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Jaipur is a little over 2 miles in length, and in breadth about \\ mile.
It is laid out in rectangular blocks, and divided by cross streets into six
equal portions, which are in turn intersected at regular intervals by
narrower paths, the sub-division proceeding until at last the thorough-
fares become mere lanes. The main streets, paved, drained, and lighted
by gas manufactured outside the city walls, are in feet in width, the
secondary ones 55 feet, and the smaller 27 J feet. The houses of the
nobility and the citizens are in the suburbs. The Maharaja's palace
with its pleasure-grounds occupies the centre of the town, covering
about one-seventh of the town area.

Jaipur is a wealthy city. There are as many as 7 banking firms,
whose aggregate business amounts to about 2^ crores of rupees
(^£"2, 500,000), and who possess a capital of upwards of ;£6, 000,000
sterling. In addition to these firms, there are several minor houses
whose collective business may be estimated at half a crore (^500,000)
a year. Exchange and banking constitute the greater portion of the
trade of the place. The city is well provided with hospitals, dis-
pensaries, almshouses, and schools. There is a School of Arts (with
97 pupils) and an Industrial and Economic Museum, started in 1880.
The Mayo Hospital, which is situated in the Ram Newas Gardens,
forms one of the principal architectural features of the city ; while the
Ram Newas Gardens themselves, 70 acres in extent, are among the
finest and best laid out in India. The gardens are kept up at a yearly
cost of ;£3ooo. An Exhibition, which was well attended, was held in
Jaipur in 1882. The Jaipur College has been noticed in the account
of the State. The mint and the jail are situated in the city. The
imperial post-office, the telegraph office, and the Residency for the
political officer accredited to the Jaipur court, are outside the
city walls, where there are also a staging bungalow and a hotel. A
menagerie containing a number of tigers is maintained by the Maha-
raja. A large lake called the Manta tank is stocked with crocodiles.
Good drinking water is brought into the city from the Aman-i-Shah
river, about 4 miles distant. The water is raised by steam pumps 104
feet into service reservoirs, which command the city, and through which
it is delivered in iron pipes under 50 feet pressure.

A regular Census of the city of Jaipur was taken in 1870, by which
its population was ascertained to number 137,847 persons; the Census
of 1881 returned a population of 142,578, among whom Hindus
numbered 100,850; Muhammadans, 32,951; 'others,' unspecified,
8777. One of the most interesting antiquities of the State is the Hindu
observatory {/antra) at the capital. The observatory was erected early
in the last century by Maharaja Siwai Jai Singh 11., the celebrated
astronomer and mathematician, and is the largest of five he constructed



JAIPUR TOWN— JAIPUR ZAMINDARL 6i

in different cities of the Mughal Empire. The ancient observatory at
Jaipur contains dials, azimuth circles, altitude pillars, etc. of huge size,
and for the most part built of masonry covered with lime, upon which
the graduations were carefully marked. The instruments have suffered
much from age and exposure, and have not been used within the present
generation. A meteorological observatory is in working order. The
average rainfall for fifteen years ending 1881, was 24 inches. Highest
maximum temperature in the same year, 117° F.; lowest minimum,
36-8\

On the summit of a range of hills, a mile and a half east of
Jaipur, is a sacred shrine called the Gulta, with a temple dedicated to
Surya or the Sun-god. Below the platform, a spring issues, which
pours over the rock by a fall of about 70 feet into the valley below.
The water of this spring is considered sacred by the Brahmans.
The ancient city of Amber is perched among the hills between
four and five miles to the north-east of Jaipur. The ruins of Amber
preserve traces of former splendour, but their solitude and desolation
are complete.

Jaipur. — Town in Lakhimpur District, Assam ; situated in lat. 27°
15' N., and long. 95° 26' e., on the left bank of the Dihing river, on the
frontier of the Naga Hills. In the neighbourhood are extensive coal-
fields, with an estimated marketable out-turn of 10 million tons. The
river is navigable up to this point by steamers during the rains, and
50 miles higher by boats. The exports are tea, caoutchouc, beeswax,
and ivory, valued at ^1600 ; the imports are rice, salt, tobacco, oil,
iron, and cloth, valued at ;^2ooo. A small guard of Frontier Police
is stationed here, occupying the old military cantonment.

Jaipur {Jay a pur am). — Zaniinddri or tributary estate in Vizagapatam
District, Madras Presidency; lying between 17° 30' and 20° n. lat, and
81° 20' and 84° 4' E. long. Bounded on the north by Kalahandi in
the Central Provinces ; on the east by the plain of Vizagapatam ; on
the south by Rekapalli and Golconda ; on the west by Bastar. Area,
9337 square miles. Population (1872) 452,454; (1881) 611,695 ; houses,
T 34,111; annual tribute to Government, ^1600. The estate com-
prises the following tdliiks : — Korapat (population, 157,171; houses,
33,824); Naorangpur (population, 93,502 ; houses, 20,666) ; Malkangiri
(population, 22,558; houses, 5425); Jaipur (Kotipad) (population,
116,117; houses, 24,017); Gunapur (population, 153,822; houses,
34,380); and Rayagada (population, 68,525 ; houses, 15,799).

Jaipur zaminddri may be divided into two parts. The larger part,
directly under the Raja and within the jurisdiction of the Assistant
Agent, Hes on the so-called Jaipur plateau ; the other part, consisting
of the tdliiks of Gunapur and Rayagada, is administered by the
Senior Assistant Collector, whose head-quarters are at Parvatipur. ' To



62 JAIPUR ZAMINDARL

the east and north-east of Giinapur Hes the Saura Hill country, con-
sisting of two table-lands, about 200 square miles in extent. North of
Giinapur, the estate runs up in a wedge-like form to a distance of 70
miles, between Kalahandi of the Central Provinces on the west, and
Chinna Kimedi on the east, reaching very nearly to 20° n. lat. In
the centre of this tract stands out the remarkable group of hills named
Nimgiris, which rise to a height of 5000 feet, separated by valleys of
not more than i2co feet from the ranges on either hand. The drainage
from the Nimgiris and the neighbouring country flows directly south-
east to the sea, forming at Kalingapatam the river Vamsadhara, so
called from the bamboos {vanisd) growing on its banks, and the
Nagavali at Chicacole. Exclusive of large estates held by semi-inde-
pendent Kandhs, the upper portion of Jaipur za??iinddri is occupied by
three powerful chiefs, one at Godairi, one at Bissemkatak, and the
third at Singapur, feudatories of the State ' (Carmichael). The popu-
lation subject to these chiefs (chiefly Kandhs and Sauras) numbers
137,966, the largest villages being Giinapur, Rdydgada, Singapur,
Bissemkatak. The western portion of the country consists of the
taluks of Jaipur, Naorangpur, and Malkangiri ; while the taluk of
Korapat lies in the east. The principal towns are Jaipur (1046
houses and 4321 inhabitants), Kotipad (605 houses, 3096 inhabitants),
Naorangpur (554 houses, 2843 inhabitants).

The religion of the country is Hindu. Ethnically, the inhabitants
include Aryans, Kolarians, and Dravidians. The Aryans are com-
paratively recent colonists, and comprise the ruling and fighting men
and the priests. The cultivators, called prajas (literally ' subjects '),
number more than two-thirds of the entire population ; Aryans repre-
sent one-seventeenth ; Pariahs, one-sixth. The mountaineers retain
far greater independence than the rdyats of the Jaipur and Malkan-
giri plateaux. In the uplands, patriarchal authority is still unassail-
able ; in the lower-lying tracts it is only preserved in parts where the
struggle is still carried on between cultivation and jungle.

Every variety of land tenure is found throughout Jaipur. One
variety is that in which the ownership of the soil still rests with the
people, in contradistinction to the landlord tenure generally held by
the zaminddrs. Only of late years has the annual gift in token of
homage been commuted to a payment in kind or money. In such
cases, the landowner is nearly always the head of a village ; and
though it may be doubted whether he has any right to dispose of the
soil for his private interest, he has for ages been in the habit of selling
or mortgaging parts of the landed property of the village without
reference to the Raja or his managers. From this patriarchal authority
may be traced a regular gradation in the tenures, as tliey pass by degrees
to the paramount authority of the Raja.



JAIPUR ZAMINDARL 63

The religious ceremonies and social customs of the various tribes
differ but little from one another. The process of fusion of the habits
of later immigrants with aboriginal customs is, however, very apparent.
In those parts of the country which are in a prosperous condition,
ideas and manners imported from the coast Districts are gradually
overcoming and absorbing all aboriginal conceptions ; but, on the other
hand, in jungle-covered and backward lands, the colonists are always
corrupted by the superstitions of the indigenous races. Thus in
Kotipad and Singapur, highly cultivated and flourishing tracts, the
new-comers have taught the earlier races to burn their dead instead
of burying them ; and the practice of early marriage is spreading
among the richer rdyats — a custom altogether foreign to aboriginal
notions. As an instance of the way in which religious rites are
borrowed from the aborigines, the Meriah sacrifice may be quoted.
This is believed to be strictly a Kandh rite ; it was adopted by the
colonists, for there is evidence that it was practised by the former Rajas
of this and the neighbouring hill States ; and in 1845 the appoint-
ment of a Special Agent for the suppression of human sacrifice became
necessary. This Agency was abolished in 186 1. A familiar example
of this aboriginal influence is the increased belief in witchcraft, charac-
teristic of forests and lonely tracts.

The following is Mr. Carmichael's account of the zaminddn tenure :
— ' At the period of the cession of the Northern Circars, we found the
country divided into haveli and zaminddri. The haveli lands con-
sisted of the old demesne or household lands of the Sovereign and
tracts near to towns resumed by the Aluhammadans, and appropriated
for the support of their numerous garrisons and establishments.
These lands the local Faujdirs and Nawabs always retained under
their immediate management, parcelling out the rest of the country
into zaminddris. . . . But the Muhammadan rulers were impatient of
details, and a mode was invented of transacting the business of revenue
more in the gross. Its revenue agents, writes Mill, were rendered
stationary in the Districts where they collected, and became responsible
to Government for the revenue, receiving payment by a percentage or
share of what they collected. Under native Governments, everything
which was enjoyed, whether office or possession, had a tendency to
become hereditary. There was a convenience in preserving in each
District the same grand agent of revenue, and after him his son or
successor, because each was better acquainted with the people and
the resources of the District than, generally speaking, any other man
could be. In this manner the situation of these agents became
in fact hereditary ; and before the period of the English acquisitions,
the Persian appellative of zaminddr had been generally appropriated to
them.'



64 JAIPUR TOWN.

The Jaipur zaminddri and the family of its Raja are of old
standing, and the origin of both is involved in a mist of tradition.
The country was formerly held by a Sila Vansa ruler, who reigned at
Nandapur, when the ancestors of the present house were retainers of
the Gajapati rulers of Cuttack (Katak). * About the 15th century,
Vinayak Deo, the founder, a Rajput of the Lunar line (Chandra
vansa), is said to have married a daughter of the Gajapati ruler, who
bestowed this principality upon him, on the extinction of the old line
of the Nandapur chiefs. To secure his pretensions with the wild
races of the highlands, the new feudatory took for his second wife the
last surviving princess of the ancient stock of Sila Vansa rulers.
Whatever the origin of the Sila Vansa dynasty, it is certain that an
ancestor of the Jaipur family was in possession, not only of the country
comprised in the limits of the Jaipur zatninddri as it now stands, but
of all the present hill zaminddris which lie at the base of the ghdts,
when the founder of the Vizianagaram Raj came to Chicacole in the
train of the Golconda Faujdar, Sher Muhammad Khan, about the
year 1652. The tribute payable by Jaipur to the Golconda com-
mander was ;^24oo ' (Carmichael).

Previous to the acquisition of the Northern Circars by the East India
Company, Jaipur was subordinated to Vizianagaram ; and this relation
was upheld by the British till 1794, when the Raja's loyalty after the
battle of Padmanabhan was rewarded by a perpetual sanad. In 1803,
his peshkash or tribute was fixed at ^£"1600. In addition to this,
Jaipur pays ^300 annually to Bastar for the Kolipad country. In
1848, the affairs of the estate fell into great confusion, owing to the
insubordination of some members of the Raja's family. The disturb-
ance went so far that the lower tdluks were attached by Government.
The troubles lasted two years, and broke out again in 1855. In
i860, for the first time, the British interfered in the administration
of justice in the zaminddri ; and since the accession of the present
Raja, the Assistant Agent has resided within Jaipur, and is aided by
6 sub-magistrates and a strong police force. There were two unim-
portant outbreaks of Sauras in 1865-66. Mr. Carmichael's Manual of
Vizagapatam contains a full and interesting account of the zaminddA.

Jaipur {Jayapuram, ' The city of victory '). — Town in Jaipur
zaminddri, Vizagapatam District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 18° 55' n.,
and lono-. 82° 38' e. ; containing 1046 houses and (1881) 4321 in-
habitants. Situated (at an elevation of 2000 feet above sea-level) 7
miles north of the northern wall of the plateau of the Vizagapatam
Hills. Jaipur has neither trade nor manufacture, and is only of im-
portance as the residence of the Raja. The Assistant Agent and
Superintendent have moved to Korapat on account of the unhealthi-
ness of Jaipur. There is still a sub-magislrate. The town consists of



JAIS—JAISALMER, 65

a long straggling street lined with mud huts. The palace of the Raja
and a large number of pagodas are the only buildings of note.

Jais {Jais Rokha, or Rokha Jais). — Farga?id in Salon tahsil, Rai
Bareli District, Oudh. Bounded on the north by Mohanganj par-
gand ; on the east by Amethi pargand ; on the south by Parshadepur
and Kteh2i pargands^ the Sai river forming the boundary ; and on the
west by Rai Bareli pargand. A level and generally very fertile tract,
but with extensive saline plains {tisar) in the east and north, with low-
lying lands, subject to annual inundation. Around Jais town the
soil is of exceptional richness, the poppy plant being extensively culti-
vated. Area, 154 J square miles, or 98,882 acres, of which 84,443
acres are cultivated and 13,531 available for cultivation. About
three-fourths of the cultivated area is irrigated. Government land
revenue, ;£9967, at an average rate of 2s. 4|d. per arable acre. Of
the no villages comprising t\\Q pargand, 54 are held under tdhikddri,
22 under zaminddri^ and 54 under pattiddri tenure. Kanhpurias
own 76, and Musalmans 19 villages. Population (1872) 84,443;
(1881) 86,084, namely, males 41,996, and females 44,088. Five lines
of road intersect the pargand^ and a ferry is maintained across the Sai
at Parshd-depur. Exports — grain ; imports — principally cotton and salt
from Cawnpur.

Jais. — Town in Salon iahsil, and head-quarters of Jais pargand, Rai
Bareli District, Oudh ; situated on the Sultanpur and Rai Bareli road,
4 miles west of Nasirabad, and 16 south-west of Salon. Lat. 26° 15'
55" N., long. 81° 35' 55*^ E. Formerly called Udayanagar ; and cap-
tured by the Muhammadans during the invasion of Sayyid Salar Masaiid,
who gave the place its present name. Picturesquely situated on rising
ground, among groves of mango trees. Population (1872) 11,317;
(1881) 11,044, namely, Hindus, 5749 ; Muhammadans, 5281 ; 'others,'
14. Area, 1581 acres. The town does not contain a single Hindu
shrine. The Jains, however, have a temple dedicated to Parasnath.
Two large mosques, and a handsome iiJidinbdra, dating from 200 years
ago. The roof, walls, and pillars of the latter are profusely ornamented
with illuminated texts from the Kuran. Garhd cloth and muslin,
manufactured by Muhammadan weavers, form the sole export. Salt-
petre is also manufactured, but not to any considerable extent. Three
considerable bi-weekly markets ; Government Anglo-vernacular school.

Jaisalmer {Jeysulmere). — Native State in Rajputana, under the
political superintendence of the Western Rajputana States Agency of
Central India. The State lies between lat. 26° 5' and 28° 23' n., and
between long. 62° 29' and 77° 15' e. Its greatest length from east to /
west is 172 miles, and greatest breadth from north to south, 136 miles. /
It is in shape an irregular oval, the longest axis being 215 miles, lyinjg
north-east and south-west. The area of the State is 16,447 square miles;

VOL. VII. E /



66 JAISALMER.

and the population (1881) 108,143. It is bounded on the north by
Bahawalpur; on the east by Bikaner (Bickaneer) and Jodhpur; on the
south by Jodhpur and Sind ; on the west by Khairpur and Sind.

Physical Aspects. — Jaisalmer is almost entirely a sandy waste, forming
part of what is called ' the Great Indian Desert.' In the neighbour-
hood of Jaisalmer city, within a circuit of about 40 miles, the soil is
very stony, and sandstone rocks, flat-topped and destitute of vegetation,
occur ; but with this exception, the aspect of the country is that of an
interminable sea of sandhills, of all shapes and sizes, some rising to a
height of 150 feet. The sandhills in the western portion of the State
are covered with ///^^ (Calligonum) bushes ; in the eastern, with tufts
of long grass. Nothing can well bear a more desolate appearance.
The villages are far apart, and consist, as a rule, of a few circular huts
or wigwams collected round a well of brackish water. Shifting sands
are common, locally termed draens. Towards Tarnot and the west
of Jaisalmer, there is an attempt at cultivation. In the east, near the
large villages of Noh, Bikampur, and Birsilpur, fields have been formed
in the valleys between the sandhills, where, when the season is favour-
able, the inhabitants grow jodr and hdjra. Water is scarce, and
generally brackish. The average depth of the wells is about 250 feet.
A well recently measured by an officer of the Great Trigonometrical
Survey, at Choria, 32 miles south-east of the capital, was 490 feet
deep. Rain-water is used for drinking purposes as much as possible ;
but owing to a precarious rainfall, the supply stored up in the village
ponds often fails. There are no perennial streams in Jaisalmer, and
only one small river, called the Kakni. The Kakni rises near the
villages of Kotri, Gohira, and Latabana, and after flowing 28 miles,
spreads over a large surface of flat ground, forming a lake called the
Bhuj Jhil. When there is an exceptionally large rainfall, the Kakni
deviates from its usual course near the village of Kaldhana, and,
passing Lodhoroa, empties itself on a Rann, or flat salt marsh, 15 or 16
miles beyond Bhuj, and there dries up. The river Lathi-ka-nadi
formerly entered Jaisalmer from Jodhpur State. Its bed has contained
no water since 1825.

Climate. — The climate of Jaisalmer is dry and healthy. Epidemics
are rare. Fever, spleen, skin disorders, guinea-worm, and small-pox are
common diseases. The temperature is highest in May and June, when
hot winds prevail with violence. As soon as rain falls, the weather
becomes cool and pleasant. The coldest period is from the middle of
December to the middle of February. The climate is liable to
extremes of cold and heat, especially in the northern part of the State.
No observations on the rainfall or temperature have been registered,
b.ut the rainfall is sometimes very slight; in 1875, for instance, there

jre only two rainy days. The country is, however, under the influence of



JAISALMER. 67

the south-west monsoon, and usually has a fair rainfall in June, July,
and August.

History. — The majority of the inhabitants of Jaisalmer State are
Yadu Bhati Rajputs, and claim a very ancient lineage. They take
their name from an ancestor named Bhati, who was renowned as a
warrior when the tribe were settled in the Punjab. Shortly after the
settlement in the Punjab, the clan was driven southwards by the King
of Ghazni across the Sudej (Satlej), and found a refuge in the Indian
Desert, which has been henceforth their home. It is probable that,
like the Rahtor Rajputs, the clan is descended from one of the Indo-
Scythic tribes, who penetrated into Hindustan at a very remote period.
The Bhatis, subsequent to their entry into the desert tract, engaged in
constant struggles with the neighbouring tribes, whom they overcame.
They established themselves successively at Tarnot, Deorawal, and
Jaisalmer. Deorawal was founded by Deoraj, who is esteemed the
real founder of the present ruling family. Deordj was the first to take
the title of Rawal. He is said to have been born in 836. In 1156,
Jaisal, the sixth in succession from Deoraj, founded the fort and city
of Jaisalmer, and made it his capital. Jaisal was succeeded by several
warlike princes, who w^ere constantly engaged in raids and battles.
But the taste for freebooting proved disastrous. On two occasions,
namely in 1294, and shortly afterwards, the Bhatis so enraged the
Emperor Ala-ud-din, that the imperial army captured and sacked the
fort and city of Jaisalmer, which for some time remained deserted.
The reign of Rawal Sabal Singh marks an epoch in Bhati history, for
this prince, by acknowledging the supremacy of Shah Jahan, was the
first of his line to hold his dominions as a fief of the Delhi Empire.

Jaisalmer had now arrived at the height of its power ; the territory
extended north to the Sutlej, comprised the whole of Bahawalpur west-
ward to the Indus, and to the east and south included many Districts
subsequently annexed by the Rahtors, and incorporated in Jodhpur
and Bikaner. But from this time till the accession of Rawal Mulraj
in 1762, the fortunes of the State rapidly declined, and most of the
outlying Provinces were wrested from Jaisalmer. Owing, however,
to its isolated situation, the State escaped the ravages of the Marathas.
Rawal Mulraj was the first chief of Jaisalmer with whom the British
Government entered into political relations. In 1S18, a treaty was
concluded with Mulraj, by which the succession was guaranteed to
his posterity; the chief was to be protected from serious invasions
and dangers to his State, provided he was not the originator of the
quarrel ; and he was to act in subordinate co-operation with the
British Government. No tribute was demanded. Since the death
of Mulraj in 1820, there have been no stirring events in Jaisalmer.
Mulraj was succeeded by his grandson Gaj Singh, who died in 1846.



68 JAISALMER.

Gaj Singh's widow adopted Ran jit Singh, nephew of Gaj Singh.
On the death of Ranjit Singh in 1864, his younger brother, the present
chief, Maharawal Bairi Sal, who was born in 1848, came to the
throne.

The ruler of Jaisalmer is styled Maharawal, and holds his position
as head of the Bhatis. The constitution of the State may be described
as a tribal suzerainty in process of conversion to the feudal stage. The
Bhatis are divided into numerous clans, which do not all spring from
one brotherhood, as is the case with the Rahtors. Many of the
tribal chiefs, although acknowledging the Maharawal as their suzerain,
are to a great extent independent, and hold their estates revenue
free. In some cases, the land is equally divided amongst all the
sons; in others, the eldest son succeeds, and the younger brothers
receive small portions as their inheritance. The Bhatis retain their
Hindu usages, though with some degree of laxity, derived from
their intercourse with Muhammadans on the northern and western



Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 7) → online text (page 8 of 57)