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means of communication in the District will hereafter avert the extremity
of famine by importation from other tracts.

Commerce and Manufactures. — The trade of the District centres at
Jabalpur town, which is one of the most important railway centres in
India. One of the chief manufactures is iron. The most productive
mines are at Jauli, Agaria, Saroli, and Partabpur. The total number of
these mines worked in 1882 was 48. Coal is found at Ramghat,
Bheraghdt, and near Singapur on the Mahdnadi; but the most


promising seam occurs near Lametaghat. This coal was worked for a
short time in 1868 by a railway contractor, and about 1000 tons
extracted. The contractor, however, died, and the seam has been
abandoned. Further examinations are being made by the Geological
Survey Department. The limestone of the hills at Bheraghdt has a
high reputation ; and Murwara supplies a limestone said to be suited
for lithographic purposes, which fetches a high price in the Calcutta
market. The other manufactures of the District consist of brass
utensils, cotton cloth, and leather articles. Tents and carpets also are
made at Jabalpur, both in the School of Industry and by private persons.
There were, in 1882, 303 miles of roads in the District, entirely of the
second class. The best are those to Mirzdpur on the north, and to Seoni
on the south, the former of which is one long avenue of trees. Fair-
weather roads lead to Sagar and to Narsinghpur; and the route to
Mandla has lately been improved. The District enjoys no means of
communication by w^ater ; but the railroad amply compensates for this

Jabalpur tow^n is perhaps the most important railway station in India,
being the junction of the East Indian and Great Indian Peninsula
systems. The Jabalpur branch of the East Indian line runs north-east
to Allahabad. Its total length is 228 miles. This branch was opened
for traffic on ist June 1867. The main line of the Great Indian
Peninsula runs south-west to Bombay, following for some distance the
valley of the Narbada. This Hne was not opened throughout until
1872. It now forms the regular channel of communication between
Bombay and Calcutta, and between Bombay and the North- West. The
railway crosses the rocky bed of the Narbada (Nerbudda) near
Jhansighat by a viaduct 371 yards long.

Adjtiinistration. — In 1861, Jabalpur was formed into a separate District
of the British Government of the Central Provinces. It is administered
by a Deputy Commissioner with Assistants and tahsilddrs. Total revenue
in 1876-77, ^£"76,013, of which the land yielded ^57,188. The
revenue of the District in 1882 had increased to ;£89,246, the land
yielding ;£"5 7,540. Number of civil and revenue judges (1882),
13 ; magistrates, 19 ; maximum distance from any village to the nearest
court, 40 miles; average distance, 18 miles. Number of police, 722,
being i policeman to every 5*4 square miles and to every 952 in-
habitants. The daily average number of convicts in jail in 1882 was
1055, of whom 70 were females. The number of Government or
aided schools in the District under Government inspection w^as 157,
attended by 8977 pupils. Besides youths at school, the Census Report
of 1 88 1 returned 18,117 males and 666 females as able to read and
write, but not under instruction. The Jabalpur High School has proved
most successful; and at the training school for mistresses an attempt has


been made to solve the difficult problem of providing a teaching staff
for girls, by inducing the wives of normal school students to quaUfy.
The three municipalities contain an aggregate population of 90,053
persons; the total municipal income in 1881 was ;£"ii,9i2, of which
;^9879 was derived from taxation; expenditure, ;£"i5,923 ; average
rate of municipal taxation, 2s. 2 Jd. per head of the population.

Medical Aspects. — The climate is healthy, and the temperature
extremely moderate. Near Kundam the thermometer has been
recorded as low as 26°. In 1882, the readings in the shade at the
civil station were as follows: — May, highest 111-9 F., low^est 68*9;
July, highest 92*4, lowest 70" i ; December, highest 82*8, lowest 41 '2.
As a rule, the hot weather extends only over two months, and, except
immediately before the rains, is not oppressive. The rains last from
early in June until the latter part of September. The prevailing winds
are westerly. The average annual rainfall is returned at 5 2 '13 inches,
the rainfall in 1882 being as much as 6775 inches, or 15*62 inches
above the average. February and March rarely pass without the rabi
crops suffering from hailstorms. The prevailing diseases of the Dis-
trict are. fevers and dysentery, the former being severest from the
beginning of the rains to the end of November. Cholera and small-
pox are occasional visitants, and influenza at times assumes the
character of an epidemic. During the five years ending 1882, the
recorded death-rate per thousand of the population averaged 37*87 ;
in 1882, it was as high as 40*84. During the same year, 7 charitable
dispensaries afforded medical relief to 47,192 in-door and out-door
patients. [For further information regarding Jabalpur, see the Settle-
ment Report of the District, by Major W. Nembhard and A. M. Russell,
Esq. (1863); the Central Provinces Gazetteer, by Charles Grant, Esq.,
C.S.I. (Nagpur, 1870); the Ce^isus Report of the Central Provinces iox
t88i; and the Administration aiid Departmental Reports of those
Provinces from 18S0 to 1883.]

Jabalpur {Jnhlndpore). — Southern taJisil or Sub-division of Jabalpur
District, Central Provinces; situated between 22° 51' and 24° 5' n, lat.,
and between 79° 22' and 80° 58' e. long. Area, 1545 square miles ;
towns and villages, 1072 ; houses, 81,865. Total population (1872)
267,785 ; (1881) 336,168, namely, males 172,936, and females
163,232 ; persons per square mile, 217-58. Of the 1072 towns
and villages, 974 contain less than five hundred inhabitants. Total
adult agriculturists, 105,229, or 31-3 per cent, of the sub-divisional
population, the average area of cultivated and cultivable land being 6
acres per adult agriculturist. Of the total area of the tahsil, 194 square
miles are held revenue free, 1351 square miles being assessed for
Government revenue. Of the assessed area, 615 square miles are under
cultivation, 356 square miles are cultivable, and 380 square miles are


uncultivable waste. Total amount of Government assessment, includ-
ing local rates and cesses levied on land, ;!{^3 1,985, or an average of
IS. 7|d. per cultivated acre ; total rental actually paid by cultivators,
^89,268, or an average of 4s. 4f d. per cultivated acre. The Sub-division
contained in 1883, 6 civil courts (including the Court of the Commissioner
of the Division, Small Cause Court, and Registrar's Court), 12 magis-
terial courts, and 6 police stations, with 14 outposts; strength of regular
police, 187 men ; number of village watchmen {c/iaukiddrs), 966.

Jabalpur {Jubbidpore). — Chief town and administrative head-
quarters of Jabalpur District, Central Provinces. Lat. 23° 11' n., long.
79° 59' E. Situated in a rocky basin, at an elevation above sea-level
of about 1458 feet; 165 miles north-east from Nagpur, and 108 miles
south-east from Sagar (Saugor). Population (1877) 55,188; (1881)
75,705, namely, Hindus, 55,146; Muhammadans, 16,916; Kabir-
panthis, (i2\ Sikhs, 6; Christians, 2391; Buddhists, 9; Jains, 1041 ;
Parsis, 41 ; aboriginal tribes, 93. Municipal income in 1882-83,
;£"i4,738, of which p^i 2,386 is derived from taxation, mainly octroi
duties ; average incidence, 3s. lofd. per head of the population.

The numerous gorges in the surrounding rocks have been taken
advantage of to surround the town with a series of lakes, which,
shaded by fine trees, and bordered by fantastic crags and massy
boulders, add much beauty to the suburbs. The town itself is modern,
and laid out in wide and regular streets. The principal approach lies
near a public garden, and in the centre of the town is a fine tank
surrounded by groups of temples. A streamlet called the Umti
separates the civil station and cantonment from the town. Jabalpur
contains a School of Industry, where Thug and Dacoit approvers and
their families are employed in one of the largest manufactories of tents
and carpets in India. The garrison consists of the head-quarters and
six companies of a European infantry regiment, a regiment of Native
infantry, and a squadron of Native cavalry.

The opening of the railway system has immensely developed the
trade of Jabalpur, which has now become the most important centre
of commerce in the Central Provinces after Kampti. In 1875-76, the
total imports into Jabalpur were valued at ;£^5 67,000. In 1 88 1-82, the
total imports into the District were valued at ^1,051,472, the chief
items being — European piece-goods, ^118,170; wheat, ^^{^ 167,01 2 ;
inferior food-grains, ;£"2i,256; metals, ^129,866; sugar, ^55,495;
salt, ;£"36,769; rice, ^^4036; native piece-goods, ^17,370; oil-seeds,
^53^637; spices, ^41,211; ghi and oil, ^17,689; lac,^i6,456 ;
raw cotton, ^12,491. The export trade has increased in an even
greater ratio; the total exports, which were estimated at a value of
p^i6o,ooo in value in 1876-77, having risen to ;z£"557)84o in 1881-82,
the chief items being — wheat, ;^i26,792; piece-goods, ;£5i,8oo;


metals, ^£"223, 036; oil-seeds, ;£"32,74i ; lac, ;^i6,266 ; and sugar,
;£"i4,72o. The great bulk of the traffic is carried on by means of
the East Indian and Great Indian Peninsula Railways. There is also
a large road traffic with the neighbouring Districts of Seoni, Damoh,
and Mandla, which draw most of their supplies from Jabalpur city.

Jabria Bhil. — Guaranteed Girasia Thakiirat^ or chiefship, under the
Bhopal Agency of Central India. On the settlement of Malwa, Rajan
Khan, brother of the notorious Pindari marauder, Chitu, was allowed
a pension, afterwards commuted for an assignment of lands in Suja-
walpur for life. The grant consisted of a jdgir of three villages —
Piplianagar, Kajiiri, and Jabria Bhil — and an istwirdri farm (assessed
in perpetuity) of Dungria and Jabri at an annual rent of £,^0. At
the death of Rajan Khan, in consideration of his good conduct during
the latter part of his life, the grant was perpetuated, and divided among
his five sons, of whom Raja Bakhsh received Jabria Bhil and Jabri.
Raja Bakhsh died in 1874, and was succeeded by his son, Jamal
Bakhsh, the present holder. Jamal Bakhsh pays ^25 a year tribute
to Sindhia, Raja of Gwalior.

Jabuah.— State in Malw^, Central India.— 6"^^ Jhabua.

Jacobabdd. — Tdluk in the Frontier District of Upper Sind, Bombay
Presidency. Lat. 27° 55' 30" to 28° 25' 45" n., and long. 67° 59' to
d^'' 36' E. Area, 455 square miles, containing 4 tapds and 51 villages.
Population (1872) 35,545; (1881) 37,324, namely, 21,891 males and
15)433 females, dwelling in 6672 houses. Hindus numbered 4186;
Muhammadans, 30,566; Sikhs, 1908; Jews, 3; Christians, 222;
Parsis, 9; aboriginal tribes, 430. Revenue (1881-82), ;£"2i, 910, of which
;^2i,o6i was derived from imperial and ^^849 from local funds. Area
assessed to land revenue, 53,593 acres in 1882-83; area under actual
cultivation, 52,857 acres. The tdluk has 5 criminal courts; 2 poHce
stations {thdnds) ; strength of regular police, 68 men.

Jacobdbad. — Municipality and chief town of the Frontier District
of Upper Sind, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 28° 17' n., and long. 68°
29' E. Population (1872) 10,954; (1881), including cantonments,
1^5352, of whom 7365 were in the town. Of the total, Muhammadans
numbered 6386; Hindus, 3317; Christians, 210; Jains, 3; Parsis,
6; 'others,' 1430. The municipal revenue in 1881-82 was ;^2959;
rate of taxation, 4s. 3d. per head. Jacobabad was planned and
laid out, in 1847, by General John Jacob, for many years Com-
mandant of the Sind Horse, on the site of the village of Khangarh.
The town is oblong in shape, two miles long, one mile broad,
and is watered by the Rajwah and Biidwah irrigation canals.
Jacobabad is now the head-quarters of a regiment of Sind Horse and
a regiment of Baluch infantry, as well as of the civil administration.
It contains a small European population, and has the usual public



offices and Institutions of a District head-quarters. In addition to the
cantonments, civil and judicial courts, dispensary, jail, post and
telegraph offices, etc., it has also a Residency, the memorial tomb of
General Jacob, who died here in 1858, and lines for the accommoda-
tion of trade caravans {kdfilas) from Central Asia. Civil justice is
administered by the Deputy Commissioner as District Judge, and by
the Deputy Collector as Subordinate Judge. As regards criminal
jurisdiction, the District is under the Sessions Court of Shikarpur.
The Sind-Pishin Railway (from Ruk on the Sind, Punjab, and
Delhi line to Sibi and Quetta) passes through the town, and carries
a considerable trade in grain, ghi, and leather. From Ruk, Jacobabad
is distant by rail 37 miles. Excellent roads connect Jacobibad with
Shikarpur (24 miles distant), Thul, Kashmor, and other towns.
English, Anglo-vernacular, and vernacular schools are supported. The
number of patients treated in the Jacobabad dispensary in 1883
was— in-door, 284; out-door, 4059. There were within municipal
limits, 4 schools in 1881-82, with 182 scholars.

Jafarabdd. — Native State under the Political Agency of Kathiawir,
Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. Lat. 20° 50' to 20° 59' n., and
long. 71° 18' to 71° 29' E. ; 170 miles south of Ahmadabad, 150 south-
west of Baroda, and 165 north-west of Bombay. Estimated area, 42
square miles; 12 villages. Population (1872) 10,251; (1881) 9405.
Estimated gross revenue, ;;^32oo in the former, and ^4500 in the
latter year. Stone is quarried for building purposes. The crops
are cotton and wheat. Coarse cotton cloth is manufactured. The
State of Jafarabd,d is subject to the Abyssinian chief of Janjira, a
territory situated on the coast of the Konkan, 192 miles south-east of
Jafarabad and 44 miles south of Bombay. In Kathiawar, the Nawdb
of Janjira ranks as a second-class chief. He maintains a military force
of 123 men. The State has 5 schools, with 286 pupils.

Jdfarabdd. — Chief town of the State of Jdfarabad, Kathiawar,
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 20° 52' n., and long. 71° 25' e. The name
is a contraction of Muzafardbad. Population (1872) 4903 ; (1881)
4746. Jafardbad has great natural advantages for coasting trade, being
situated about a mile from the sea, on the estuary of a little river
called the Randi, which is the most accessible river on the coast
of Kathiawar, with no bar and an easy entrance. The commerce of
the port is only second in importance to that of Diu. Imports in
1880, ^34,205 ; exports, ^^315319-

Jafarganj. — Village in Tipperah District, Bengal ; situated on the
Gumti, and the seat of a considerable river traffic. It is connected with
Comilla, the District head-quarters, 12 miles distant, by a bridged road.

Jaflang.— Market village at the south foot of the Khasi Hills, Assam ;
frequented by Khasi and Synteng traders.


Jagadhri. — North-eastern tahsil of Ambala (Umballa) District,
Punjab. Area, 387 square miles. Population (1881) 169,640, namely,
males 92,387, and females 77,253. Hindus numbered 116,378 ; Sikhs,
4383 ; Muhammadans, 48,558 ; and ' others,' 321. Of a total assessed
area of 245,050 acres in the quinquennial return of ' agricultural
statistics for 1878-79, 151,100 were under cultivation, of which
13,716 acres were irrigated by Government, and 8669 by private
individuals. Of the uncultivated area, 55,175 acres were grazing lands ;
18,009 acres were cultivable but not under tillage; and 20,766 acres
uncultivable waste. The average area under the principal crops
for the five years 1877-78 to 1881-82 is thus returned — Wheat, 37,904
acres; barley, 19,088 acres; Indian corn, 19,216 acres; rice, 12,421
acres ; y^cfr, 12,169 acres; gram, 10,454 acres; moth^ 3533 acres;
bdjra^ 2725 acres; cotton, 6067 acres; sugar-cane, 5051 acres; vege-
tables, 5157 acres; tobacco, 1389 acres; and poppy, 764 acres.
Revenue, ^11,257. The administrative staff consists of a tahsilddr^
7nu?isif, and honorary magistrate. These officers preside over 3 civil and
2 criminal courts ; number of police circles (thdnds), 3 ; strength of
regular police, 113 men ; village watchmen {chaukiddrs)^ 339.

Jagadhri. — Town and municipality in Ambdla (Umballa) District,
Punjab, and head-quarters of Jagadhri tahsil. Situated in lat. 30°
10' N., and long. 77° 20' 45" e., a httle west of the river Jumna
(Jamuna), thirty-seven miles south-east of Ambala city, and three miles
north of the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Railway. Population (1872)
11,676; (1881) 12,300, namely, Hindus, 9242 ; Muhammadans, 2853 ;
Jains, 134; Sikhs, 60; and 'others,' 11. Number of houses, 2423.
Prior to the Sikh invasions, Jagadhri was a mere village; but Rai
Singh of Biiria, the Sikh conqueror, encouraged the commercial and
manufacturing classes to settle on the spot, so that a considerable trade
rapidly sprang up, and it is now a town of considerable importance.
It was destroyed by N^dir Shah during one of his incursions, but
rebuilt in 1783 by Rai Singh. The town lapsed to the British
Government, together with the territory whose capital it formed, in 1829.
Imports of copper and iron from the hills, as also from Calcutta and
Bombay; and considerable manufactures are carried on in these metals,
for which the town has obtained some celebrity. Ornamental lamps
and other forms of brass ware are exceptionally well made. Household
vessels and tools are exported to the North-Western Provinces and
throughout the Punjab. Refinery of borax, brought from the hills, and
exported to Bengal. Manufacture of oxide of lead, for use by gold-
smiths and in native medicines. Tahsili, police office, rest-house. A
native banker supplies a dole of half a ser (about i lb.) of flour to
travellers or paupers. Municipal revenue in 1882-83, ^1523, or
2s. 5|d. per head of population (12,540) within municipal limits.


Jagallir. — Village in Chitaldriig (Chitaldroog) District, Mysore
State, and head-quarters of Kankuppa taluk. Lat. 14° 31' n., long. 76°
24' E. ; 22 miles north-west by road from Chitaldriig town. Population
(1881) 2510, mostly Lingayats. Houses built of an iron-shot slaty
stone, and flat-roofed ; large tank.

Jagan. — Town in the Sukkur Sub-division of Shikdrpur District, Sind,
Bombay Presidency. Population (1872) 2556, namely, Muhammadans
(chiefly of the Bhaya tribe), 2167, and Hindus, 389; under 2000 in
188 1. Twelve miles north-west of Shikarpur.

Jagannath. — Temple in Puri District, Orissa. — See PuRi.

Jagatsinghpur. — Village in Cuttack District, Bengal; situated on
the Alachhgaon Canal, in lat. 20° 15' 50" n., and long. 86° 12' e.
Population (1869) estimated at 4732 ; not returned separately in the
Census of 1872 or of 1881.

Jagdalpur. — Chief town of Bastar State, Central Provinces,
and residence of the Raja. Lat. 19° 6' n., and long. 82° 4' e. The
place is a collection of huts, surrounded by a mud wall and deep
ditch, with one face resting on the Indravati, here a stream about
a hundred yards wide. Total population (1881) 4294, namely, Hindus,
3980, and Muhammadans, 314. The Muhammadan resident mer-
chants occupy the best houses. Travelling merchants, who bring
ponies, camels, chogds, dates, etc. for sale, reside outside the walls.
A large tank lies close to the town ; and the country is open, well
cultivated, and dotted with villages and groves. Jagdalpur is 40 miles
from the capital of the Jaipur (Jeypore) State, where there is an
Assistant Agent subordinate to Vizagapatam, a police officer, and a
strong police force.

Jagdispur. — Town and municipality in Shahabad District, Bengal.
Lat. 25° 28' 5" N., and long. 84° 28' i" e. Population (1872) 9400;
(1881) 12,568, namely, Hindus, 10,092; Muhammadans, 2474;
'others,' 2. Area of town site, 6518 acres. Municipal revenue
(1881-82), ^168; rate of taxation, 3d. per head of population. The
residence and head-quarters of the estate of Kuar Singh, a Rajput chief
who threw in his lot with the mutineers of 1857. He was the principal
leader of the attack and siege of the Judge's House at Arrah, in
which the British residents, supported by a company of loyal Sikh
troops, sought refuge after the rising of the Sepoys at Dinapur.

Jagdispur. — Farga?id in jMusafirkhana tahsil, Sultanpur District,
Oudh. During the Bhar supremacy, this part of the country consisted
of two pargands^ Sathan and Kishni. On the extirpation of the Bhars
by the Musalmans, these divisions were amalgamated, and the head-
quarters fixed at Jagdispur, which gave its name to the pargand.
Area, 155 square miles, or 99,104 acres, of which 51,650 acres are
cultivated and 19,125 acres available for cultivation. About one-half


of the cultivated area is irrigated. Government land revenue, j[,\ 1,054 ;
average incidence, 2s. 2jd. per acre. Population (1869) 100,103;
(i88t) 90,138: namely, Hindus, 69,955; Muhammadans, 20,183;
average density, 581 persons per square mile. Number of villages, 166.
Trade in grain, cloth, and other country produce, carried on chiefly by
means of the Rai Bareli and Faizabad (Fyzabad) road, but also by
the Giimti, which flows along the western boundary. Eleven villages
with schools ; 2 post-offices.

Jagdispur - Nihalgarh.— Town in Sultanpur District, Oudh, and
head-quarters of Jagdispur pargand. Lat. 26° 27' n., long. 81° 40' e.
Of no importance except as the head-quarters of the pargand. Popu-
lation (1881) 2016, residing in 395 houses. Small market, police
station. Government school.

Jaggayyapet {Jaggiapetta). — Town in Nandigama tdlitk^ Kistna
District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 16° 52' n., long. 80° 9' e. Popu-
lation (1871) 9150; (1881) 10,072, of whom 25 per cent, are mer-
chants and their families. In point of religion the population is
thus divided — Hindus, 9208; Muhammadans, 851; Christians, 13.
Area of town site, 9160 acres. Jaggayyapet is a prosperous trading
and weaving town near the main road between Haidarabad (Hyder-
abad) and Masulipatam, and close to the frontiers of the Nizam's
Dominions — a position which until recently laid it open to the
plundering inroads of RohilM bands. The traders are chiefly
Marwari settlers from the Haidarabad country. The chief staple is
opium. Jaggayyapet is the station of a sub-magistrate. The town is
walled in by a decayed mud embankment. It was formerly called
Betavolu, until Vasireddi Venkatadri Naidu enclosed it with a wall,
and called it after the name of his father Jaggayya. Geologically the
place is of interest as the extreme north-east corner of the great
Cuddapah-Kurnool rock series, and as the supposed site of a coal-
field, though the existence of a coal-field is not admitted by the
Geological Survey. Near the town in 1882 were found the remains
of a Buddhist stiipa, dating from two hundred years before the
Christian era.

Jagir (literally, ' A Grant of Lafided Estate by the Sovereign Power ').
— The historical name for a tract of country corresponding almost
precisely with the present District of Chengalpat, Madras Presidency.
The first important territorial possession of the East India Company in
Southern India. Granted by the Nawab of Arcot in return for the
services rendered to him and his father by the Company in 1760,
and confirmed by a sajiad or deed of grant from the Emperor Shah
Alam in 1763.

Jagraon. — Western tahsil of Ludhiana District, Punjab. Lat. 30°
Z'^ to 30° 59' N., and long. 75° 24' to 75° 44' e. Area, 409 square


miles. Population (1881) 158,767, namely, males 85,621, and females
73,146. Hindus numbered 55,608; Sikhs, 46,617; Muhammadans,
55,789; and 'others,' 753. Revenue, ;£24, 185. The administrative
staff of the tahsil consists of a tahsilddr and mimsif^ who preside over
I criminal and 2 civil courts. Number of police circles {thdnds), 2 ;
strength of regular police, 52 men; village watchmen (chaukiddrs)^ 153.

Jagraon. — Town and municipality in Ludhidna District, Punjab,
and head-quarters of Jagraon tahsil. Situated in lat. 30° 47' 20" n.,
and long. 75° 30' 45" e., on the Ludhidna and Firozpur (Ferozepore)
road, 29 miles south-west of Ludhidna city. Population (1868) 15,881;

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