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five years ago by the late Maharaja of Nadiya, Siris Chandra Rai

Kanthdria {Kimtharid). — Petty State in the Jhalawar Division ot
Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency. Area, 14 square miles, with 2 villages
held by five separate proprietors, paying a tribute of ;;£"i49 to the
British Government, and ^20 to the Gaekwar of Baroda. Estimated
revenue in 1881, ;^io49. The proprietors {tdliikddrs) are Jhala
Rajputs by caste.


Kanthi. — Sub-division and town, Midnapur District, Bengal. — See


Kantilo. — Town in Khandpara State, Orissa ; situated on the south
or right bank of the Mahanadi. Lat. 20° 21' 46" n., long. 85° 14'
20" E. One of the largest towns in the Orissa Tributary States, and a
considerable seat of trade, to which merchants from Cuttack bring
salt, spices, etc., to exchange for cotton, wheat, oil-seeds, clarified
butter, etc. from Sambalpur. Population (1872), Hindus, 5386;
Muhammadans, 8; 'others,' 140 ; total, 5534, namely, 2675 males and
2859 females, residing in 11 13 houses. At the Census of 1881, the
population had fallen below 5000, and the place is no longer returned
separately in the Bengal Census Report.

Kantlir. — Town in Bara Banki District, Oudh ; situated 20 miles
north-east of Bara Banki town. Population (1872) 3250 ; (1881) 4029,
namely, 2105 Hindus and 1924 Muhammadans. The chief inhabitants
are Musalmans, holding small rent-free grants. The houses are mainly
of masonry, and the town is healthy and well situated on an eminence.

Kanu. — Village and railway station in Bardwan District, Bengal ; 75
miles from Calcutta. An important junction on the East Indian

Kanum {Kdnam). — Town in Bashahr State, Punjab, the principal
place in the Sub-division of Kunawar. Lat. 31° 40' n., long. 78° 30' e. ;
situated in a mountain glen, near the valley of the Sutlej (Satlaj), about
9300 feet above sea-level. Thornton states that the houses rise above
one another in tiers, the roof of each tier forming the roadway for
the next. Contains a celebrated Buddhist temple, with a large
Tibetan library. Kanum ranks as the ecclesiastical capital of Kunawar,
its Grand Lama being the supreme pontiff of the Sub-division, but
receiving his ratification from the Grand Lama of Ladakh. Csoma de
Koros, the Hungarian traveller, lived. here for some years during the
course of his investigations into the Tibetan language and religion.
Celebrated for its manufacture of a good description of blankets known
as hijrdl.

Kanyagiri. — Tdhik in Nellore District, Madras Presidency. — See

Kanyagiri {Kanigiri). — Fort in Nellore District, Madras Presi-
dency. — See Kanigiri.

Kanzam. — Pass in Kangra District, Punjab, over the Kanzam range,
between Spiti and Ldhul. Lat. 32° 23' 30" n., long. 77° 40' 45" e. ;
elevation, about 15,000 feet. An easy road, closed for some months in
winter by snow, opens into the valley of the Chandra. From the
summit of the pass a magnificent view is obtained of immense glaciers
and snowy peaks upwards of 20,000 feet in height, rising abruptly from
the opposite bank of the Chandra river.


Kaorapukur. — KM:, or watercourse, in the Twenty-four Parganas
District, Bengal, connecting Tolly's Canal, below the village of Tolly-
ganj, with the Magra khdl. Lat. 22° 17' to 22° 28' 45" n., long. 88°
23' to ZB>° 23' 30" E. It is 23 miles in length, but not navigable all
the year round throughout its entire course.

kapadwanj. — Sub-division of Kaira District, Bombay Presidency.
Bounded on the north by Baroda territory and Mahi Kantha ; east by
BaLasinor State; south by Thasra, Nariad, and Mehmadabad Sub-
divisions of Kaira District; and west by Ahmadabad District. The
Sub-division is in shape an oblong, fifteen miles long and thirty miles
broad. Area, 280 square miles. Population (1872) 86,742; (1881)
93,024, of whom 48,269 were males and 44,755 females; towns and
villages, 86; occupied houses, 21,120; unoccupied, 5812; increase
of population since 1872, 6282. Hindus numbered 82,360; Muham-
madans, 9392 ; 'others,' 1272.

Towards the south and west, Kapadwanj Sub-division is a rich and
well-cultivated plain clothed with trees. The INIohar and the Vatrak
flo\v through the Sub-division, but these streams are of litde service
for irrigation, being highly charged with soda. The water-supply gene-
rally is scanty; in 1876, the number of wells was only 1042 ; 11 square
miles are occupied by the lands of inehwds or alienated villages.
For the remaining area the settlement introduced in 1863-64 con-
tinues in force till 1891-92. Of the total settled area of 172,160 acres,
128,178 are occupied land ; 19,696 acres are cultivable waste; and 3624
acres are under grass. About 63,733 acres are actually under tillage.
The settlement in 1863-64 showed 13,383 holdings with an average
area of 9^- acres to each holding. The average rent to be paid by
each holder was settled at jT^i, 13s. lod. The incidence of the land-
tax was 4s. 5d. per head of the population. Bdjra, rice, jodr, and
maize are the staple crops.

In 1882-83, the Sub-division contained i civil and 2 criminal courts ;
police stations {ihdnds), i ; regular police, 67 men ; village watchmen
(chaukiddrs), 53. Land revenue, ;^i5,8i2.

Kapadwanj. — Chief town and municipality of the Kapadwanj
Sub-division of Kaira District, Bombay Presidency. A fortified town,
situated in lat. 23° i' n., and long. 73° 7' 30" e. Population (1872)
13,982; (1881) 14,442, namely, 6857 males and 7585 females. Hindus
numbered 8746; Muhammadans, 4973; Jains, 720; and Parsis, 3.
Area of town site, 146 acres. Municipal income (1882-83), p/^7 56 ;
incidence of taxation per head of population, lo^d.; municipal expendi-
ture, ^874. Precious stones, such as agate and onyx, are found in
large quantities in the bed of the Mohar, a rocky stream half a mile
north of the town. Manufactures are soap, glass, and leather butter-
jars. The most important articles of trade are grain and opium from


Central India, and tobacco from Gujarat (Guzerat). Besides supplying
a considerable local demand, Kapadvvanj goods are exported to the
Panch Mahals, Balasinor territory, and Central India. Near the walls
are the ruins of an ancient town. The neighbourhood was the
scene of some hard-fought battles during the Maratha ascendency. It
was exchanged for Bijapur in 1817. Kapadwanj derives its importance
as lying on one of the main trade routes between Central India and
the coast. The principal objects of interest in the town are a fine
reservoir with a well in the centre, and an arch in the Chalukya
( 1 000-1300) style of architecture. A sacred pool, with healing
qualities attributed to it by tradition, is inside the walls. South of the
pool is an underground temple to Mahadeo, never properly explored.
Of modern buildings, that of most note is a Jain temple ; the interior
is richly ornamented with marble pillars, and a marble pavement inlaid
with delicacy and taste. Sub-judge's court, dispensary, and post-office.
In 1878, there were 3 Government schools, with an average attendance
of 366 pupils.

Kapargadi. — Range of hills in Singbhiim District, Bengal ; rising
abruptly from the plain to the Kapargadi peak, 1398 feet above sea-
level, from whence the range runs in a south-easterly direction, until it
culminates in the Tuiligar Hill, 2492 feet high, lat. 22° 42' 30" n.,
long. 86° 11' 30" E. Thence the ridge gradually widens out, and forms
the northern limit of the Meghasani range in the Orrssa Tributary
State of Morbhanj. The rocks of the Kapargadi range are all of a
schistose character, running into gneiss. On the north of the ridge
are copper-bearing rocks, extending for a distance of 80 miles. These
copper beds were formerly worked by European companies, but on too
expensive a scale to yield a profit. The enterprise was abandoned in
1864, and the company's buildings and machinery were seized by the
Raja of Dalbhum for the mining rent of the ground. It has not
since been resumed.

Kapila. — Ancient city, supposed by General Cunningham to have
been where the village of Nagar-Khas in Gorakhpur District now
stands. Gautama Buddha (Sakya Muni) is said to have been born
here (598 B.C.).

Kapileswarapuram. — Town in Ramachandrapuram taluk of
Godavari District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 16° 44' n., long. 81° 57'
20" E. Population (187 1) 5463 ; (1881) 5067, namely, 2393 males and
2674 females, occupying 882 houses. Hindus numbered 5026, and
Muhammadans 41. Ferry across the Godavari, 21 miles above Yanam
in French territory.

Kapili {Kopili). — River in the Province of Assam, rising in the
Jaintia Hills in lat. 25° 5' n., and long. 92° 31' e., and flowing north-
wards into Nowgong (Naugaon) District. For a long distance it forms



the boundary between the Jaintia and the North Cachar Hills, and it
ultimately falls into the Kalang, an offshoot of the Brahmaputra at
Jagi. Lat. 26° 13' n., long. 92° 35' E. Its chief tributaries are the
Diying and the Jamuna, which join it on its right bank from North
Cachar and the Ndga Hills. The banks are rocky throughout. The
Kapili is navigable in the plains by boats of 4 tons burthen during the
greater part of the year, but shortly before its exit from the hills its
course is interrupted by a rocky barrier over which the stream is pre-
cipitated in a fine waterfall. This renders its upper course impassable
by boats. A hot spring exists a few miles above the falls.

Kapilmuni.— Village in Khulna District, Bengal ; situated on the
I bank of the Kabadak river, 5 or 6 miles below Tail Lat. 22° 41' 30"
I N., long. 89° 21' E. It has a permanent bazar and a bi-weekly market,
but is not a place of much trade. The village takes its name from a
Hindu sage {muni) named Kapila, not the great Kapila who, accord-
! ing to Hindu mythology, destroyed the sons of King Sagar, but a
I celebrated devotee, who estabUshed his abode here in ancient times,
I and set up the idol Kapileswari, which is still worshipped. A grand
I fair {meld) is annually held here in honour of the goddess in March, on
; the day of the Bariini bathing festival. According to local belief, the

■ Kabadak at this place acquires for that day the sanctifying influences
of Ganges water — a result due to the virtues of Kapilmuni. The

, tomb of a Muhammadan saint, Jafar All, has also become a place
of pilgrimage for devout ?^lusalmans. The building is in charge of

( Muhammadan>-('f;'j-, who hold lands rent-free for its maintenance.
Kapini {Kahhani, ^^///^). — Tributary of the Kaveri (Cauvery)
river, Southern India; rises in the Western Ghats, and, after flow-
ing in an easterly direction across the middle of Mysore District,
falls into the Kaveri near Narsipur. The confluence is a spot of
great sanctity. The Kapini has two tributaries from the south, the

' Nugu and the GundaL A perennial river, averaging from 150 to
200 yards in width, and during the dry season bringing down a volume
of water not less than that of the Kaveri. Scarcely used for purposes

fl of irrigation.

I Kapiirthala.— Native State under the political superintendence of

■ the Government of the Punjab, lying between 31° 9' and 31° 39' 30" ^'•
lat, and between 75° 3' 15" and 75° 38' 30" e. long. Area, 620 square
miles. Population (1881) 252,617; average density of population, 420
persons per square mile.

The ancestors of the chief of Kapiirthala at one time held possessions
both in the cis- and trans-Sutlej, and also in the Bari Doab. In the
latter lies the village of Ahlu, whence the family springs, and from which
it takes the name of Ahluwalia. The scattered possessions in the Bari
Doab were gained by the sword in 1780, and were the first acquisitions


made by Sardar Jassa Singh, the founder of the family. Of the cis-Sutlej
possessions, some were conquered by Sardar Jassa Singh, and others
were granted to him by Maharaja Ranjit Singh prior to September

By a treaty made in 1809, the Sardar of Kapiirthala pledged himself
to furnish supplies to British troops moving through or cantoned in his
cis-Sutlej territory; and by declaration in 1809 he was bound to join
the British standard with his followers during war. In 1826, the
Sardar, Fateh Singh, fled to the cis-Sutlej States for the protection
of the British Government against the aggressions of the Maharaja
Ranjit Singh. This was accorded ; but in the first Sikh war the
Kapiirthala troops fought against the British at Aliwal, and, in
consequence of these hostilities and of the failure of the chief, Sardar
Nihal Singh, son of Sardar Fateh Singh, to furnish supplies from his
cis-Sutlej estates to the British army, these estates were confiscated.
When the Jalandhar (JuUundur) Doab came under the dominion of the
British Government in 1846, the trans-Sutlej estates were maintained
in the independent possession of the Ahluwalia chieftain, conditional '
on his paying a commutation in cash of the service engagements
by which he had previously been bound to the Government of Ranjit
Singh. The Bari Doab estates have been released to the head of the
house in perpetuity, the civil and police jurisdiction remaining in the
hands of th'e British authorities.

In 1849, Sardar Nihal Singh was created a Raja. He died in Septem-
ber 1852, and was succeeded by his son, Randhir Singh. During the
Mutiny in 1857, the forces of Randhir Singh, who never hesitated or
wavered in his loyalty, strengthened our hold upon the Jalandhar Doab;
and afterwards, in 1858, the chief led a contingent to Oudh, which did
good service in the field. He was well rewarded ; and among other
concessions obtained the grant in perpetuity of the estates of Baundi,
Bithauli, and Akona in Oudh, which yield at present a gross annual
revenue of about ^^80,000. In these estates the Raja exercises no
sovereign powers, though in Oudh he is, to mark his superiority over
the ordinary tdlukddrs, to be addressed as Raja-i-Rajagan. This title was
made applicable to the Raja in Oudh only, and not in the Punjab. Rajd
Randhir Singh died at Aden on his way to England in 1870, and was
succeeded by his son, Kharrak Singh. The present Raja, Jagatjit
Singh, son of Raja Kharrak Singh, is a minor, who succeeded in
September 1877. The chiefs of Kapiirthala are Sikhs of the Kalal
tribe. The area of the Punjab State is 620 square miles; that of the
Oudh estates, 700 square miles. The population of the estates in 1881
amounted to 249,301 in Oudh, and 252,617 in the Punjab.

The Kapiirthala State, with its area of 620 square miles, contains 4
towns and 613 villages ; 37,633 houses; and 62,047 families. Total


copulation (iSSi) 252,617, namely, males 138,638, and females

3,979 ; average density of population, 407 persons per square

mile; persons per village, 409; inmates per house, 67. Classified

according to religion, the population consists of— Muhammadans,

42,174; Hindus, 82,900; Sikhs, 26,493; Jains, 214; Christians, 35;

and Buddhist, i.

The revenue of the State is about ^100,000, but is subject to a
charge of ^13,100, payable to the British Government as commuta-
tion for military services, and ^6000 per annum to Sardars Bikrama
Singh and Suchet Singh, brothers of Raja Randhir Singh. The Oudh
iestates are estimated to yield about ^80,000 in addition. The military
forces consist of 4 fort guns, 9 field guns, 186 cavalry, 926 infantry,
and 303 police. The principal products of the State are sugar-cane,
cotton, wheat, maize, and tobacco. The Raja has the right of adoption,
and is entitled to a salute of 1 1 guns. The three principal towns in
ithe State are Kapurthala, the capital, with a population of 15,237 ;
IPhagwara. population 10,627; and Sultanpur, population 8217.
I Kapurthala. — Ch.ief town of Kapurthala State, Punjab; situated
|in lat. 31° 23' N., and long. 75° 25' e., 8 miles from the left bank
\oi the river Beas (Bi^s). Population in 1881, 15,237, namely,
iMuhammadans, 8926; Hindus, 5351; Sikhs, 884; Jains, 42; and
'others,' 34. Number of houses, 3081. The town is connected by
metalled roads with Jalandhar, 11 miles distant, with the Kartarpur
Station of the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi P.ailway, 7 J miles distant, and
I with Sultanpur, 16 miles distant. Kapurthala has been the capital
lof the Ahluwalia chiefs since its conquest by Sardar Jassa Singh in

Kara.— Town in Sirathu taksil, Allahabad District, North-Western
Provinces, — See Karra.

Karachi {Kurrachee). — District in the Province of Sind, Bombay
Presidency; lies between 23° 34'' and 26° 57' N. lat., and between
66° 41' 30" and 68° 49' e. long. Karachi District is bounded on the
morth by Shikarpur ; on the east by the Indus and Haidardbad (Hyder-
iabad) ; on the south by the sea and the Kori river ; and on the west by
'the sea and Baluchistan or the territories of the Khan of Khelat (Kalat),
'the river Hab (Habb) forming for a considerable distance the line of
demarcation. The greatest length of the District from north to south
is 200 miles, and its greatest breadth from east to west no miles.
Area, 14,115 square miles, or 11-4 per cent, of the British Districts of
the Bombay Presidency, or 5*2 per cent, of the entire area, British and
feudatory. Popularion (1881) 478,688 persons. The administrative
head-quarters are at the city of Karachi (Kurrachee).

Physical Aspects. — Karachi District, an immense tract of land
stretching from the mouth of the Indus to the Baluchi boundary,


differs considerably in appearance from the general level of the Pro-
vince of Sind by its possession of a hilly western region, lying in the
Sub-divisions of Kohistan and Karachi. Numerous lateral ranges
of considerable height here push forward into the plain from the
Kirthar, or Hala, Mountains, and diversify the usually monotonous
aspect of the arid surface by their spurs and offshoots. From this lofty
and barren tract, intersected by deep and wide valleys, the general)
aspect of the country, as it runs south-eastward in a vast sloping plain,
becomes more and more level, until in the extreme south the Indusi
Delta presents a broad expanse of low, flat, and unpicturesque alluvium,
stretching away to the horizon in one unbroken sheet, only varied by
the numerous creeks communicating with the ocean. Large forests of
babul and other trees fringe the river banks, and impart a somewhat
fresher appearance to the otherwise dreary landscape. Elsewhere,
however, the features of the Sind Delta stand unrelieved in their naked

The Indus, the Great River of Sind, takes its rise in an unexplored
region beyond British India, on the northern slopes of the sacred?
Kailas mountain, at an elevation of 16,000 feet above sea-level, in lat.
32° N., long. 81° E. It enters British territory in the Punjab, near
Derbend, at the western base of the Mahaban mountain, in lat. 34° 25'j
N., and long. 72" 51' e. At a distance of 812 miles from its source,
it becomes navigable at Attock, in Rawal Pindi District, and just above'
Mithankot, in Dera Ghazi Khan District, it receives the accumulated
waters of the Sutlej, Jehlam (Jhelum), Chenab, Ravi, and Beas (Bias),i
under the name of the Panjnad. It enters Sind from the north, neari
Kashmor town, in lat. 28° 26' n., and long. 69° 47' e., and flowing in a;
general southerly direction touches Karachi District, and forms thai
boundary between Karachi and Haidarabad as far as Jerruck town,
whence it flows entirely through Karachi District, and throwing off
numerous branches, falls into the sea by several mouths, extending)
along a coast-line of upwards of 125 miles.

The delta of the Indus comprises an area of from 2000 to 3000
square miles, of an almost uniform level, but with a submerged belt
fringing the coast of an average breadth of twenty miles. Unlike the
densely wooded delta of the Ganges, that of the Indus is almost
entirely destitute of timber. The river is continually changing its
current, particularly in its lower courses, and the different mouths are
constantly shifting. In the early part of the century, the two great |
arms of the river were the Baghiar and the Sita, both of which
were then navigable by large vessels, but in 1837 the former was I
found to be quite deserted by the river. Prior to 1819, the town of
Shahbandar (King's port), on the Bagana (or Mai) branch, was ani
important naval station of the Kalhora princes, and ships of war were


stationed there. This town is now ten miles inland from the nearest
point of the river. The principal mouth of the Indus at present
(1884) is the Hajamro branch. On the eastern side of the entrance
is a large beacon 95 feet high, visible 25 miles to seaward, and
two pilot boats are stationed inside the bar. In 1845, the Hajamro
jbranch was so small as only to be suited for the passage of small boats
lat flood-tide.

The Indus was first navigated by steamers in 1835. In 1839, two
steamers were emi)loyed for military purposes when Lord Keane's
,army landed in Sind en route to Afghanistan ; and in 1842 steam vessels
took an important part in the conquest of the Province. After annexa-
ition, a Government navy steam flotilla was maintained on the Indus,
with its head-quarters at Kotri, mainly for the transport of troops,
I treasure, and Government stores between Karachi and Miiltan. The
Government flotilla was broken up in 1859, and several of its steamers
;and stock made over to a company worked in conjunction with the
I railway then in construction between Karachi and Kotri. On the
[completion of the Sind railway system, and its connection with the
'general railway system of India, the necessity for a steam flotilla on the
Tndus ceased, and it has recently been broken up, and the vessels sold.
I For a general account of the Indus, its navigation and irrigation capa-
Ibilities, etc., see the articles Indus River and Sind Province,

The only other river of any importance in Karachi District is the Hab,

forming the western boundary between Sind and Baluchistan. A few

minor torrents take their rise among the western hills, but consist of

dry watercourses during the greater portion of the year, only inundated

on a few rare occasions, when heavy rains fall on the higher ranges,

in which they have their sources. The Manchhar Lake, in Sehwan

I Sub-division, forms the only considerable sheet of water in any part of

I Sind. The hot springs of Pir Mangho, situated about six or seven

' miles north of Karachi town, among some very barren and rocky hills,

attract many visitors on account of their picturesque surroundings.

! They gush up from a clump of date trees, which covers the extremity

\ of a craggy limestone knoll, in a pretty valley enclosed by considerable

I heights. A swamp close by is famous for its immense number of

! crocodiles, which rank among the chief sights of Karachi. Hundreds

of these monsters bask lazily in the sun, by the side of a green, slimy,

stagnant pool, or move sluggishly about in search of food. A mosque

crowns the summit of a neighbouring crag, with a neat white cupola

and slender minarets.

The fauna include the leopard, hy^na, wolf, jackal, fox, bear, ante-
lope, and wild sheep. Among birds, vultures, grey pigeon, partridge,
and quail are common. Reptiles of various kinds abound, especially
in Kohistan.


History. — From the early Arab invasions of Sind in the beginning
of the eighth century a.d down to the time (1839) hen Karachi
town was taken by the British, the District had experienced the
vicissitudes of seven dynasties or systems of administration. These
were, in order of succession, — those of the early invaders, of Mahmud
of Ghazni and his commanders, of the Sammas from Cutch, of the
Arghiin family, of the Mughals, of the Kalhora princes, and of the
Talpur Mirs. The ancient town of Sehwax contains the ruins of a fort
of great antiquity. Local tradition ascribes its origin to Alexander
the Great, who sailed down the Indus from the country of the Malli
(Miiltan), and despatched Nearchus, doubtless from some point (sug-
gested to be at Tatta) in the present District, to explore the Persian
Gulf. It is, however, more generally identified with the Sindomani
existing in the time of Alexander. In later times it was known as
Sewastan. The town already possessed considerable importance when
Muhammad Kasim Sakifi, the first INIusalman invader of Sind, obtained
its submission about 713 a.d., after his conquest of Nerankot, the

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 7) → online text (page 53 of 57)