutting shingles for roofing. The deodar or kelu (Cedrus deodara) is
not found in Kangra Proper, but fine forests exist in the Kiilu Sub-
division. In the Dhaola Dhar range and in Kiilu are many varieties of
oak. The commonest kind is the ban (Quercus incana), which grows
at an elevation of between 3000 and 8000 feet. Another variety of
oak, the kharsui (Quercus semecarpifolia), grows at an elevation of
8000 feet, and ascends beyond even the range of pines. The other
Himalayan trees include several varieties of rhododendron, the horse
chestnut, holly, sycamore, yew, elder, wild medlar, a species of poplar,


and the birch. In the lower ranges and valleys are isolated trees of
tiin (Cedrela toona) and shisham (Dalbergia sissoo). There is only
one forest of sal (Shorea robusta), at Andreta in the Palam valley.
Several species of acacia are found in the lower hills bordering on the
plains, the two most valuable being the siris (Acacia sirissa), and the
khair (Acacia catechu). The other valuable timber trees include the
jainiin (Eugenia Jambolana), arjun (Terminalia Arjuna) kakar or
kakren (Rhus punjabensis), a handsome yellow-grained wood, karamhh
(Zizyphus xylopyra), kaivial (Ficus infectoria), badror (Machilus
odoratissimus), and the chdinba (Jasminum revolutum). The banyan
tree, bor or bar (Ficus indica), the p'lpal (Ficus religiosa), and the
sembhalor simtil (Bombax heptaphyllum), are commonly found up to an
elevation of 4000 feet. One of the most common trees on the ridges of
the fields is the dhdman^ the branches of which are cut in winter as
fodder for the cattle. Wild fruits include the cherry, raspberry, black-
berry, barberry, strawberry, medlar, fig, and ber (Zizyphus jujuba).
Almost every dwelling in the hills is encircled with fruit-trees of various
kinds in a half-wild, half-cultivated state. The most common cultivated
fruit-trees are the mulberry, mango, plantain, peach, pomegranate, lime,
citron, orange, and in the higher villages walnut and apricot. In gardens
belonging to the more wealthy classes may be added the vine, apple,
plum, and guava.

Minei-als. — Valuable metal ores are known to exist in the Kangra
hills, and are worked with sufficient results to meet local demands;
but difficulties of carriage, and scantiness of fuel in the vicinity of
the works, have hitherto formed an effectual bar to the prospect
of profitably working the mines on a large scale. Iron is the
metal most largely worked, but antimony, lead, and copper are
also found. Gold in minute quantities exists in the sands of the
Beas. Coal, or rather lignite, is also produced, but in insignificant
quantities. The iron mines, eight in number in 1883, are in the
Bangahal tract, which extends for some 14 miles along the banks of the
river Ul, its centre being at the village of Dharmani, where the principal
mines are situated. The ore is in the form of crystals of magnetic
oxide of iron embedded in decomposed and friable mica schists, and is
worked from open quarries. It is one of the most valuable forms of
ore, being readily reduced by charcoal, in furnaces of the simplest

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 7) → online text (page 49 of 57)