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{thd?ids), 12; strength of regular police, 206 men; village watchmen
{chaukiddrs), 750. For further particulars, see the preceding article,
which treats of Kangra District as a whole.

Kangra. — Ta/isi/ of Kingra. District, Punjab, lying between 31° 49'
30" and 32^ 23' 30" N. lat, and between 76° 10' and 76° 43' e. long,,
and forming a part of Kangra Proper. Area, 1065 square miles.
Population in 1868, 211,165; in t88i, 218.588, namely, males
114,801, and females 103,787. Hindus number 207,252; Muham-
madans, 10,976; Sikhs, 112 ; Christians, 244; and Parsis, 4. Number
of villages or hamlets, 232; houses, 32,698; number of families,
41,266. The average area under cultivation for the five years
1877-1881 was 175,719, the area under the principal crops being —
rice, 71,426 acres; wheat, 50,521; Indian corn, 11,915; barley,
11,589 ; and sugar-cane, 3390 acres. Revenue of the /a/isil, ^23,503.
The administrative staff consists of a Deputy Commissioner, Judicial
Assistant, 2 Assistant Commissioners, a.^a/isi/ddr, and 2 inimsi's. These
officers preside over 7 civil and 5 criminal courts. Number of police
circles (tlidnds), 3 ; strength of regular police, 59 men ; village watchmen
{chaukiddrs), 195.

Kangra. — Town and municipality of Kangra District, Punjab ;
formerly the capital of a considerable Katoch State. Lat. 32° 5' 14" x.,
long. 76° 17' 46" E. The town, anciently known as Nagarkot, occupies
both slopes of a hill, overlooking the Banganga torrent. The older portion
covers the southern declivity, while the suburb of Bhawan and the famous
temple of Devi lie upon the northern slope. The fort, to which alone in
strictness the name of Kangra belongs, crowns a precipitous rock, rising
sheer above the Banganga, and dominating the whole surrounding
valley, of which from time immemorial it has formed the key. Once
considered impregnable, it is open to attack from so many neighbouring
eminences as to offer little opportunity of defence against modern
artillery. The Katoch princes ruled the Kangra valley from prehistoric
times till the advent of the British. During the Mughal period, the
town apparently possessed a far larger population than at the present


day ; and it was held by the last Muhammadan governor long after he
had become completely isolated from the remainder of the Delhi
Empire. {See Kangra District.) The temple of Devi, twice
plundered by the Musalmdns, ranks among the oldest and most
wealthy shrines in India. After the British annexation, the District
head-quarters were originally fixed at Kangra ; but since their removal
to Dharmsala in 1855 the town has rapidly sunk into insignificance.
Population in 1868, 6448; in 1881, 5387. Classified according to
religion, the population in the latter year comprised — Hindus, 4454 ;
Muhammadans, 872; Sikhs, 9; and 'others,' 52. Number of houses,
928. Municipal income (1882), ^472, or an average of is. 9d.
per head. The town is the centre of local trade, but the manu-
facture of country cloth which was formerly carried on has become
almost extinct. Kangra is noted for its jewellery work, and its
excellent blue enamel. The public buildings consist of a circuit-house,
tahsiii, police station, charitable dispensary, post-office, school-house,
staging bungalow, sardi. The fort is garrisoned by a detachment of
the Gurkha regiment stationed at Dhamsala, under the command ol '
a European officer. Kangra is a station of the Church Missionary
Society, one of whose missionaries generally resides here.

Kangundi. — Zauimddri or estate in North Arcot District, Madras |
Presidency. The area is 213 square miles. Population (1881) 45,184,
namely, 22,475 niales and 22,709 females, dwelling in 8682 houses,
scattered through 321 villages. Hindus numbered 43,739; iMuham-
madans, 1437; and Christians, 8. The estate lies in the south-west
extremity of the District ; bounded on the north-west by Mysore State, '
north-east by Palmaner taluk, south and south-east by Salem District ;
greatest length, 25 miles; greatest breadth, 18 miles. The zaminddi
divides his country into three parts — the Bailu Sima or open country ,
of the north-west, the Chettu Sima or wooded country of the centre,
and the Kanama Kinda Sima or belcw-^V/^zV country of the south-east.

The estate has been long in the possession of the present zaminddr's
family, and is probably a creation of the Vijayanagar dynasty, whose
princes settled in this neighbourhood. Haidar Ali threw one of the
subsequent /i/<?^Jri into jail at Seringapatam ; and Tipu shortly after
placed a garrison in the town of Kangundi. The Company restored
the rightful heirs in 1794.

Of the total area, 8000 acres are reported to be under wet-crop culti-
vation, and 32,000 acres under dry; 30,000 acres are cultivable waste,
and 1 50,000 uncultivable. The land system is for the zajfiinddr to lease;
out his villages to one or more persons jointly for short terms of years, i
and the lessees make their own terms with the 7-dyats, varying the'
demand from year to year. The well-to-do villagers are generally the
lessees, and care little for the interests of the poorer rdyats. The result


is a backward condition among the mass of the people. Irrigation is

carried on by tanks, which are, as a rule, large and excellently built.

. AVells are infrequent, and spring channels unknown. The soil is a

gravelly loam of inferior quality. Lime and iron are found, but

I the iron is not worked. There is said to be 100 square miles of

j auriferous country, but nothing has been done to explore the ground,

j although gold-mining works are carried on near the border. Jaggery

or raw sugar is made, but the general occupation is agriculture.

Kangundi cattle were once famous. The estate is in railway communi-

I cation with the other parts of the Presidency through the station, situated

at Kuppam, of the Bangalore branch of the south-west line of the

Madras Railway. Kuppam is the only place in the estate with

over 2000 inhabitants. Its population is 2874, that of Kangundi town

being 703. T\-\q peshkash (revenue) to Government is ;^23oo per annum.

The general elevation of the country is about 2000 feet above sea-level.

I The villages are nearly all stockaded, and the whole tract is more

primitive in its aspect than the surrounding District.

Kangundi. — Town in Kangundi zaminddri, North Arcot District,
Madras Presidency. Population (1881) 703; number of houses, 143.
The village, once the chief place in the neighbourhood, is now de-
populated by fever, cholera, and the effects of the famine of 1876-78.
i It lies at the base of a precipitous hill crowned with the ruins of a fort,
I which must have been a place of great strength, much care having
been expended in the fortifications. The hill is ascended by a flight
of steps. The zaniinddr^s palace is an imposing pile of buildings.

Kan-gyi-daung. — Head -quarters town of Thi-kwin township,
Bassein District, Irawadi Division, British Burma; situated in lat. 16°
54' 30" X., long. 64° 58' E., on the right bank of the Daga river,
about 15 miles from its junction with the Bassein. Population (1876)
2351 ; (1881) 2081, chiefly engaged in agriculture; number of houses,
295. Local revenue, ^100 ; excise other than tari^ ^281. Court-house
and police station.

Kanhan.— River of the Central Provinces ; rising in lat. 21' 52' x.,

\ long. 78° 39' E., in the Satpura Hills, Chhindwara District ; winds in a

j south-easterly direction through a series of small hills in the Ghargajgarh

I forests, four miles south of the ruined fort of Deogarh ; receives the

' Jam below Lodhikhera; and joins the Pench just above Kamthi,

where a magnificent stone bridge spans the river, constructed at a cost

of ^80,000. The united stream then flows on until it falls into the

Wainganga (lat. 21" 5' x., long. 79° 40' e.) below Bhandara, about 140

miles from the source of the Kanhan.

Kanhargaon. — A small estate or zamhiddri in Bhandara District,
Central Provinces; consisting of a single village, with an area of 1404
acres. Around the village site are some very fine trees, — mango, pipal,


tamarind, and date-palm, — including a magnificent ban3'an tree of great
age, and covering a considerable area.

Kanheri. — A barren hill in Bhandard District, Central Provinces,
about 1 8 miles south-east of Bhandara town ; rising about 300 feet above
the plain. Yields good building stone, besides hones, and white soft
stone for pottery.

Kanigiri. — Tdluk in Nellore District, Madras Presidency. Lat.
15' i' to 15° 32' N., long. 79° 9' to 79° 44 E. Area, 726 square
miles. Population (1881) 108,761, namely, 55,422 males and 53,339
females, dwelling in 188 villages, containing 20,561 houses. Hindus
numbered 98,804; Muhammadans, 5573; and Christians, 43^4- The
most barren and unfruitful tdluk in Nellore. It is intersected by two
streams, the Maneru and the Paleru ; but little pure water is to be had.
Herds of goats browse over a rocky plain covered with thin scrub
jungle. Palmyra trees grow among the sandhills that dot the north-
west corner over a considerable area; and drunkenness caused by
the palmyra toddy is prevalent among all classes. In 1883, there
were in the tdhik 2 criminal courts ; police circles {thdnds), 1 2 ;
regular police, 78 men; village watch {chaiikiddrs), 19. Land revenue,


Kanigiri. — Town and fort in Kanigiri tdluk of Nellore District,
Madras. Lat. 15° 23' n., long. 79° 32' e. Population (1881) 2869,
namely, 141 5 males and 1454 females, dwelling in 635 houses. Hindus
numbered 2302; Muhammadans, 482; and Christians, 85. In the
neighbourhood is a remarkable hill, which forms a striking feature in
the landscape for many miles round. On its summit, about 1500 feet
above sea-level, is a table-land of about a square mile, where tradition
says a town once stood. The hill was fortified, and was formerly a place
of great strength. The remains of some of the batteries still exist.
About the loth century this part of the country w^as taken by Kaketa
Rudrudu of the Gajapathi family, who had the seat of their government
at Cuttack. His son built the town of Kanigiri, and fortified the hill.
About the i6th century it was captured by Krishna Rciya. It played
a conspicuous part in local feuds till it was taken, and the buildings
destroyed by Haidar Ali.

Kanjarapalli (' CaguarapalW of Bartolomeo). — Town in Changua-
cheri District, Travancore State, Madras Presidency. Lat. 9° 4' 30" n.,
long. 76° 35' 20" E. Population about 2000. A trading town on the
main road from Kotayam to Madura, through Pirmaid and Giidaliir.
Situated at the foot of the ghdt or pass, and inhabited chiefly by
Muhammadan traders. Fra Paolino di S. Bartolomeo mentions it
specially as having dealings across the ghdt with Madura.

Kanjarda. — Petty State of the Gohilwar Sub-division of Kathiawar,
Bombay Presidency; consisting of i village, Kanjarda. Population


(1881) 297. Situated at the foot of the Bhadwo hill, about eight
miles to the south-west of Palitana. The revenue in 1876 was estimated
at ^250 ; tribute of ^12, i6s. is paid to the Gaekwar of Baroda.

Kanjia. — Ancient town in a tract of same name, on the northern
frontier of Sagar (Saugor) District, Central Provinces. Lat. 24° 23' 30"
N., long. 78° 15' E. Its first recorded ruler was a Bundela chief named
Debi Singh, whose son Shahji built the fort which stands on a hill to
the south of the town. It is square, with a tower at each corner, and
encloses about 2 acres, nearly covered with ruined buildings. In 1726,
Shahji's descendant, Vikramaditya, was expelled by Hasan-ulla Khan,
Nawab of Kurwai, and took refuge at Piprasi, a small village in the
extreme north of the Kanjia tract, where his descendant, Amrit Singh,
was living in 1870 on a rent-free estate of five villages. In 1758, the
Peshwa's army drove out the Nawab of Kurwai, and the Peshwa con-
ferred the tract on one of his officers, named Khandarao Trimbak.
His successor, Rcimchandra Ballal (otherwise Ram Bhari), on the cession
of Sagar (Saugor) by the Peshwa in 18 18, gave up Kanjia and Mal-
hargarh, a neighbouring tract, receiving in lieu thereof the estate of
Itawa. In the same year the British made over Kanjia to Sindhia,
who held it until the exchange of territory in i86c, when it was
incorporated with Sagar District. In 1857, a party of Bundelas from
the adjoining Native States turned out Sindhia's officer, and forcibly set
up Amrit Singh as their ruler. After a few days he escaped from the
unwelcome dignity ; but the Bundelas plundered the place, and only
decamped eight months later on hearing of the approach of Sir Hugh
Rose. The tract suffered under native rule from fiscal oppression, but
has improved since the new settlement of the land revenue. A market
is held every Tuesday. Police outpost station.

Kanjikovil. — Town in Erod tdluk^ Coimbatore District, Madras
Presidency. Lat. 11° 22' n., long. 77° 38' 20" e. Population (1871)
5300; (1881) 4430, occupying 1018 houses. Hindus number 4393;
Muhammadans, 3 ; and Christians, 34.

Kankanhalli. — Tdluk in Bangalore District, Mysore State, Southern
India. Area, 401 square miles, of which 109 are cultivated. Popula-
tion (1871) 73,515 ; (1881) 56,201, or 27,987 males and 28,214 females.
Classified according to religion, there were 52,700 Hindus, 2943
Muhammadans, and 558 Christians. The southern half of the tdluk
is a succession of hills and jungle ; castor-oil plant, ragi^ and gram
form the principal cultivation of the open parts. Revenue (1882-83),
^7685. Among special products are tamarinds and cocoa-nuts. The
tdluk contains i criminal court ; police stations ithdnds)^ 8 ; regular
police, 71 men.

Kankanhalli. — Town in Bangalore District, Mysore State, Southern
India. Lies on the right bank of the Arkavati river, 36 miles south of



Bangalore city. Lat. 12° 32' 50" n., long. 77° 27' 30" e. Population
(1871) 4671 ; (1881) 4360, of whom 3939 are Hindus and 41 Muham-
madans. Suggested by Dr. Burnell to be identical with the Konkanapur
mentioned by Hiuen Tsiang, the Chinese pilgrim of the 7th century.
There is a fort still in existence, built by a local chief, inside which
stands an ancient temple of Ranganatha. The town was twdce devas-
tated by Tipu Sultan, to prevent its being of use to the British ami}-.
A weekly fair is held on Thursdays, attended by 2000 persons ; and in
the neighbourhood are many cocoa-nut groves. Head-quarters of the
Kankanhalli taluk.

KaHker. — A feudatory chiefship in the south of Raipur District,
Central Provinces ; lying north of the State of Bastar. Population
(1881) 63,610, of whom nearly two-thirds are Gonds, residing in 436
villages and 16,142 houses, on an area of 639 square miles. The
country is hilly, and ruined by ddhya or nomadic cultivation, except in
the eastern portion along the valley of the Mahanadi, where stretch
some fertile plains. Rice, kutki, kodo, lac, gum, etc., constitute the
chief products. Raja Narhar Deo, the chief, belongs to a very old
Rajput family; and according to tradition, his ancestors w^ere raised to
the throne by a vote of the people. When the Haihai Bansi line ruled
in Chhattisgarh, Ranker occupied a dignified position among the
feudatory dependencies, such as Bastar, Sambalpur, etc. ; and the
Rajas held with it the valuable Khalsa pa7"gand of Dhamtari. The
total revenue of the estate in 1868 was £g<)6, of which ^621 was
derived from the land. In 1882, the gross revenue w^as estimated at

Kankhal. — Town in Saharanpur District, North-Western Provinces.
Lat. 29° 55' 45" N., long. 78° 11' E. Lies on the w^est bank of
the Ganges ; distant from Sahciranpur town 38 miles east, from Riirki
(Roorkee) 16 miles north-east, from Hardw^ar i mile south. The popu-
lation in 1 88 1 amounted to 5838, chiefly Brahman priests attached to
the Hardwdr temple, who intermarry only w^ith Brahmans of the
neighbouring town of Jawalapur. Hindus numbered 5502; Muham-
madans, 284; Jains, 41 ; and 'others,' 11. Area of town site, 63 acres.
The temple of Daksheswara, a synonym of Siva, stands to the south
of the towm, and marks the spot w^here, according to the Fwd?ias,
Mahadeo spoilt the sacrifice of Daksha, and Sati, daughter of Daksha
and wife of Siva, immolated herself in the fire. Many of the houses
here are very substantially built, and have their walls decorated with
fantastic paintings. The river bank is lined with shady and tastefully-
laid-out gardens, which give the town a picturesque appearance.
Kankhal forms part of the Hardwar Municipal Union ; police outpost,
and village school. For municipal statistics see Hardwar.

Kankina. — Market village in Rangpur District, Bengal ; situated


n tlie left bank of the Ti'sta river. Exports of jute, tobacco, and

Kankraoli. — Town in the Native State of Udaipur, Rajputana.
Situated 40 miles north of Udaipur city, in lat. 25° 2' 45" n., long. 73°
52' E. On the southern bank of the Raj Samand lake is a temple, the
shrine of Dwarka Disha, one of the seven forms of Krishna. The
statue of Dwarkanath is asserted to be the identical image that received
the adoration of Amrika, a prince of the Solar race, who lived in the
silver age.

Kankrej (or Tara). — A collection of petty states under the Palanpur
Agency, Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. Area, 520 square miles.
Populauon (1872) 37,771 ; (18S1) 45,164. Bounded on the north by
PaUnipur ; on the east by a sub - division of Baroda (Gaekwar's)
territory ; on the south by Radhanpur State ; and on the west by the
Palanpur estates of Terwara and Diodar. Total revenue, ^4347 ;
tribute to the Gaekwar of Baroda, ^513.

Kankrej is a flat, open, and fairly - wooded country, situated on
both sides of the Banas river. The soil is of two sorts — sandy and
black — and produces the usual rainy-weather crops; when irrigated,
it yields two harvests. The staples are wheat and millet. Water is
found in wells from 30 to 40 feet below the surface. As in the neigh-
bouring State of Palanpur, the climate is dry and hot, and the prevailing
disease is fever.

The first connection of the British Government with the states
of Kankrej dates from the formation of the Mahi Kantha Agency in
1819-20. It was included in the Mahi Kantha Agency till 1844,
when, on account of its nearness to Palanpur, it was transferred
to the Palanpur Agency. Kankrej comprises twenty -six different
estates, the chief of which are Thara, Un, and Wara, most of them held
by Rajputs who have intermarried with lower caste Koli women. The
largest and most important estate is Thara, whose chiefs are Waghela
Kolis by caste, who, by refusing to eat Avith their brethren, have
been allowed to intermarry with Rajput houses, and are now generally
admitted as belonging to the Rajput tribe.

The principal village in Kankrej is Thara, five miles north of
which is Kakar, the ancient capital of the State, with some ruined

Kanksiali. — Petty State in the Halar Division of Kathia-
war, Bombay Presidency, situated on the Rajkot-Gondal road, eight
miles south of Rajkot town ; consisting of i village, with 2 separate
tribute-payers. Area, 76 square miles. Population (1881) 236. The
revenue in 1881 was estimated at ^120 ; tribute of ;£'8, 8s. is
paid to the Bridsh Government, and ^2, 14s. to the Nawab of


Kanksiali {Coxeali). — Distributary of the Jamuna river, Khulna
District, Bengal. Favourite night anchorage on the boat route between
Calcutta and the Eastern Bengal Districts.

Kankuppa. — Tdlnk in Chitaldriig District, Mysore State, Southern
India, with its head-quarters at Jagaliir town. Area, 370 square miles,
of which 147 are cultivated. Population (187 1) 40,311 ; (1881) 28,437,
namely, 14,377 males and 14,060 females. Classified according to re-
ligion, there were 27,492 Hindus, 862 Muhammadans, 81 Jains, and 2
Christians. Land revenue (1881-82), exclusive of water rates, ^4030.
Crops — rice, sugar-cane, cotton, and white jold. There are no water-
courses ; the soils are red, sandy, and black. The road between
Chitaldriig and Ujani runs through the village of Kankuppa.

Kanniir {Kdn?tajiur). — Town in Malabar District, Madras Presi-
dency. — See Cannanore.

Kanor. — Town in the Native State of Udaipur, Rajputana. Lat.
24° 25' N., long. 74° 4' 30" E. Situated 45 miles east of the capital,
and the residence of a first-class noble of the State, who owns 84
villages. The town gives its name to his estate.

Kanora. — Petty State of the Pandu Mehwas, in Rewa Kantha,
Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. Area, 3 J square miles. There
are seven villages and eight shareholders. The estate lies south of
Sihora. It is much cut up by ravines, but has a good river frontage
to the Mahi. The revenue in 1881 was estimated at;^27o ; tribute of
;;^i6o is paid to the Gaekwar of Baroda.

Kanpur Iswaria. — Petty State in the Halar Division of Kathiawar,
Bombay Presidency ; consisting of an area of 3 square miles, with 2
villages, Kanpur and Iswaria, owned by four separate holders. Popu-
lation (1881) 1369. Kanpur is about 22 miles south-east of Rajkot,
and Iswaria three miles west of Kanpur. The revenue in 1881 was
estimated at ;£"5oo; tribute is paid of ^23 to the British Government,
and ;£ii, 14s. to the Nawab of Junagarh.

Kansat. — Village in Maldah District, Bengal ; situated on the
Ganges. Noted for its fair held in February or March, which lasts for
two days, and was formerly attended by from 8000 to 10,000 Hindus,
who come for the purpose of bathing in the Ganges. The fair is now
in a declining state owing to the recession of the main stream of the
Ganges, and the drying up of the old bathing-place. In 1868, cholera
broke out severely at this gathering, and was thence widely disseminated
throughout the District.

Kansbans (or Kdinsbdns). — River in Balasor District, Orissa ; so
called from a jungle of kdins or kdns grass and bamboos, amid which it
rises in kild Ambohata. The stream runs in a south-easterly direction,
at first almost parallel with the Nilgiri Hills, and receives from them a
number of nameless drainage streams on its northern or left bank. At


Birpara it bif-ircates, the northern branch retaining its original name,
and entering the sea in lat. 21° 12' 25" n., and long. 86° 52' 10" e.
Laichanpur port is situated near the mouth of the river. The southern
branch, the Gammai, on which is the port of Churaman, falls into the
Bay of Bengal six miles south of the Kansbans.

Kant. — Town in Shahjahanpur District, North-Western Provinces.
Lat. 27° 49' 10" E., long. 79° 49' 45" E., situated on the road from
Shahjahanpur to Jalalabad, 9 miles south of the former town. The
population, which in 1872 numbered 5006, had by 1881 decreased to
4681, consisting of 2788 Hindus and 1893 Muhammadans. Area
of town site, 131 acres. The town contains a police station, post-office,
sardt or native inn, and two encamping grounds. There are many
old native houses which attest the former importance of Kant, which
was the chief place in this part of the country before the rise of the
city of Shahjahanpur. A kherd or mound close to the village is said
to have been the site of the old fort and offices. Bi-weekly markets
are held on Sundays and Thursdays.

Kantai. — Village in Muzaffarpur District, Bengal ; situated about
8 miles from Muzaffarpur town, on the road to Motihari. Tat. 26° 13'
N., long. 85° 20' 30" E. Large indigo factory, and remains of saltpetre
factory. Bi-weekly market.

Kantai. — Mountain Pass, Kashmir, Punjab, Northern India. — See


Kantha. — Town in Unao District, Oudh ; situated 18 miles east of
Unao town. Said to have been founded 900 years ago by a Lodha,
who named the place after himself. Surrounded by numerous groves
of mango and mahud trees. In the days of native rule, there was a
fortress here, the head-quarters of a tahsilddr. Population (1881)
3694, namely, 3530 Hindus and 164 Musalmans. Two Hindu temples,
mosque, Government school ; two small fairs — one in the month of
Jaistha, attended by about 5000, and another in Kuar, attended by
2000 people.

Kan-tha. — River in British Burma. — See Taung-gxu.

Kanthalpara. — Village in the Twenty-four Parganas District, Bengal.
Noted as a place of Sanskrit learning. A fair is held here during the
Ras-jatra of Madan Gopal, the local deity. Established about thirty-

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