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frontiers. The Districts are governed by hakims (magistrates), who
have, however, but little real power on the estates of the Thakurs or
Rdjput chiefs.

Agriculture. — Throughout Jaisalmer State, only rain crops, such as
bdjra,Jodr, moth^ til, etc., are grown; spring crops of wheat, barley,
etc. are rare. The system of cultivation is rude. When the rainy
season commences, the sandhills are ploughed by camels, and the seed
is planted deep in the ground. After the seed has sprouted, a few
showers, at long intervals, bring it to maturity. As the light-built
desert camels move quickly, each householder is able to put a large
extent of ground under crop. Owing to scanty rainfall, irrigation
is almost unknown. The land revenue is paid in kind. Wherever
wheat or gram is grown, the State takes from the cultivators from a
fourth to a sixth of the produce ; and of the rain crops, from a seventh
to an eleventh. There are three different modes of collecting the
State share of the out-turn. In the first mode, the crop is valued
when standing ; in the second, when cut, but before threshing ; in
the third, after it has been threshed out. In addition to the portion
payable to the State, the cultivator has to settle the demands of the
officials who look after the crops, and also of the grain storekeeper and
the Maharawal's water supi>lier. These demands generally average
half as much again as the State demand. Jdgij'ddrs take from their
tenants of the cultivating class 4s. rent for as much land as can be
cultivated with one pair of bullocks ; other tenants are permitted to
till as much ground as they like rent free, on condition of military
service. There are 461 villages in Jaisalmer, of which 229 are fiscal,
71 are held hy jdgirddrs, 32 as charitable grants, 11 under title-deed,
109 in bMwi (under this tenure the holder has to perform paid service


for the State when called upon), and 9 for services to the State.
Certain villages are sanctuaries. If a criminal escape to a sanctuary
village, he is out of the jurisdiction of the Maharawal.

Population. — Previous to 1881 no Census of the Jaisalmer State had
been taken, and for general purposes the population was estimated at
72,000 people. The Census of 188 1 returned the following informa-
tion : — Total population, 108,143; ^^^^j 16,447 square miles; number
of persons to the square mile, 6-57. This scanty population is scattered
through 413 villages and i town, Jaisalmer (10,965) : total number of
houses, 26,217; number of persons per house, 4*12. The religious
division of the people is as follows: — Hindus, 57,484, or 53*1 per
cent.; Muhammadans, 28,032, or 25-9 per cent; Jains, 1671, or 1-5
per cent.; 'others,' unspecified, 20,955; i person is returned as a
Christian. As regards caste, the Hindus are thus divided — Brahmans,
6055; Rajputs, 26,623; Mahajans, 7981; Jats, 403; other inferior
castes, 16,422. Of the Muhammadans there are — Shaikhs, 273;
Pathans, 258 ; ' others ' not specified, 27,501.

Trade^ etc. — There are no manufactures of any kind, beyond the
making of blankets of sheep's wool, and the cutting of platters and
cups from stone found in the country. Large herds of camels, horned
cattle, sheep, and goats are kept. The principal trade of Jaisalmer is
in wool, ghi^ camels, cattle, and sheep, all of which find a ready market
in Gujarat and Sind. Grain, sugar, foreign cloth, piece-goods, and
other miscellaneous articles, form the chief imports. Neither the home
manufactures nor the crops suffice for local wants.

Admitiistratiofi. — There is one civil court at Jaisalmer. Criminal
cases are disposed of by the diwdti (chief minister) at the capital, and
in the interior by the hakims of the Districts. The Maharawal alone
has the power of life and death. There is no separate jail at Jaisalmer.
Prisoners are confined in the fort, or in such places as the authorities
choose. Education is at a low ebb in the State. Government schools
are non-existent. Jain priests are the chief schoolmasters, but their
teaching is very elementary. There are no made roads in the State.
Camels are the chief means of locomotion.

The revenues of Jaisalmer, as compared with its area, are very small,
amounting to about ;^io,ooo. In 1873-74, the income of the State
amounted to ^11,854; the expenditure to ;^i5,9ii. No later figures
are available. This low income is to be accounted for partly by
the poverty of the country, and partly by the fact that the greater
portion of the land belongs to feudal chiefs, related to the ruling

The Maharawal has a force of 400 infantry, of whom many are
mounted on camels, the animal ordinarily used for locomotion in
these sandy tracts. The cavalry number about 500, including the


Feudal and Jaghirdar Horse. Of the cavalry, about 40 are Sikhs, and
the rest of the forces, both infantry and cavalry, are natives of Rajputana
or of the bordering Districts of Sind. The men are armed chiefly with
the ordinary matchlock, sword, shield, or spear of the country,- but
have no drill or discipline. They constitute an efficient police. The
total number of serviceable guns is 12, served by 20 gunners.

Jaisalmer (/eysulmere). — Chief town and capital of the Native State
of Jaisalmer, Rajputana, Central India. Jaisalmer is situated in a broad
belt of low rocky ridges. Lat. 26° 55' n., long. 70° 57' e. The town
stands about 800 feet above the level of the sea. It was founded in the
year 1 156 by Rawal Jaisal. The buildings are chiefly of yellow sandstone.
At a short distance, the colour of the walls gives an appearance of mud ;
on closer inspection, the excellent quality of the stone attracts attention,
not only for its durability, but for its fine grain, affording great scope to
the architect. This has been thoroughly appreciated by the wealthy
inhabitants, for in few places is found such exquisite carving in stone as
that which decorates the houses of some of the opulent Oswal and
Palliwdl merchants in Jaisalmer. The fort caps a small hill, which
overlooks the town. Its elevation is estimated at 250 feet, and its
length at about 350 yards. The walls, which afford a double line of
defence, are about 25 feet in height, and of great strength, being con-
structed with large blocks of the same sandstone as that of which
the city is built. The plan of the fortification is peculiar. It is
apparently a succession of towers or circular bastions, the connecting
curtains being also curved. Huge round boulders lie in close array
along the battlements, ready for offensive purposes in case of assault.
The view from the ramparts is not attractive. The foreground presents
a succession of sterile rock-bound ridges, barely clad with stunted
bushes, whilst on the horizon low undulations mark the commencement
of the Indian Desert. The Maharawal's palace surmounts the main
entrance of the fort. The interior is ill-arranged, and frittered away in
numberless small apartments. Water is obtained from three good wells
within the palace. The Jain temples in the fort are remarkable for
their fine stone carving. The oldest temple was built in 137 1. A large
annual fair is held within 10 miles of the city.

Jaisinghnagar.— Village in Sagar tahstl, Sagar (Saugor) District,
Central Provinces. Lat. 23° 38' n., and long. 78° 37' e. ; 21 miles
south-west of Sagar town. Population (1881) 2742, namely, Hindus,
1766; Kabirpanthfs, 449; Jains, 283; Muhammadans, 243; abori-
ginal, I. Founded about 1690 by Raja Jai Singh, the ruler of Old
Sagar, who built a fort, still remaining, to protect the country from
the raids of petty chiefs. At the cession of Sagar (Saugor) to
the British in 1818, this tract was included; and in 1826 it was
assigned as a residence for Rukma Bai, one of the widows of Apa


Sahib. Bi-weekly market, with trade in grain, cloth, and provisions ;
village school for boys. Police station ; post-office.

Jaitak. — Hill fortress in Sirmiir (Sarmor) State, Punjab, crowning a
steep ridge of slate, which rises above the Khiarda Diin. Lat. 30° 36' n.,
long. 77° 24' E. During the war in 18 14, the Gurkhas occupied this
position with a garrison of 2200 men. They were attacked by two
British detachments, 1700 strong, but without success; and it was not
until after a tedious series of operations that the fort was finally cap-
tured in the following year. Elevation above sea-level, 4854 feet.

Jaitapur. — Seaport in the Rajd.pur Sub-division of Ratnagiri Dis-
trict, Bombay Presidency, Lat. 16° 37' 30" n., and long. 73° 24' 30" e. ;
average annual value of trade for five years ending 1881-82,^^210,575,
namely, exports, ^110,905; imports, ;^99,67o. The population is
reckoned as part of the population of Rajapur, and is about 2000 —
mostly Muhammadan. The town, 4 miles from the entrance of the
Rajapur river, is a place of call for coasting steamers, which stop tri-
weekly for passengers going to and from Rajdpur. The port is said
to be well sheltered from all winds. It has a custom house, post-
office, and vernacular school. Formerly one of the chief ports of the
Konkan : then known as Cetapur, Rajapur, or Suitapur. The Jaitapur
lighthouse is placed on the mainland at the southern point of the
Rajapur Hill. Height of lantern above the sea, 99 feet ; in clear
weather its light is seen from a distance of 9 miles.

Jaitpur. — Decayed town in Hamirpur District, North - Western
Provinces, and former capital of a Native State. Lat. 25° 15' 35" n.,
and long. 79° 36' 25" e. Population (1872) 5159; (1881) 5440,
namely, Hindus, 4830, and Muhammadans, 610. Area of town
site, 172 acres. Picturesquely situated on the banks of the Bela Tal,
65 miles south-west of Hamirpur. Probably founded in the early part
of the 1 8th century by Jagatraj, son of the famous Bundela Raja,
Chhatar Sal, who built the large fort still in existence. His descend-
ants held the town and surrounding principality until a period subse-
quent to the British conquest of Bundelkhand ; but on the occasion of
our reverses at Kabul in 1842, Raja Parichat broke into rebellion,
and, being captured, died a pensioner at Cawnpur, while his terri-
tories reverted to the British Government. His widow still resides at
Naugaon, and receives a pension of JQ200 per annum. Khet Singh, a
member of Raja Parichat's family, was put in his place ; but having died
without legitimate issue, the State, already placed temporarily in charge
of British officers on account of financial embarrassments, was formally
annexed. The town resembles a collection of separate villages, fully 2
miles in length, but very narrow. Handsome temple ; two forts, one
of which could contain almost the whole population ; police outpost ;
village school. Small trade in grain ; manufacture and dyeing of


country cloth. The Bela Tal, a tank or lake, dammed up with solid
masonry by the Chandel rulers of Mahoba in the 9th century, extends
for 5 miles in circumference, but is now very shallow, the embankment
having burst in 1869. Two canals, deriving their supply from the tank,
irrigated an area of 526 acres in 1881-82. For police and conservancy
purposes a small house-tax is raised under the provisions of Act xx.
of 1856.

Jajamau. — Town in Unao District, Oudh ; situated i mile north of
the Ganges, and 22 north-west of Unao town. Lat. 26° 56' n., and long.
80° 14' E. Founded in the reign of Aurangzeb by Jaji Singh Chandel,
ancestor of the present tdliikddr. Population (188 1) 859, exclusively

Jajhoti. — Ancient name of Bandelkhand.

Jajmau. — Head-quarters tahsil of Cawnpur District, North-Western
Provinces, lying along the banks of the Ganges, which forms its north-
eastern boundary, and containing the city of Cawnpur. It is traversed
throughout its length by the Cawnpur branch of the Lower Ganges
Canal. The Rind river forms the southern boundary of the tahsil,
and the Pandu flows through its centre. The soil is largely cut up by
ravines. Area, 269 square miles, of which 121 are cultivated. Popula-
tion (1872), including the city of Cawnpur, 267,286; (1881) 289,333,
namely, males 159,063, and females 130,270. Increase of population
during the nine years, 22,047, or ^'2 per cent. Classified according
to religion, there were, in 1881 — Hindus, 244,872; Muhammadans,
41,102; Jains, 114; 'others' (mainly European troops forming the
garrison of Cawnpur), 3245. Of the 220 villages comprising the
tahsil, 144 contained less than five hundred inhabitants. Land
revenue, ;^26,32o; total Government revenue, ;^29,485 ; rental paid
by cultivators, ;£"43,997 ; incidence of Government revenue, 3s. 7d.
per acre.

Jajmau. — Town in Jajmau tahsil'm Cawnpur District, North-Western
Provinces; situated on the right bank of the Ganges. Lat. 26° 26' n.,
long. 80° 28' E.; 6 miles south-east of Cawnpur city by land and 5 by
water. Now an unimportant village, but once of some note. It was
anciendy styled Siddhpuri, and still contains a landing-stage and temples
dedicated to Siddheswar and Siddha Devi. The high mound overhang-
ing the river is known as the fort of Raja Jijat Chandrabansi, whom the
Chandels claim as their ancestor. Disgusted at the failure of a sacrifice
made for a special purpose, he made over the fort, with its appanage
of 1 7 villages, to a man of the sweeper caste. South of the fort rises
the tomb of Makhdum Shah, built about 600 years ago ; and on the
castle mound itself stands a mosque dating from the 17th century.
The residents of this and the surrounding villages celebrate the holi
festival five days after the usual date. They say that, many ages back,


on the Iwli and four following days, a fierce battle was raging between
the Muhamm.idans and the Hindu Raja ; and in honour of the victory
then gained, the Hindus have ever since kept this holiday on the same
date as that on which they were forced to keep it in that year.

Jajpur. — Sub-division of Cuttack District, Bengal. Area, 11 04
square miles; number of villages, 3989; houses, 91,181. Population
(1872)428,517; (1881) 499,498, namely, males 240,341, and females
259,157. Total increase during the nine years ending 1881, 70,981,
or i6*56 per cent. Classified according to religion, there were in 1881
— Hindus, 487,748; Muhammadans, 11,248; Christians, 105; ab-
original tribes, 28; 'others,' 369. Density of population, 452 per
square mile; villages per square mile, 3*61; persons per village, 125;
houses per square mile, 86; inmates per house, 5*5. This Sub-division
comprises the 2 police circles {thdnds) of Jajpur and Dharmsala. One
magisterial and i civil revenue court in 1883; regular police, 82
men ; village watch, 1466 men.

Jajpur. — Town, municipality, and head - quarters of Jajpur Sub-
division, Cuttack District, Bengal ; on the right bank of the Baitarani
river, in lat. 20° 50' 45" N., long. 86" 22' 56" e. Population
(1872) 10,753; (1882) 11,233, namely, Hindus, 10,611; Muham-
madans, 616; and 'others,' 6. Area of town site, 2891 acres.
Gross municipal revenue (1881-82), £2"]^; rate of taxation, 5jd.
per head of population. The town contains the usual sub-
divisional and public buildings ; charitable dispensary ; Govern-
ment-aided Anglo-vernacular school, etc. It was the chief town of
the Province under the Kesari dynasty until the nth century, when
it was superseded by Cuttack, the modern capital. Jajpur is celebrated
for its settlements of Brahman Sivaite priests, and as the head-quarters
of one of the four regions of pilgrimage into which Orissa is divided,
viz. that sacred to Parvati, the wife of the All-Destroyer. In Jajpur
are numerous ruins of Sivaite temples, sculptures, etc. For a descrip-
tion of these remains, see Statistical Account of Bengal , xviii. pp. 85-89
(quoted from Orissa). In the i6th century, this town was the scene
of the struggle between Musalman and Hindu power, from which it
emerged in ruins. However, it still ranks as the fifth town of Orissa,
and derives much wealth from its yearly fair in honour of Baruni,
' Queen of the Waters,' on which occasion crowds of pilgrims flock to
bathe in the holy Baitarani, the Styx of Hindu mytholog}\

Jajpur. — Town in Udaipur (Oodeypore) State, Rajputana, Central
India. Lat. 25° 38' n., long. 75° 19' e. ; lies 67, miles south-east of
Nasirabad (Nusseerabad), and 278 north-west of Sagar (Saugor). Good
water-supply; large bazar. A fort of considerable strength, situated
on an isolated peak, commands the pass leading from Bundi (Boondee)
into Udaipur.


Jakhan. — Petty State in Jhalawar Division, Kathiawar, Bombay
Presidency. Lies 4 miles east of Limbdi railway station. Popula-
tion, 703 in 1 88 1. It consists of i village, with 2 independent
tribute-payers. The revenue is estimated at ;^i57 ; and tribute
of p^24, 4s. is paid to the British Government, and of jQ^^ 12s. to

Jakhau. — Seaport in the Native State of Cutch (Kachh), Bombay
Presidency. Lat. 23° 14' 30" N., long. 68° 45' e. ; lies 64 miles south-
west of Bhuj. Population (1872) 5145 ; (1881) 4930j namely,
Hindus, 1843 ; Muhammadans, 2094 ; Jains, 993. The town of Jakhau
is on the south-west coast of Cutch, between 3 and 4 miles inland, in
a plain bare of trees but yielding abundant crops. The landing-
place is at Godia creek, 5 miles from the sea. Godia creek, dry at low-
water, has a depth of from 8 to 1 2 feet at full tide. At springs, boats
of from 20 to 25 tons burden can pass up. There is a stretch of
backwater from the Indus to the Godia creek, known as Bagda, navig-
able for craft of 8 and 10 tons all the year round. Jakhau carries on
a large trade with Bombay, exporting grain and importing piece-goods,
groceries, timber, sugar, oil, and dates.

Jakkatala. — Military station in the Nilgiri Hills, Madras. — See

Jako. — Mountain peak in Simla District, Punjab, overhanging the
station of Simla. Lat. 31° 5' n., long. 77° 15' e. The ridge, upon
which stands the sanitarium and summer capital, culminates eastward
in this noble height, 8000 feet above sea-level, and 1000 feet above the
general elevation of the houses. Woods of deodar, pine, oak, and
rhododendron clothe its sides and summit. Its circuit, by a tolerably
level road, about 1000 feet below the peak, measures just 5 miles. The
houses of Simla Station cluster most thickly upon the flanks of Jako
and two neighbouring hills.

Jalalabad. — District in the Kabul Province, Afghanistan; lies north
and south of the Kabul river. The District of Jalalabad is about 80
miles long from east to west, and, on an average, 35 miles broad from
north to south. To the east it extends to the western mountains of the
Khiibar and Bazar. On the south it is bounded by the Safed Koh
range. On the west the boundary is a lofty spur from the Safed Koh,
called Karkacha, between the valleys of Gandamak and Jagdalak.
North of the Kabul river the surface of the District is diversified by
spurs of the Safed Koh ; south of the river it is an irregular undulating
tract, enclosing the small plains of Jalalabad, Chardeh, Peshbolak,
Batikot, and others, covered with low, bare, and stony hills, and inter-
sected by numerous streams from the Safed Koh. The district is
entirely surrounded by hills, on one of which Noah's Ark is fabled
to have rested. Two main roads traverse the District from east to


west, the one, after a certain portion of its course, joining the other at

Jalalabad is divided for revenue purposes into eight sub-divisions. The
principle of revenue administration is that Government takes one-third
of the gross produce of the soil. The inhabitants of the District belong
to many races and tribes, a small proportion of Hindus living as traders
in every large village. The language of this part of the country is Pushtu,
but many tribes use Persian, and some have dialects peculiar to themselves.
Certain tribes, the Kuchis in especial, among whom are a percentage of
Arabs, are migratory, and move to the region about Kdbul as the hot
weather approaches. The climate of the Jalalabad District bears a
general resemblance to that of Peshawar, but for two months the heat in
the plains is excessive. Rain falls abundantly, the showers of the
bdd-i-barsdt corresponding to the commencement of the rainy season
in India. Fevers and small-pox are common ; vaccination, except by
the native method of inoculation, is unknown ; eye diseases develop
in the hot weather. During the winter, shocks of earthquake are

Agriculture. — There are no towns of importance in the District, and
only the low-lying parts in addition to the banks of the streams are
cultivated. In secluded valleys the cultivation of fruit is engaged in,
and travellers describe the blending together of orchard, garden, and
field. The rabi^ or spring harvest, when the Safed Koh has sent down
its supply of water from the melted snows, comprises large crops of
wheat, barley, peas, opium, mustard, and linseed. The kharif^ or
autumn harvest, is of cotton, jodr^ rice, and bdjra. Melons, cucumbers,
pumpkins, and turnips are also grown. Wheat andy'icir are the staple
food of the people. In a small portion of the District the ancient
custom of vesh^ or redistribution of all the lands of the community at
stated intervals, is found to exist.

Administration, — The civil administration of the District is entrusted
to a governor, or hdkim,, whose authority, however, is not exercised over
the military commanders appointed by the Kabul Darbar. The hdk'un
has a nominal salary, but carries on the revenue system by farming the
taxes, levying fines, and by miscellaneous exaction. There is no
regular administration of justice; civil disputes are referred to a
Muhammadan Mulla or Kazi by mutual consent.

The name Nangnahar is applied to the southern portion of
Jalalabad District, including the district of Laghman. Laghman,
properly Lamghan, is the seat of the ancient Lampagae. The name is
almost certainly not connected with that of the patriarch Lamech, as
the Musalmans assert, but is a distortion of the ancient Indian name
Nagarahdra, borne by a city in the Jalalabad plain long before the
time of Islam, and believed to have been the Nagara or Dionysopolis of


Ptolemy. Many topes and other Buddhist traces exist in the Laghmin
valley, but there are no buildings of any size intact.

History. — ^Jalalabad city was founded in 1570 by Akbar the Great on
his way back from Kabul to India. The fort was built in 1638 in the
time of Shah Jahan. The annals of the District date from a.d.
977, and are mainly concerned with engagements that occurred in its
valleys during the march of Afghdn rulers towards Hindustan ; but the
modern history of the town of Jalalabad dates from 1834. In that
year, after the Barukzai Khans had gained ascendancy over the Saduzai
monarchs, Nawib Zaman Khdn, nephew of Azim Khan, was placed in
the government of Nangnahar, and retained it peaceably until the Amir
of Afghanistan, Dost Muhammad, presented himself with an army and
a claim for revenue. The claim was arranged, and the Amir withdrew.
The Nawab set about the fortification of the town, and was busily
engaged in the work when the Amir again appeared. The Nawab
resisted, but the town was seized and sacked. The Amir placed two of
his brothers successively in the governorship.

JaldMbad has twice been occupied by British troops. First in the
course of the Afghan war of 1839-42, when Sir Robert Sale, in com-
mand of the * illustrious garrison,' stoutly held out against the Afghan
rebel leader, Muhammad Akbar Khan, from November 1841 to April
1842, until relieved by General Pollock. The siege was memorable for
the gallantry of its defenders. The enceinte of the town was over 2100
yards in extent, out of all proportion to the powers of the besieged ; it
was protected by no parapet except for a few hundred yards, and for that
distance by one only 2 feet high ; the ramparts were ruins over which roads
led into the country ; inside the walls the population was disaffected ;
outside, 5000 insurgents occupied the many ruined tombs, mosques,
forts, walls, and gardens from which a fire could be opened at 20 or 30
yards on those inside the city. The British forces at their entrance had
only provisions for two days, and with a small garrison were compelled
to make constant sallies. By February 1842 the town had been
rendered defensible, but in that month an earthquake rendered the
previous work ineffectual. The * illustrious garrison,' however, held out.

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 7) → online text (page 9 of 57)