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There are no extensive forests in Jaipur ; but the hills near the city
and in the south of the State are more or less covered with the dhao
(Anogeissus latifolius) and other jungle trees, of little value except for
fuel. The babul (Acacia arabica) and the 7iim (Azadirachta indica)
may be considered as the commonest trees of the country.

No regular geological survey has yet been undertaken of the hill
ranges in Jaipur State ; but they are said to consist in the north chiefly
of granite, and in the south and east of sandstones, mixed sometimes
with white or black marble, and occasionally with mica. As they do
not contain any fossil remains, they are believed to be primitive rocks
belonging to the transitionary series. The hills for the most part rise
abruptly from the plain ; many are peaked, but others are flat at the top,
with edges steeply scarped for some way down the side, thus forming
natural fortifications. In the north of the State, where the Khetri
Hills meet the Alwar range, a great geological disturbance has taken
place, the granite of the Aravalli mountains bursting through and up-
heaving the sandstones of the Alwar chain, thus exposing alum shales


and rich veins of copper ore, cobalt, and nickel. Copper mines are
worked to a small extent in the neighbourhood of Khetri ; but owing
to the want of proper appliances for keeping down the water, the
richest veins, which are lowest, cannot be reached. Cobalt is found
in thin layers between the veins of copper ore. It is much used at
Jaipur city for enamelling, and is exported for that purpose to Delhi
and Haidarabad (Hyderabad) in the Deccan. In addition to these
minerals, salt is largely manufactured at, and exported from, the Sam-
BHAR Lake, situated in lat. 26° 58' n., and long. 75° 5' e., on the
borders of Jodhpur. The average yearly out-turn of salt is 150,000
tons. Good building stone, chiefly sandstone and marble, is plentiful.
At Bankri, 36 miles east of Jaipur city, and near the Dosa (Dausa)
railway station, huge slabs (some of them 30 feet long) of a foHated
mica schist, valuable for roofing, are quarried. Coarse grey marble
comes from Raiwala, near the Alwar border, and a black marble, used
for inlaying work, is obtained at Kot Putli. Abundance of excellent
limestone is procured from Rahaon, 7 miles north of the Kanauta
railway station, and kankar is found almost everywhere, generally
in flat beds instead of nodules. Carbuncles are procured in large
quantities in the south of the State, near Rajmahal; and it is said
that turquoises were formerly found in the same neighbourhood,
near Todah.

AgricuUure. — In Shaikhawati, there is generally but one crop in the
year — raised during the rainy season, and ripening in October-November.
The crop consists chiefly of hdjra (Holcus spicatus), mug (Phaseolus
mungo), and moth (Phaseolus aconitifolius). In the north of Jaipur
proper, the crop of the rainy season is the same as in Shaikhawati, but
a little wheat and barley are grown in the cold season. Towards the
south and east, as the soil becomes richer and firmer, jodr (Holcus
sorghum) and Indian corn, with cotton and til (Sesamum), are grown
in the rainy season ; while in the cold season, wheat, barley, gram,
sugar-cane, opium, tobacco, ddl^ and linseed are extensively raised.
In the eastern districts, rice of a coarse quality is cultivated to a limited
extent. Few traces of former irrigation works exist; but since 1868,
the State has spent at least ;£"5ooo annually in improving the irrigation
of the country. In 1882-83, the State expended on irrigation works a
sum of ^^23,862 ; the income from irrigation works was ^14,025 in
the same year.

Populatmi. — The first regular Census in the State of Jaipur was
taken in February 1881, and disclosed a population of 2,534,357 per-
sons, of whom 1,369,134 were returned as males, and 1,165,223 as
females. The late Maharaja doubted the success of a Census in
Rajputana, as a previous similar undertaking by him in his own terri-
tory had failed, owing to strong Rajput conservatism and disinclina-


tion to make public declaration of family surroundings. The total
population of 2,534,357 was returned as dwelling in 34 towns and
5930 villages, and occupying 507,697 houses. Number of persons
per square mile, 175 ; number of houses per square mile, 35 ; number
of persons per house, 5. Of the total population, 2,315,219 were
returned as Hindus; '•170,907 as Muhammadans ; 552 as Christians ;
47,672 as Jains; and 7 as Parsis. Of the Hindus, 351,004 were
Brahmans and 124,345 Rajputs; other Hindu castes numbered
1,887,542, including 242,474 Mahajans or Baniyas ; 6641 Kachis ;
171,632 Giijars; 227,321 Jats; 54,665 Ahirs ; 221,565 Minas; 209,094
Chamars; and 706,478 of other inferior castes. Of the Muham-
madans, the sect of Shaikhs numbered 50,690; Sayyids, 7798;
Mughals, 27,216; Pathans, 3780; 'others,' 81,423. Of the Hindu
independent sects in the State who have a peculiar doctrine and
worship, the most notable is the Dadu Panthi, which had its origin, and
still has its head-quarters, at Barahana, near the Sambhar lake. At the
lake is a shrine and monastery built near the spot where the founder
of the faith, Dadu, vanished. Dadu lived in the time of Akbar (i6th
century). His devotees shave the head and preach mysticism and
morality as interpreted by his successors, the priests, at the shrine ;
they traverse the land on regular circuit to spread the word, and com-
mune with disciples. The militant devotees belonging to this sect are
known as Ndgas^ and are enrolled in regiments to serve the State ;
they are vowed to celibacy and to arms, and constitute a sort of military
order in the sect. — See Naraina.

Commerce^ etc. — The most noticeable feature in the commerce of the
State is the large banking and exchange business carried on at the
capital and in the large towns. The chief manufactures of Jaipur are
— marble sculpture ; enamel work on gold, for which the artisans are
justly famous ; woollen cloth, and other fabrics. An extensive dyeing
trade is carried on at Sanganer, near the capital. The principal trade
route of the State is the Rajputana-Malwa State Railway, by which
the Sambhar salt is carried to the North-Western Provinces and the
Punjab, and by which also nearly the whole of the imports, such
as English piece-goods, hardware, spices, grain, and Rohilkhand sugar
are conveyed. The price of salt in 1882 was two shillings (i rupee)
for 30 pounds. There is but little traffic northward from the capital,
as the trade of Shaikhawati travels principally either norlh-east to
the great mart of Bhawani in Hissar or south-west to Ajmir. The
principal export from Shaikhawati is wool ; the imports are sugar,
piece-goods, hardware, spices, and tobacco. Owing to the sandy
nature of the soil, camels are used almost entirely in the Shaikha-
wati trade. The Mandawar and Karauli road is an important trade
route for all the cotton, grain, oil-seeds, raw sugar, tobacco, etc. grown


in the south and east of the State, where Hindaun is the principal
mart. Copper and brass vessels are largely manufactured at the town
of Siwai Madhupur, and exported southwards via Indargarh into the
Haraoti States. Other important roads passing through the State are
the Agra and Ajmir road, and the Jaipur and Tonk road. The Agra-
Ajmir road is much less used since the opening of the railway to Ajmir.
A black marble is obtained at Baislana ; cobalt and sulphate of copper
in the hills near Khetri. The amount of customs revenue to the State
was ^73,109 in 1882.

There is a mint at the capital which turns out gold mohurs, rupees,
and copper coins. The Jaipur coinage is distinguished by the jhar or
sprig borne on the obverse. The gold mohur weighs 167-8 grains, the
metal being absolutely pure. The rupee, which is alloyed with 4J
grains troy of copper, weighs 175 grains.

Co??imunications. — The Rajputana- Malwa State Railway on the
metre (narrow) gauge runs from Agra to Jaipur city, and thence to
Ajmir, with a branch line to Nasirabad (Nusseerabad). The line runs
for 150 miles through Jaipur territory. It eventually joins the broad
gauge line from Bombay at Ahmadabad in Gujarat. A line from
Delhi, also on the metre gauge, and a part of the Rajputana-Malwa
State Railway system, joins at Bandikui station in Jaipur territory.
Short branches connect the towns on the Sambhar Salt Lake with
this system. The whole number of railway stations in the State was 22
in 1 88 1. The Agra and Ajmir road is 127 miles long, metalled almost
throughout. Its general direction is from east to west across the
Jaipur territory, and the railway carries most of its ancient traffic. The
Jaipur and Tonk road, 68 miles, is now completed. This road passes
the towns of Sanganer, Chatsii, and Newai. A third main road leads
from Mandawar on the Rajputana-Malwa State Railway to the borders
of the Karauli territory, 49 miles distant. A heliograph communi-
cation with Fatehgarh in Shaikhawati is maintained by certain opium
merchants to record the rise or fall in the price of the drug from day to
day. There are 22 post-offices in the State.

Education has made greater progress in Jaipur than in any other
of the Rajputana States. The Maharaja's college at Jaipur city had a
daily attendance, in 1882, of 628 students, who receive a good educa-
tion in English, Sanskrit, and the vernacular languages, and are pre-
pared for the matriculation and Arts Examination of the Calcutta
University. There is also a school for the sons of Thakurs and high
officials, with a daily attendance, in 1882, of 15, a Sanskrit college
(daily attendance 100), and an industrial school (daily attendance 97).
There are 12 girls' schools in the State; pupils (1882), 547. In the
country districts there are 45 elementary schools, wholly supported
and periodically inspected by the State, with 1065 pupils in 18S2 ;


and 410 indigenous schools, with an aggregate attendance of 8220
pupils. Instruction is given both in Hindi and Urdu. The average
annual cost of educating a young chief at the * Nobles' School' is
^30. In 1882, ^615 was spent on female education.

Besides the capital, Jaipur, the principal towns in the State are : —
Chaken, population (1881) 6219; Amer, 5036; Ldlsot, 8743; Dosa,
7384; Bdswa, 5791; Gijgarh, 5171 ; Hindaun, 12,761; Toda Bhim,
7142; Bamniawas, 6125; Gangapur, 5880; Mddhopur, 14,075; Sikar,
175739; Malpura, 8212; Simbhar, 10,794; Sri-AIadhopur, 6847;
Fatehpur, 14,731; Ramgarh, 11,313; Nawalgarh, 10,032; Jhunjhnu,
9538; Udaipur, 9161 ; Lachhmangarh, 8713; Bissau, 6546; Chirawa,
5489; Singhana, 5259; Surajgarh, 5250; Patan, 11,886; Kot-Putli,
8084; Khandela, 7949; Jilo (Patan), 5941; Bairath, 5649; Mandra,
5567 ; Toda, 5546; and Khetri, 5283, all of which see separately.

History. — The Maharaja of Jaipur is the chief of the Kachhwaha tribe
of Rajputs, and claims descent from Rama, King of Ajodhya (Oudh).
Between the mythical Rama and Dhola Rao, who founded the Jaipur
State in a.d. 967, thirty-four generations are said to have intervened.
At the time of the foundation of Jaipur, Rajputana was divided
among petty Rajput and Mina chiefs, owing allegiance to the great
Tuar dynasty of Rajputs, who then reigned at Delhi. Dhola Rdo and
his Kachhwahas are said to have absorbed or driven out the petty
chiefs, and to have founded a substantial dominion, known as Amber,
Jaipur, or Dhiindar. Half a century later, the Kachhwaha chief,
Hamaji, wrested Amber from the Minas, and Amber remained the
capital until 1728, when the second Jai Singh abandoned it for Jaipur.
The ninth chief in succession from Hamaji was Udikaran, the grand-
father of Shaikh, who conquered for himself the District now held by
the Shaikhawati sept of the Kachhwaha clan.

On the irruption of the Mughals into Hindustan, Jaipur State at
once succumbed to their supremacy, and the Jaipur house furnished
some of their most distinguished military leaders. At this period,
Baharma, one of the twelve sons of Prithwi Raja, was ruler in
Jaipur, and to him among Rdjputs is attached the discredit of
having been the first prince of the dynasty who paid homage
to the Muhammadan power. Baharma's son, Bhagwan Das, became
still more nearly allied to the Mughals ; for he is noted as one of
the first instances of a prince who ' sullied Rajput purity by matri-
monial alliance with the Islamite,' by giving his daughter in marriage
to Prince Salim, who afterwards mounted the throne of Delhi as
Jahangir. The adopted son of Bhagwan Das, Man Singh, was
one of the most conspicuous of the imperial generals. Man Singh
fought in Orissa, Bengal, and Assam ; and at a critical period, under
great difficulties, he maintained his authority as Governor of Kabul.


He was rewarded with the governments of Bengal, Behar, and the
Deccan. The next chief of note is Jai Singh, the nephew of Man
Singh, commonly known by his imperial title of Mirzi Raja. His
name appears in all the wars of Aurangzeb in the Deccan. It was Jai
Singh wlio contrived to capture Sivaji, the celebrated founder of the
Maratha power. Eventually, it is said, Aurangzeb, becoming jealous of
Jai Singh, caused his death by poison.

Passing over three chiefs, we come to Jai Singh ii., commonly known
as Siwai Jai Singh. Siwai is a title given by the Mughal Emperor,
and adopted by his descendants to this day. The word means one-
and-a-quarter, and is supposed to measure the superiority of the bearer
to all his contemporaries, whom the unit signifies. Jai Singh ii., who
ascended the throne in 1699, was chiefly remarkable for his scientific
knowledge and skill. He caused many mathematical works to be
translated into Sanskrit. He constructed observatories at Jaipur,
Delhi, Benares, Muttra, and Ujjain, by which he was able to correct
the astronomical tables of De La Hire, and to leave, as a monu-
ment of his skill, lists of stars collated by himself, known as the
'Tij Muhammad Shdhi,' or Tables of Muhammad Shah, the then
Emperor of Delhi, in whose favour Jai Singh stood high. Removing
his capital from the hills about Amber, where it had hitherto been
placed, he laid out and built the present Jaipur (Jeypore) in 1728.
The ancient capital Amber, and the modern capital Jaipur, are about
five miles distant from each other.

At a later period, the Rajas of Jaipur united with Udaipur (Mewar)
and Jodhpur (Marwar) to resist the Muhammadan power. To regain
the honour of intermarriage with Udaipur, which his family had lost
by giving a princess to the Mughal Emperor, the Raja of Jaipur now
consented that the issue of an Udaipur princess should succeed in
preference to an elder son by other wives. This attempt to set aside
the right of primogeniture brought great disasters both on Jaipur and
Jodhpur. About this time the Jats of Bhartpur (Bhurtpore), after
several successful encounters with the Jaipur chief, annexed a portion
of this State. The defection of the chief of Alwar, about the year
1790, further reduced the limits of the territory.

By the end of the century, Jaipur had fallen into great con-
fusion, being distracted by internal broils, and impoverished by the
exactions of the Marathas, who had also entered the State. In 1803,
political relations were first entered into with the British Government,
the object being to form a league against the Marathas; but the
alliance was dissolved by Lord Cornwallis. Meanwhile, the disputes
between the Rajas of Jaipur and Jodhpur for the hand of the daughter
of the Udaipur chief had brought both States to the verge of ruin, and
Amir Khan, with his Pindari mercenaries and marauders, w^as exhausting


the country. In 181 7, negotiations began again; and in 18 18, a treaty
was signed, by which the protection of the British Government was
extended to Jaipur, and an annual tribute fixed.

Two successive minorities which followed the death of Jagat Singh in
1 81 8, gave opportunities for strife about the succession, and for much
misgovernment. In 1835, on the succession of the late ^lahardja,
Siwai Ram Singh, then two years old, as the result of a court
intrigue, a serious disturbance in the city took place, in which
Colonel Alves, the agent of the Governor-General in Rajputana,
was wounded, and his assistant, Mr, Martin Blake, murdered.
After this, the British Government took measures to insist upon
order, to reform the administration as well as to support its
effective action ; and the State has gradually become well governed
and prosperous. When the ^lutiny broke out in 1857, the Maha-
raja at once placed the whole of his available military power at
the disposal of the PoUtical Agent, and in every way assisted
the British Government. He was rewarded with the grant of
the pargand of Kot Kasim. He also received a sanad granting the
privilege of adoption. For his praiseworthy behaviour and liberality
during the famine in Rajputana in 1868, he received an addition of 2
guns to his salute for hfe ; and in 1877, this was again raised, making
his personal salute 21 guns. For his general services and loyalty, he
was created a Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of
India, and nominated Counsellor of the Empress. Siwai Ram Singh
died on the i8th September 1880, leaving no direct heir, and was
succeeded by Kaim Singh (the younger brother of the Thakur of
Isarda, and a descendant of the second son of Maharaja Jagat Singh),
whom the chief had adopted on his death-bed. Kaim Smgh, who on
accession assumed the name of Siwai Madho Singh, was born in
1 86 1. In consideration of his youth, the administration of the State
was conducted for two years by a council under the joint-presidency of
the Maharaja and the Resident. On attaining his majority in
September 1882, the chief, Kaim Singh, was invested with full governing

The right of succession, in the event of failure of direct heirs,
is supposed to be vested in the Rajawat family or the descendants of
the stock of Prithwi Raja, one of the former rulers. Prithwi Raja had
twelve sons, to whom he gave estates known as the twelve Kotris. The
number of Kotris, however, is now more than twelve, others having
been obtained by descendants of early rulers, while some of the Kotris
created by Prithwi Raja are extinct. About 70 lakhs of rupees
(^700,000) from the revenues of the State are alienated in jdgirs and
religious grants, but the available receipts are about ^500,000 per
annum, which is nearly balanced by the expenditure. In 1S82-83, the


revenue was ;^495,876 ; and the expenditure, ;^488,599, including
tribute of ^^40,000 to the British Government.

The military force of the State consists of 65 guns (mostly of small
calibre), 716 artillerymen, 3578 cavalry (including jdgirddr feudal
horse), and 9599 infantry (5000 of which belong to special bodies).
The number of forts is 29, with an aggregate of 216 guns of all
calibres. Both the troops and the ordnance are of indifferent value,
but sufficient for maintaining the tranquillity of the country.

Administraiion. — The Maharaja, in common with nearly all the
chiefs of Rajputana, exercises supreme civil and criminal authority
within his territories, and has the power of life and death in respect of
his own subjects. The administration is carried on by a council
composed of eight members, presided over by the Maharaja, assisted
by a secretary who acts as an ex officio member. Four departments —
judicial, revenue, military, and external — are under the charge of three
members of council, one of whom is a noble of Jaipur, another a native
of Rajputana, and the third an official from another part of India. The
principal feudatories of the State are Khetri, Sikar, Uniara, Patan,
Baswa, Nawalgarh, Mandawar, and Surajgarh, with the thdkurs of the
twelve Kotris mentioned above. In 1884, all transit duties, excepting
the duty on opium and intoxicating drugs, were abolished by the

Climate. — The climate is dry and healthy, and malarious fevers
are of rare occurrence. In the cold season, the temperature is very
agreeable ; but in Shaikhawati it is often unpleasantly cold, and hoar-
frost frequently remains in the shade till long after sunrise. During
the hot season, the winds from the west blow with great force in
Shaikhawati and the northern portions of Jaipur ; but the sand soon
parts with its heat, so that the nights are generally pleasant, and the
mornings cool. Towards the south and east, the hot winds are less
strong ; but owing to the soil not being sandy, the nights and mornings
are not so cool. The average annual temperature of Jaipur city, taken
from a record of five years, is 81-27° F. ; the maximum temperature
of 1875 ^^'^s 106°, and the minimum 38°. In 1881, the maximum
was 114°, and the minimum 36-8°. May and June are generally
the hottest months; January and February the coldest. There is
usually a fair rainfall throughout the State, except in Shaikhawati.
Jaipur proper is seldom afflicted with the periodical famines which visit
the neighbouring territories, for, being on the verge of the south-east
and south-west monsoons, it receives rain from both. Cholera at times
makes its appearance, but medical science is generally at hand to check
its spread. In 1881, the attendance at the dispensaries scattered
through the State, exclusive of the attendance (8833 out-patients, 568
in-patients) at the Mayo Hospital in Jaipur city, was 55,785 out-


patients and 639 in-patients. In the following year (1882), the total
patients treated had increased to 72,269 in number. The number of
dispensaries was 22 in 1882. Sanitation is obtaining steadily increasing
recognition from the State Darbar. Vaccination is freely resorted to. In
1 88 1, 19,088 persons were inoculated, and 30,996 in 1882-83. "^he
medical institutions of the State are under the control of the Residency
Surgeon. The rainfall at the capital during the fifteen years ending
1 88 1 amounted to a yearly average of 24 inches; the maximum being
42*5 inches in 1870, the minimum 12*6 inches in 1868. In 1881, the
rainfall was 2 2 "81 inches.

Jaipur {Jeypore). — Capital of the Native State of Jaipur (Jeypore),
Rajputana, Central India. Jaipur is situated in lat. 26° 55' n., and
lo"g- 75° 52' E., on the Rajputana-Malwa State Railway and the Agra
and Ajmi'r trunk road; 149 miles north-east of Ajmir. Population
(1881) 142,578.

Jaipur is the largest town and the chief commercial centre of
Rajputana. It is in many respects the finest of modern Hindu cities,
and is said to be the only city in India built on a regular plan.
The city takes its name Jainagar or Jaipur from the famous Maharaja
Siwai Jai Singh 11. It was founded by Jai Singh 11. in 1728, and
stands in a small plain, conjectured to be the bed of a dried-up lake.
Jaipur is surrounded on all sides, except the south, by rugged hills,
the summits of which are now, at all important points, crowned with
forts. At the end of the ridge, overhanging the city on the north-west,
is the chief defensive work, the Nahargarh, or ' Tiger Fort,' the rock
face of which is so scarped as to be inaccessible on the south or city
side ; while on the north, the ridge slopes towards Amber, the ancient
capital of the State. A masonry crenelated wall, averaging in height
20 feet, and in thickness 9 feet, encloses the whole city. In t1ie wall
are 7 gateways, furnished with screen walls, all built of the same
pattern, with 2 kiosks above and machicoulis over the entrance. At
intervals are bastions and towers pierced for cannon, while the parapet
is loopholed for musketry. The city is remarkable for the regularity
and width of its streets. Some of the mosques, temples, and private
residences have architectural pretensions. But in many cases the
beautiful marble or carved red sandstone of true Hindu architecture
has given place to imitations in stucco ; and the lofty crenelated walls
which line the streets often form a sham facade to mean one-storied
tenements. The town has an air of unreality, and an appearance of
being rapidly made to order; but Amber, the ancient deserted city
overhanging the mountain lake, five miles to the north-east, is as
interesting from its genuine architecture as from its picturesque
situation and eventful history. Its solid and patient work forms a
striking contrast to the plaster-of-Paris ornamentation of the modern




Jaipur. Most of the buildings are of a pink colour. From east to west,

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 7) → online text (page 7 of 57)