William Wilson Hunter.

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(1881) 16,873, namely, Muhammadans, 9102; Hindus, 6093; Sikhs,
1372; Jains, 302; ' others,' 4. Number of houses, 2548. Jagrdon
belonged under the Mughals to the Rais of Rdikot, and was made over
by Ranjit Singh in 1806 to Fateh Singh Ahluwalia. Brisk trade in
grain and other country produce ; the mercantile community is, how-
ever, migratory. TahsUt, police station, school-house, sardi^ dispensary.
Municipal revenue in 1882-83, ;£'9475 or is. 7|d. per head of popula-
tion within municipal limits.

Jahalu. — Town in Bijnaur District, North-Western Provinces. — See
Jhalu.

Jahanabad. — Sub-division of Gayd District, Bengal. Lat. 24° 59' 15"
to 25° 19' N,, and long. 84° 30' to 85° 16' e. Area, 607 square miles;
towns and villages, 1454; houses, 61,157. Population (1872) 358,419;
( 1 88 1 ) 385, 189, of whom Hindus numbered 348, 1 70, or 90*39 per cent. ;
Muhammadans, 37,004, or 9*60 per cent; and Christians, 15. Pro-
portion of males, 49-8 per cent. ; average density of population, 634 per
square mile; inhabitants per village, 265 ; houses per square mile, 106;
inmates per house, 6-3. This Sub-division comprises the two police
circles of Arwal and Jahanabad. It contained (1883) 2 criminal
courts, 73 regular police, and 361 village watchmen.

Jahandbdd.— Town in Gayd District, Bengal, and head-quarters of
Jahanabad Sub-division. Lat. 25° 13' 10" n., long. 85° 2' 10" e.; situated
on the Murahar or Dardha river, and on the Patna branch road, 31 miles
due north of Gaya city. Population (188 1) 5286, namely, Hindus, 3841,
and Muhammadans, 1445. Area of town site, 160 acres. Municipal
revenue (1881-82), ;^i2o; rate of taxation, i-Jd. per head of municipal
population (21,022); local police, 15 men. Contains the usual public
buildings, lock-up, ddk and inspection bungalows, dispensary, and post-
office. Three brick houses, said to have been built by the Dutch, are
all that now remain of a once flourishing trade. In 1760, Jahdndbdd
formed one of the eight minor branches connected with the Central Cloth
Factory of the East India Company at Patna. Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton
states that in his time (1807-13) the town contained about 700 houses,
a cloth factory, and a native agency for the manufacture of saltpetre.



44 JAHANABAD—JAHANGIRABAD.

During the last twenty years, since the introduction of Manchester goods,
the manufacture of cotton cloth has entirely ceased ; but large numbers
of the Julaha or weaver class still live in the neighbourhood.

Jahanabad.— Sub-division of Hugh' District, Bengal. Lat. 22° 45'
30" to 23° 12' N., and long. 87° 28' 45" to 88° 3' 30" e. Area, 438
square miles; towns and villages, 649; houses, 71,102. Population
(1872) 400,407; (1881) 352,596, of whom 304,706, or 86-4 per
cent, were Hindus; and 47,890, or 13-6 per cent., Muhammadans.
The decrease of 47,811 persons, or 11 '94 i^er cent., in nine years is
mainly due to the epidemic fever which has been raging throughout
the Districts of the Bardwan and Presidency Divisions for so many
years. Proportion of males, 47-4 per cent. ; average density of popu-
lation, 805 per square mile ; villages per square mile, i -48 ; persons
per village, 543; houses per square mile, 175; persons per house, 5.
This Sub-division comprises the three police circles of Jahanabad,
Goghat, and Khanakiil. In 1883 it contained two civil and two
criminal courts, a regular police force of 114, and a village police of
1897 men.

Jahandbdd. — Town and head-quarters of Jahanabid Sub-division,
in Hugh District, Bengal; situated on the river Dhalkisor, in lat.
22° 53' N., long. 87° 49' 50" E. Population (1872) 13,409; (1881)
10,507, namely, Hindus, 7743, and Muhammadans, 2764. Area of
town site, 1920 acres. Municipal revenue (1881-82), £^2\^\ rate of
taxation, 4|d. per head of municipal population. Dispensary.

Jahanabad (or Kord). — Town in Fatehpur District, North-Western
Provinces. Lat. 26° 6' 2" n., and long. 80° 24' 18" e. Remarkable
chiefly for its handsome architectural remains, which include the Bara-
dari of Rao Lai Bahadur, a large enclosed garden with pleasure houses,
built towards the close of the last century under the Oudh Wazirs ; the
Thakurdwara, a fine modern edifice ; the Sorahi or mausoleum, a mile
west of the town ; and the sardi, a magnificent building with ancient
walls and gates.

Jahangirabad. — Town in Anupshahr tahsil, Bulandshahr District,
North-Western Provinces. Lat. 28° 24' n., long. 78° 8' 45" e. Situated
15 miles east of Bulandshahr town. Founded by the Badgiijar Raja,
Ani Rai, who named the town after his patron Jahangir. Population
(1872) 9408; (1881) 10,319, namely, Hindus, 7722, and Muhammadans,
2597. Area of town site, 121 acres. Growing trade, local manufactures
of printed cloths for counterpanes and table-covers, also of native car-
riages and sacred cars. Mosque, school, sardi, police station, post-ofiice.
For police and conservancy purposes, a house-tax is levied under the
provisions of Act xx. of 1856. The land surrounding the town is highly
cultivated, bearing rich crops of safflower and cereals. Weekly market
held on Wednesdays.



JAHANGIRABAD—JAIGARH. 45

Jahangirabad. — Town in Sltapur District, Oudh ; situated on the
high-road to Bahraich, 29 miles east of Sitapur town, and 8 miles east
of Biswan. A weaving town, containing many Muhammadan Julahas,
or weavers of coarse country cloth. Population (1882) 2517. Good
bi-weekly market, Government school.

Jahazgarh (or Georgegarh). — Fortress in Rohtak District, Punjab,
near the town of Jhajhar; built, according to Thornton, by the military
adventurer George Thomas, at the close of the last century, and called
after his own name, but corrupted by the natives into the existing
form. In 1801, the Marathas invested the fort, and Thomas with
difficulty made his escape to Hansi, where he met with his final defeat.
He then abandoned all his conquests, and retired into British territory
as a private person, to die at Berhampur in Lower Bengal. A cattle
fair is held here in March and October.

Jahazpur. — Town in the Native State of Udaipur (Oodeypore),
Rajputana. Jahazpur contains about 2000 houses, and lies below a fort
built on an isolated hill. The hill is oblong in shape, and guards the
eastern entrance of an important pass leading through the hills from
Biindi into Mewar. The pargand^ of which the town is the capital,
contains 100 villages, the population of which is composed entirely of
the tribe of Minas. The fort is large and strong, and consists of two
ramparts, one within the other, a broad space between. Each rampart
has a deep ditch and numerous bastions.

Jahnavi. — River in Garhwal State, North-Western Provinces, and
one of the tributaries of the Bhagirathi ; rises in lat. 30° 55' n.,
long. 79° 14' E., and, holding first a northerly and then a westerly
course, joins the main stream near the temple of Bhairoghati. Total
length, 30 miles.

Jaigarh {Fort Victory). — Seaport and village in Ratnagiri Sub-
division, Ratnagiri District, Bombay Presidency, situated in lat. 17°
17' N., and long. 73° 15' e., at the southern entrance to the Shastri or
Sangameswar river, 99 miles south of Bombay city. It contained 2442
inhabitants in 1872, but the population is not returned separately in
the Census Report of 1881. The harbour forms a bay two miles long
and five miles broad, with deep water, and well protected against winds.
Annual value of trade for the five years ending 1881-82. ^54,347,
namely, exports, ;^'2 1,365, chiefly firewood and molasses ; and imports,
;£"33,982, principally rice and salt. Jaigarh is now little more than a
fishing village, with a custom-house and post-office. The fort, which
occupies an area of four acres, is situated close to the shore on gently
rising ground about 200 feet above the sea. The walls and bastions
are, except in a few places, still in good repair, but are gradually
decaying. The fort was originally built by the Bijapur kings, and was
afterwards the retreat of a noted Hindu pirate, the Naik of Sangameswar,



4^ . JAINAGAR—JAINTIA,

who was sufficiently powerful to resist two combined expeditions
of the Portuguese and Bijapur forces sent against him in 1583 and
1585. In 1 713, Jaigarh passed into the hands of the famous Maratha
sea-robber, Angria; and in June 18 18, on the downfall of the Peshwa,
was surrendered to the British.

Jainagar. — Town, municipality, and police station in the District
of the Twenty-four Parganis, Bengal. Lat. 22° 10' 55" n., long. 88°
27'4o"e. Population (1872) 7772 ; (1881) 7685, namely, Hindus, 7 112,
and Muhammadans, 573. Area of town site, 1200 acres. Municipal
revenue (1881-82), £,^^"1 ; rate of taxation, is. 2d. per head of popu-
lation; police force, 14 men. Jainagar is situated near the old bed of
the Ganges, which has been dammed across, and forms at this place
a continuous line of tanks, by one of which are some Hindu temples.
Large bazar ; English school under Hindu management. Communica-
tion between Jainagar and Calcutta is maintained by a small water-
course leading into Tolly's Canal ; and the construction of a feeder
road, from Jainagar to the Mugra station on the Diamond Harbour
Railway, would bring the place within easy reach of Calcutta.

Jainagar. — Town in Darbhangah District, Bengal ; situated in lat.
26° 34' 45" N., and long. 86° ii' e., a few miles south of the Nepal
frontier, and a little east of the river Kamla. Population (1872) 2663 ')
(1881) 3141. Contains the ruins of a mud fort attributed to Ala-ud-din,
Governor of Bengal, and said to have been constructed about 1573, to
resist the incursions of the hill tribes. Near the fort is an encampment
made by the English during the Nepalese war. The Jainagar indigo
and sugar factory is now closed. The town is in easy communication
with all parts of the District.

Jaintia. — A tract of country in the Province of Assam ; once a
State under an independent Rdja, but now divided into the Jaintia
Hills (which form part of the District of the Khasi and Jaintia Hills)
and the Jaintia plains (incorporated with Sylhet District). This article
refers only to the latter tract, which contains an area of 463 square
miles. It consists of the strip of low-lying country of varying width
that extends between the Jaintia Hills on the north, and the main
stream of the Bardk or Surma river on the south.

Rajendra Singh, the last Raja of Jaintia, was a petty chief whose
family had risen to importance amid the ruins of the Cachari
kingdom at the close of the last century. Like the neighbouring
rulers, they had adopted some form of Hinduism as their dominion
became organized ; and in this case, the worship of the bloodthirsty
Kali was selected as the national religion. Several shrines of this
goddess in Jaintia are still frequented places of pilgrimage. The
abomination of human sacrifice, which was of common occurrence,
led to repeated remonstrance from the British Government. In



JAINTIA HILLS. 47

1832, three British subjects were carried off from Nowgong District
and immolated at a popular shrine of Kali. Rija Rajendra Singh was
himself charged with complicity in this outrage, and in 1835 the
Governor-General issued a proclamation declaring his deposition and
the annexation of the plain portion of his territory to Sylhet. The
Raja voluntarily resigned the hill tract, and of this we also took
possession. He was granted a pension of ^600 a year, and resided
peaceably in Sylhet until his death in 1861.

Between 1838 and 1840, the Jaintia plains were surveyed by Lieu-
tenant (now General) Thuillier, who found the total area to be 459 square
miles, of which about one-third was under cultivation. The former
native Government is described as a pure despotism. The revenue was
received by the Rajd partly in produce and partly in labour, and all
tenures were voidable at his will. No class of persons had any
recognised rights in the land, but the more substantial cultivators
called themselves mirdsddrs, the Sylhet equivalent for zaininddr. Over
the cultivators were officials known as chaudhans, who acted as revenue
collectors or tahsilddrs.

After British annexation, a temporary land settlement was con-
cluded with the cultivators for a term of five years, renewed from
time to time up to April 1856, from which year a resetdement
for a term of twenty years was effected. In 1853, when Mr. Mills
drew up his valuable report upon Sylhet, the total land revenue
paid was ;^4455 ; the number of estates was 20,677, showing an
average assessment of only 3s. 4d. on each estate ; nearly half the
estates paid less than 2s. each a year, and only 3 paid more than £2^.
By 1874-75, the current demand of land revenue had risen to £()l62,
and the number of estates to 21,194. A resettlement of the 18
pargands or fiscal divisions into which this tract is divided was com-
menced in 1875 ; but early in the following year, the work was for a
time suspended, owing to the attitude of organized hostility assumed
by the inhabitants of certain villages. They refused in a body to point
out their lands to the amins or native surveyors, under some misappre-
hension of the mode in which the measurements were to be made.
Argument and persuasion by the European settlement officer having
been employed in vain, it was found necessary to have recourse to
Act XX. of 1848, and punish the ringleaders by the imposition of daily
fines. The settlement operations have since been renewed without
encountering any active opposition. Further information concerning
the Jaintia plains is included in the article on Sylhet District.

Jaintia Hills {Jowai).—Yox administrative purposes, the Jaintia Hills
are regarded as a Sub-division of the Khdsi and Jaintia Hills District, in
the Province of Assam. This tract covers an area of about 2000 square
miles ; bounded north by the District of Nowgong (Naugaon), east by



48 JAINJIA HILLS.

Cachar, south by Sylhet, and west by the Khasi Hills. The admini-
strative head-quarters and the residence of the Assistant Commissioner
are at the station of Jowai.

As compared with the semi-independent States in the Khdsi Hills,
the Sub-division of the Jaintia Hills is treated as British territory, having
been voluntarily surrendered by the native Raja in 1835 (^'^'^^ Jaintia).
When we first assumed charge, no change was made in the indigenous
revenue system, which consisted simply in the payment of a he-goat
once a year by each village. The Raja had derived the greater part of
his income from his possessions in the plains. In i860, however, a
house-tax was imposed, the highest limit of which was 2s. per house.
This measure of direct taxation was very obnoxious to the hillmen.
They formed irregular gatherings, at which they refused to pay except
through their own hereditary Raja, who was then living under sur-
veillance in Sylhet District. An outbreak took place in the beginning
of the year, which was promptly suppressed, and a general disarmament
was ordered. Towards the close of i860, fresh taxation was intro-
duced, in the form of judicial stamps and imposts upon fisheries and
timber-cutting. At the same time, the elaborate schedules of the new
income-tax were thrust into the hands of persons, few of whom could
read the language in which they were framed. All these fiscal novelties
were introduced without the safeguard that would have resulted from
the presence of European officers. Towards the close of 186 1, rumours
of disturbance were in the air. In January 1862, the hillmen rose in
open rebellion, the immediate cause being the interference of a native
official with a religious ceremony. The police station at Jowai was
burned to the ground, the garrison of Sepoys was closely besieged, and
all show of British authority was swept away throughout the hills. The
hillmen fought bravely for independence, their weapons being only bows
and arrows and the dreaded pdnji or bamboo spike, stuck thickly in
the paths leading to their fastnesses. At first they were successful in
cutting off several detachments of Sepoys and police. Finally it was
found necessary to move into the hills a regular army, including an
elephant battery and two regiments of Sikhs. After operations both
tedious and harassing, the last of the ringleaders was captured, and
order was finally restored in March 1863.

The Jaintia Hills are divided into 23 fiscal divisions, of which 2 are
inhabited by Kuki immigrants, and 2 by Mikirs. The remainder of
the inhabitants are Santengs, more commonly called Syntengs, a race
akin to the Khasis, but reported to have distinct ethnical characteristics
and a language of their own. Colonel Yule, however, who travelled
through the country, questions whether any real linguistic or ethnical
difference exists between the Khasis and the Jaintias. The Census
of 1881 returned the population at 56,448, of whom 47,108 were



JAINTIAPUR. 45

Santengs still professing aboriginal faiths, and 43 Khasi's. Hindus
numbered 2485; Muhammadans, 176; Christians, 648; unspecified
and 'others,' 6236.

The chief crop is rice, grown in the hilly tracts on the nomadic
system of agriculture known as///;//, but under permanent irrigated cul-
tivation in the valleys. In the valleys, ploughs and oxen are used ; but
amid the hills, the only agricultural implements are the ddo or hill knife
and hoe. The most valuable natural product is limestone, which is
found on the river banks at seven different places ; but only two
quarries are worked, the out-turn being despatched by water into Bengal
from the Sylhet markets. Coal has been found of excellent quality at
five spots, most of which are inaccessible to water traffic. The most
extensive of the coal beds is at La-ka-dong, within 6 miles of a navi-
gable tributary of the Surma. This was worked from 1850 to 1856,
and about 5000 tons of coal were extracted for exportation. The
Santengs, like the Khasis, are keen traders, and retain in their own
hands the valuable commerce of their native hills. They frequent the
markets at the foot of the hills on the Sylhet side. In 1876-77, the
total value of the exports from the Sub-division was estimated at
;£ 1 9,000, including 16,000 maimds of raw cotton and 5490 maunds of
lac. The total imports were valued at ^34,560, chiefly ;£"8ooo of
cotton and woollen cloth, ;^25oo of silk cloth, 15,000 ?nau?ids of rice,
6230 loads of dried fish, 5290 maujids of salt, and 609 maiuids of
tobacco. No later statistics are available.

In 1880- 8 T, the total revenue of the Jaintia Hills Sub-division
amounted to ^^2366, of which ^1279 was derived from the house-tax.
This tax is annually assessed by the head-man of each village, whose
title is either dolloi or sarddr, upon every house at the rate of 2s. or 4s.
These dollois or sarddrs (village heads) are elected by the different
village communities, subject to the confirmation of the Deputy Com-
missioner. They hold office for three years, but are liable to be dis-
missed for misconduct at any time. Their duties are to collect the
revenue, for which they are paid by a commission ; and they also
exercise minor criminal and police jurisdiction, with power to inflict a
fine not exceeding ^^5, liable, however, to appeal to the Deputy Com-
missioner.

Jaintiapur {ox Jamtia Bdzdr). — Village and t/idnd or police station
in the north-east of Sylhet District, Assam ; situated in lat. 25° 8' 7" n.,
and long. 92° 10' 2" e., on the old bed of the Hari river, at the foot of
the Jaintia Hills. The weekly market is frequented by Khasi and
Santeng traders, who bring dow^n the produce of their hills to exchange
for cotton goods, salt, and rice. The village was formerly the capital
of the Raja of Jaintia, whose territory was annexed in 1835 in conse-
quence of his being found guilty of complicity in the rite of human

VOL. VII. D



50 JAIPUR NATIVE STATE.

sacrifice. ( Vide Jaintia, atite^ p. 47.) The place contains some
interesting architectural remains, marking the transition from the primi-
tive paganism originally practised by the hill tribes to the elaborate
Hinduism imported from Bengal — the former symbolized by great
monoliths of unhewn stone, now surrounded by Hindu temples and
edifices with elaborate carvings and images.

Jaipur {Jeypore). — Native State in Rajputdna, Central India, under
the political superintendence of the Eastern States Agency of Rajputana.
Jaipur State is bounded on the north by Bikaner (Bickaneer), Loharu
Jhajjar,and Patiala; on the east by Alwar (Ulwur), Bhartpur (Bhurtpore),
and Karauli ; on the south by Gwalior, Bundi (Boondee), Tonk, and
Mewar or Udaipur (Oodeypore) ; on the west by Kishangarh, Jodhpur,
and Bikaner. The State lies between lat. 25° 43' and 28° 27' n., and
between long. 74° 50' and 77° 15' e. Area, 14,465 square miles.
Population (1881) 2,534,357.

Physical Aspects. — The general character of the country is tolerably
level and open, although its surface is crossed and diversified by
groups and ranges of hills and by isolated peaks. The centre of the
State is an elevated table-land of triangular form, from 1400 to 1600
feet above sea-level, with a gradual slope to the south-east towards the
Banas river. The eastern limit of the State is formed by ranges running
north and south along the Alwar border, and at places cut up by
numerous deep ravines ; towards the north and west it is bounded by
a broken chain of hills, an offshoot from the Aravalli mountains, which
occupy the apex of the triangle. The hills here rise to a considerable
height, with a bold outline; and on the north-west form a natural
boundary between the sandy, desert tract of Shaikhawati (or the country
of the Shaikhawat clan in the extreme north of the State) and Bikaner.
To the south-east hes the more fertile soil of Jaipur proper. On the
east, beyond the range of hills near the capital, there is a rapid fall of
some 3C0 or 400 feet in the first 2 or 3 miles, after which a gradual
slope follows the valley of the Banganga river to the Bhartpur border,
and the country becomes more open as it spreads out towards the
alluvial flats of the Jumna (Jamund). In the extreme south of the
State, the hills reappear ; and in the neighbourhood of Rajmahal,
where the Banas river has forced itself through the range, the scenery
is remarkable for its beauty. Westward from Jaipur city, the country
rises gradually towards the Kishangarh border, consisting in great
measure of broad, open, treeless plains, dotted here and there with
hills.

The general drainage of Jaipur from the central table-land is to the
east and south-east, though a few streams follow the slope to the north-
west. The Banas, the largest river in the State, receives most of the
rainfall by means of several tributaries, of which only one or two are



JAIPUR NATIVE STATE. -i

perennial. The Banganga reaches the Jumna direct, flowing eastward
through Jaipur territory. In the hot season, the surface bed of the
Banganga is often dry. Of their tributaries in Jaipur, the Aman-i-shah,
which supplies Jaipur city with water, has a slight flow throughout the
year ; but other tributaries, such as the Gambhir, the Bdndi, the Morel,
the Dhiind, the Mashi, and the Khari, although their beds are fre-
quently of great wddth, are flooded only in the rains, and are dry during
the hot months. The Sabi is the chief river that flows in a northerly
direction. It rises about 24 miles due north of Jaipur city, and,
after skirting Alwar, passes out into the Nabha State. It is subject to
heavy floods. The Kantli flows north-north-west for a distance of
about 60 miles through Shaikhawati, and loses itself in the sand as it
enters Bikam'r territory, at Sankhu.

South of the dividing range between Shaikhawati and Jaipur, water
is found beneath the surface at a depth varying from a few feet (in low-
lying land) to 30 or 40 feet ; but in Shaikhdwati, north of that range, water
lies at a great depth, averaging from 80 to 100 feet. It is brackish in
many parts where the soil is much impregnated with salt ; but sweet
water may be found throughout the east and south of the State. The
only natural lake of any importance is the Sambhar salt lake.

The soil of the State in the immediate neighbourhood of Jaipur citv,
and to the west and north, is generally sandy. There are tracts of
barren sand, frequently underlaid by clay and stiff soil mixed with
kaiikar (calcareous conglomerate). Eastward along the Banganga
valley, and southward from Jaipur city, the soil is mostly rich and
fertile. The Shaikhawati tract on the north consists almost entirely of
shifting sands.



Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 7) → online text (page 6 of 57)