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and held at the town of Khairpur ; the other of an itinerant nature,
always accompanying the Mir wherever he may be. A Hindu officer
presides over the former, and two Muhammadan Maulvis over the latter.
All sentences passed by these courts require the Mir's confirmation
before they can be carried out. The punishments resorted to in the
case of convicted persons are generally fine and flogging, with or without
imprisonment. The punishment of death is seldom inflicted, but the
Mir has the power of life and death throughout his dominions. In
civil cases the plaintiff is required to give to the State one-fourth of
his claim as costs and expenses ; and it is, no doubt, on this account
that but few suits are brought in the Mir's courts, the litigating parties
preferring to have them settled by means of panc/idjats, or friendly
arbitration. Registration is done by kdzis or subordinate officers, and
the documents are attested by the kdrddrs and zaminddrs. In 1882-83,



KHAIRPUR TOWN.

424 offences were reported to the police, mostly cattle thefts. Th<

jail average was 10 1 prisoners. The military force 1 : about 500

men fairly mounted, and armed with swords and matchlo* Its. !

to canals in 1882 cost ^1720. A preventive service t< >pium-

smuggling from Jaisalmer State is being organized. Number of
schools in the State, 6 ; number of scholars, 240. Persian is specially
attended to by Miillas, who, for the instruction they afford, receive 1
pice ( Id.) weekly from the parents of each child.

Climate, Medical Aspects, etc. — The climate of Khairpur is repres
to be agreeable during about four months of the year, but fiercely hot
during the remaining eight. The fall of rain is slight, but dust storms
are frequent, and have the effect of cooling the atmosphere to some
extent. The diseases common to the country are fevers, intermittent
and remittent, ophthalmia, and several cutaneous affections. Organic
affections of the liver are said to be rare. 2850 persons wer
cinated in 1882-83. In the same year there were 2 native physicians
attached to the Mir's camp, while 3 more were resident in Khair-
pur town, to give advice and medicine to the inhabitants free of
charge.

Khairpur. — Chief town of Khairpur State, Sind, Bombay Presi-
dency ; situated on the Mirwah Canal, about 15 miles east of the river
Indus, and 17 miles south of Rohri. Lat. 27 31' 30" x., long. 6S'
48' 30" e. The town, which is irregularly built, consists of a col!
of mud hovels, intermingled with a few houses of a better cla-s.
It is very filthy, and, owing to the excessive heat of the place, and the
deleterious influence of the stagnant marshes around it, decidedly
unhealthy. The palace, covered with gaudy lacquered tiles of various
hues, is situate in the midst of the bazar, and presents but feu-
points worthy of notice. Outside the town stand the tombs of two
Muhammadan saints— Pir Ruhan Zia-ud-din and Haji Jafiar Sbihid
The population, consisting of Muhammadans and Hindus, the former
of whom greatly predominate in number, is estimated by some at from
4000 to 5000 persons, but by others as high as 10,000; 11.
was returned at 7275. The population of Khairpur town is not
returned separately in the Census Report of 1SS1.

During the flourishing period of the Talpur dynasty, Khairpur is
said to have possessed not less than 15,000 inhabitants, but the
is now fast hastening to ruin and decay. The trade of Khairpur is
principally in indigo, grain (>*> and bdjra), and oil-seeds, whici
the chief articles of export; the imports being piece-goods, silk, 00!
wool, metals, etc. The manufactures comprise the weaving and d
of cloths of various kinds, goldsmith's work, and the making of fire-
arms, swords, etc. On the present site of the town of Khairpur,
which owes its rise to Mir Sohrab Khan Talpur, there stood, prior



133 KHAIRPUR TOWN—KHAIRPUR DHARKL

to the year 1787, the village of Boira, and the zaminddri or estate of
the Phulpotras. It was selected as the residence of the chief Mirs of
Northern Sind ; and for some time during Talpur rule, a British
Resident was stationed here, in terms of the treaty of 20th April 1838,
concluded between the British Government and the Mirs of Sind.

Khairpur. — Town and municipality in Alfpur tahsil, Muzaffargarh
District, Punjab; situated in lat. 29 20' n., long. 70 51' e., 6 miles
south-west of Alfpur, on a depressed site, below flood-level from the
Chenab, and therefore surrounded by an embankment, which has to be
kept up at a considerable outlay. The town is compactly built, chiefly
of brick, many of the houses being two and three storied. The
bazars are mostly paved with brick, but the streets are too narrow to
admit of wheeled traffic. Population (1868) 2846; (1881) 2609;
namely, Hindus, 1549, and Muhammadans, 1060; number of houses,
271. A third-class municipality, with an income in 1881-82 of
^"295; average incidence of taxation, 2s. 3^d. per head of the
population. The inhabitants are enterprising traders, and their trade
with Baluchistan, Sakkar (Sukkur), Multan, and other places at a distance
is larger than that of any other town in the District. The exports con-
sist principally of wool, cotton, and grain ; the imports of cloth and
sundries. The town contains a primary school, and has a police
outpost station.

Khairpur Dharki. — Town in Rohri Sub-division, Shikarpur District,
Sind, Bombay Presidency ; situated about 65 miles north-east of Rohri
town. Lat. 2 8° 3' n., long. 69 44' 30" e. Head-quarters of a tappa-
ddr, with a musafirkhdna (travellers' rest-house) ; vernacular school ;
thdnd police force of 7 men ; and cattle pound. Connected by road
with the towns of Ubauro, Rawati, Mirpur, and Raharki. Population
(1881) under 2000. The trade of Khairpur Dharki is principally in
grain, sugar, molasses, oil, and cloth. The Lohars are noted for their
handiwork in metal pots, pipe bowls, knives, razors, etc. The Dhars,
who were once the principal landowners in Ubauro taluk, are thus
referred to by Lieutenant Lester, a former Deputy Collector, in his
Report (1852) on the Districts on the left bank of the Indus : —

'The Dhars are a race of Musalmans, originally Hindus, who
emigrated from their native country of Tonk Jodah, near Delhi, under
their chief, one Jodh Dhar, and settled in Ubauro. This migration
took place about a.h. 551 (a.d. 1150). The Dhars took Ubauro by
force of arms from the Odhanas, a Muhammadan race, who formerly
possessed it, and Jodh Dhar became the acknowledged ruler of Ubauro.
Alim Khan, the twelfth chief from Jodh Dhar, was the first who
surrendered his independence. He became subject to the kings of
Delhi about a.d. 1634; and one of the first sanads is dated a.h. 1052
(a.d. 1626), by which one-half of the grain produce is allowed to the



KHAIRPUR JUSO-KITAJUII. i.

Dhar chief, and the other half taken by the Delhi Government '

a.d. 1795, the Talpur chiefs, Mirs Sohrab and Rustam, wi

the chief of Ubauro some of the west and south-west part

pargand near Sirhad, and called this acquired territory u

The Dhars were, however, allowed the zaminddri of these I

1817, the Talpurs took Sabzalkot, two-thirds of which wen

ated to the Haidarabad Mirs, and one-third to .Mir Rustam. The

Talpurs continued to encroach by degrees on the possessions of the

Dhars in Ubauro, until one-half only remained in the possession

latter. At length, on the death of Bhambii Khan, his son, Ablil I

was only allowed an eighth share of the revenue, besides zamind \

The town of Khairpur Dharki is comparatively modern, having been
founded about 1787 by the grandfather of Jam Abul Khair Dhar, the
present head of the Dhar tribe. The Khairpur station (n miles south-
west of the Reti station) on the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Railway is
near the town.

Khairpur JUSO. — Village in Larkhana Sub-division, Shikarpur
District, Sind, Bombay Presidency; situated about 10 miles south-wot
of Larkhana town. Lat. 27 31' N., long. 68° 5' e. Population in
1881 under 2000. Head - quarters of a tappaddr ; police station,
and miisafirklidna (travellers' rest-house). No manufactures of any
importance ; local trade in jodr and rice. A jdgir village, held by
Mir Bijar Khan Talpur, a lineal descendant of the Mir Bijar, who was
murdered by the Kalhora prince Abdul Nabi Khan. The /.\
resides in a small fort in the village.

Khairpur Natheshah.— Municipal village in Kakar taluk, Mehar
Sub-division, Shikarpur District, Sind, Bombay Presidency ; situated
8 miles south of Mehar town. Lat. 27 5' n., long. 67' 46' 30" E.
Population (1881) 1767. Municipal revenue ([S81-S2), ^211 :
expenditure, ^104. Police station, mukhtiydrkdrs court, court-In. u>e,
Government school, and cattle pound. Kjdgir village, in the posse
of Mir Muhammad Khan Talpur.

Khajauli. — Village and head-quarters of a police circle {thdnd) in
Darbhangah District, Bengal; situated on the river Dhauri about 12
miles north-east of Madhubani, on the old road from Jam...
Mirzapur. Lat. 26 26' 30" N., long. S5 56' 51" E. Populati
907. Small bi-weekly market for the sale of grain and cloth.

Khajri.— Small zaminddri estate in Sakoli tahsil, Bhanda:
Central Provinces; 6 miles north of Arjuni, on the Gn
Road; comprising 2 villages, with an area of 7 squaw I win

3 square miles are cultivated. Lat. 2 1° S' 30" n., long. So to'E, 1
chief is a Halba, and the population (1502 in 1SS1) consists "Ml
and Gonds.

Khajuha.— Town in YLoxitahsilt Fatehpur District, North VY.



1 40 KHAJURA—KHAJURAHU.

Provinces. Lat. 26 3' 10" x., long. 8o° $$ 50" e. It lies on the old
Mughal road from Kora to Fatehpur, 2 1 miles from the latter town,
and formerly possessed considerable commercial importance. Chiefly
noted at present for its manufacture of brass and copper wares,
especially drinking and cooking vessels. Population (1881) 3492,
namely, males 1682, and females 18 10 ; prevailing caste, Brahmans.
For police and conservancy purposes, a house-tax is levied, amounting
in 1881-82 to ^105. The town retains some architectural remains
of ancient grandeur, including the Bagh Badshahi, a large enclosed
garden with a bdraddri at the eastern end, and a considerable masonry
tank ; the gateway and walls of the handsome old sardi, through which
ran the Mughal road to Agra and Etawah j and a fine Hindu temple,
dedicated to Siva, with a tank known as the Randon-ka-talao. A large
religious fair is held here in October. Bi-weekly market, school, post-
office, and police station.

Khajurd. — Village in Jessor District, Bengal; situated on the
Chitra river 8 miles north of Jessor town. Lat. 23 17' x., long. 89°
17' e. One of the principal seats of date-sugar manufacture in the
District, the village taking its name from the date-tree (khajur).

Khajurahra. — Town in Hardoi District, Oudh ; 6 miles from
Hardoi town. Population (1869) 3305; (1881) 4028, chiefly Chamar
Gaurs, who have held the village since one of their ancestors drove out
the Thatheras. Petty bi-weekly market.

Khajurahu. — Ancient and decayed town in Chhatarpur State,
Bundelkhand, North-Western Provinces ; famous for its magnificent
architectural remains. Population about 900. Situated at the south-
east corner of the Khajur Sagar, or Ninora Tal Lake, 34 miles south
of Mahoba and 25 miles east of Chhatarpur town, on the Sagar (Saugor)
and Hamirpur road.

Formerly the capital of the old Province of Jajhoti, which closely
corresponded with the later Bundelkhand. Hiuen Tsiang men-
tions it in the 7th century ; and General Cunningham attributes to
the same date a single pillared temple called Ganthai, and a high
mound which probably conceals the ruins of a Buddhist monastery.
Numerous inscriptions of the Chandel kings have been discovered
at various places in the neighbourhood. Upwards of twenty temples
still stand in the town, and the ruins of at least as many more bear
witness to its former greatness. On one alone, General Cunningham
counted over eight hundred statues of half life-size, and eight sculp-
tured elephants of like proportions. The inner shrine of this edifice
constituted in itself a splendid temple, and was crowded with figures.
Captain Burt noticed seven large temples of exquisite carving, whose
mechanical construction adapted them to last for almost indefinite
periods. Most or all of these noble buildings must be referred to the



KHAJURI—KHALILA BAD,

Chandel dynasty, who ruled at Khajurahu, apparently from
841 to 1 157. The modern village contains only about 160 I

Khajliri.— Guaranteed chiefship of Central India.

Khakereru. — South-eastern tahs'd of Fatehpur District, N
Western Provinces, lying along the north bank of the Jumna river,
and comprising the pargan&s of Dhata and Ekdala. Area, 215-3
square miles, of which 130-2 square miles are cultivated, 34*6 square
miles cultivable, and 50-4 square miles uncultivable waste.
lation (1872) 87,153; (1881) 78,686, namely, mak
females 39,402, the decrease in the nine years being 8467, 1
cent. Classified according to religion, there were in 1881— Hindus,
68,865, and Muhammadans, 9821. Number of villages. [69, 1 f which
120 contained less than five hundred, and none over five thousand
inhabitants. Government land revenue (1881), ,£17,847, or, including
local rates and cesses, £"21,028 ; rental paid by cultivators, including
rates and cesses, £25,643. The tahsil contained 2 criminal courts in
1884, with 3 than as ox police stations; strength of regular police, 34
men ; village watchmen (chaukiddrs), 240.

Khakereru. — Village in Fatehpur District, North-Western
vinces; situated 29 miles from Fatehpur town, in lat. 25 36' 56 .\\,
and long. 8i° 10' 18" e. Population (1881) 1152, chiefly Muhamma-
dans. A considerable cotton trade is carried on. Ruined fort, police
station, and post-office.

Khalari. — Village in the centre of the Khalari estate, Raipur
District, Central Provinces; 13 miles from Raipur town. The seat of
a revenue manager under the Marathas. The four ancient temples
built of uncemented stones, were raised, the legend says, by giants of
old. At the top of a lofty eminence, crowned by huge granite boulders,
stands a small chabutra, dedicated to Khalari Devi, beneath which is
y early held a religious fair at the Chaitra Punava festival, about the end
of March, attended by 3000 persons.

Khalilabad. — South-eastern tahsil of Basti District, North-W<
Provinces, stretching northward from the bank of the Gogra (Gl
Population (1872) 307,717; (1881) 341,590, namely, males 17
and females 169,964; increase since 1872, 33,873, or 11 per cent.
Classified according to religion, there were — Hindus, 282, |
hammadans, 59,236; 'others,' 2. Number of villages. 1363, of which
1227 contain less than five hundred inhabitants. Ar ;uare

miles, or 349,746 acres, of which 226,265 acres are cultivated. 1
revenue, £^25,336 : total Government revenue, £28.448; rental
by cultivators, £"72,953 ; incidence of Government revenue pet
is. 7jd. The tahsil contains 1 criminal court, with 5 poli<
a regular police force 59 strong, besides 3S3 village watchmen.

Khalilabad.— Village in Basti District, North-Westem Proi



142 KHALING DWAR—KHAMGAON.

and head-quarters of Khalilabad tahsil, situated on the metalled road
from Gorakhpur to Faizabad, 22J miles from Basti town. Except
as the head-quarters of the tahsil, it has no commercial importance
beyond that of a market village, which trades in the immediate neigh-
bourhood. It contains the usual sub-divisional courts and office,
police station, and post-office.

Khaling" Dwar. — Forest reserve in Darrang District, Assam, skirt-
ing the southern base of the Bhutan Hills. Area, 6240 acres. The
maJidl, or fiscal division of the same name, in which the forest is
situated, has an area of 194 square miles. Revenue (1881-82), ^"3219.

Khambhala. — Petty State in the Gohelwar division of Kathiawar,
Gujarat, Bombay Presidency; consisting of 2 villages, with 2 separate
shareholders. Area, 9 square miles. Population (1881) 890. Esti-
mated revenue in 1881, £600; tribute of ^40, 13s. is paid to the
British Government, and ;£"ii, 16s. to the Nawab of Junagarh.
Khambhala village is situated 17 miles north-west of the Dhasa station
on the Bhaunagar-Gondal Railway.

Khambhalia. — Town in Nawanagar State, Kathiawar, Bombay
Presidency. Lat. 22 12' n., long. 69 50' e. Situated at the
confluence of two small streams, the Teli and Cxhi, flowing into
the Salaya creek, about 10 miles east of the port of Salaya.
Population (1872) 9067 ; (1881) 8576, namely, 4083 males and 4493
females. Hindus numbered 7025; Muhammadans, 1458; and Jains,
93. After Nawanagar, the town of most importance in the State ;
it was the residence of the Jam or chief until the death of the
Emperor Aurangzeb. Khambhalia is an ancient town, and was for-
merly a possession of the Vadhels, from whom it was conquered
by Jam Rawal. It contains several old temples. The ironsmiths
of the town are renowned for their skill, and the gunsmiths are
capable of making breech - loading firearms. A tax is levied on all
pilgrims passing through to Dwarka and Pindtarak. Pindtarak is a
seaport under Khambhalia, and contains a celebrated shrine. It is
said that the remains of several ancient temples, now covered by the
sea, are visible at extremely low tides.

Khamblao. — Petty State in the Jhalawar division of Kathiawar,
Bombay Presidency; consisting of 2 villages, with 3 separate share-
holders. Area, 10 square miles. Population (188 1) 1449. Estimated
revenue in 1881, .£457 ; tribute of ;£73 is payable to the British
Government, and ,£13, 18s. to the Nawab of Junagarh. Khamblao
village is situated 7 miles east of the Limbdi station on the Bhaunagar-
Gondal Railway.

Khamgaon. — Taluk of Akola District, Berar. Area, 441 square
miles; contains 2 towns and 129 villages. Population (1867) 76,726;
(1881) 96,179, namely, 50,558 males and 45,621 females, or 218



KHAMGAON TO WW

persons per square mile. Occupied houses, 1 7,482 ; unoccupied, . - - -
towns and villages per square mile, -3; houses per square 1
persons per house, 5-5. Since 1872, the population of the tdl*
increased by 1 9,453- Hindus number 88,759; Muhammad
Jains, 801; Parsis, 49; Sikhs, 10 ; Christians, 137 ; Jew,, 3- and
aboriginal tribes, 4. Two towns in the taluk have a population between
ten and fifteen thousand. The taluk contains 1 civil and 3 criminal
courts ; regular police, 99 men ; police circles (t hands), 5 ; vill
154. Total revenue, ,£29,304, of which £23,408 is derived from

Khamgaon. — Town and municipality in Akola District, B
Lat. 20 42' 30" N., long. 76 37' 30" e. Population (18S1) 1.
namely, 6718 males and 5672 females. Of the total population,
9337 were returned as Hindus, 2603 as Muhammadans, 87 as Christians,
314 as Jains, and 41 as Parsis. A large cotton market and the
emporium of the western Districts of the Province for opium. The
grain trade of the town is also of considerable importance. Trade-
was first established about 1820, when a few dealers opened shops
and began to deal in glii, yarn, and a little cotton. A branch State
railway of 8 miles, opened in 1870, connects Khamgaon with the
Nagpur branch of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway at Jalamb
station. It is only worked about seven months in the year, from
December to July, during the cotton season ; in the remaining months
a contractor is allowed to conduct a lorry service for the convenient e
of travellers. It is also made use of to a considerable extent for grain
and other goods, being able to compete successfully with ordinary
carts for light loads. Latterly, considerable supplies of cotton have
been diverted from Khamgaon to Shegaon, on the Nagpur branch of
the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. In good seasons, above 100,000
bullock-loads of cotton are brought into Khamgaon. The weekly
market is held on Thursdays, and during the busy season it i
largely attended. A branch of the Bombay Bank is open for bus
during six months.

The town is surrounded by low irregular hills. To the east is a large
enclosed cotton market, having a small building in the centre used
exchange room. There are upwards of 400 public and private wells ;
but the water in many of them has become contaminated, and a large tank
is being constructed (1883) a mile and a half from the town, which it
culated will afford an abundant supply of pure drinking water. Thi
of this work is estimated at ^18,000, half of which will be borne I
town. The public buildings are— the Assistant Commissioner's 1
house; a tahsil ; a handsome sardi ; travellers' bungalow; dispensary,
telegraph and post offices ; police stations ; three school-houses ; market
shed. Of the private buildings, those erected by the I
merchants are the most conspicuous ; of these, the principal are the



i 44 KHAMTI HILLS AND TRIBE.

French Press Company's, the New Berar Company's, the Khamgaon
Pressing Company's, and the Mofussil Pressing Company's factories,
which all possess steam machinery for full-pressing cotton. Several
gardens in the town produce good oranges and vegetables. The
Assistant Commissioner is judge of the Small-Cause Court, and has a
Magistrate's full powers ; a tahsilddr is also stationed at Khamgaon,
and there is a sub-treasury. The imports into Khamgaon by rail in
1882-83 were vame d at ^"316,081, and the exports at ^673,148.
Khamgaon is a municipality. In 1882-83, the municipal receipts were
^£1959; expenditure, ^1742; incidence of taxation, iofd. per head
of population within municipal limits. The daily average attendance
at the dispensary was 48 in 1882.

Khamti Hills and Tribe. — A tract of country on the extreme
eastern frontier of Assam, bordering on Lakhimpur District ; occupied
by the Khamtis, a hill tribe of Shan origin, akin to the Ahams. The
seat of this tribe for centuries, and still inhabited by them, is the
hilly country at the sources of the Nawadi river, known as Bar-khamtf,
which was visited by Captain Wilcox in 1826. About the middle of
last century, owing to internal dissensions, a colony of Khamtis
migrated into Assam and established themselves in the division of
Sadiya. Their chief assumed the title of Sadiya Khoa Gosain, and
was recognised by the British Government. On his death, the division
of Sadiya was taken under British administration, and difficulties arose
with the Khamtis. In 1839 they cut off the outpost at Sadiya.
with its garrison of Sepoys and British commandant. This outbreak
was sternly suppressed, and for several years the Khamtis led a
hunted life. They have now resumed peaceful habits, and new
colonies of their tribesmen from beyond the frontier have recently
joined their settlements on the Tengapani and Noa Dihing rivers.

According to the Census of 1872, the total number of Khamtis in
the settled portion of Lakhimpur District was 1562 souls. In 1881, the
number was returned at 2883. The Khamtis are far in advance of all
the neighbouring tribes in knowledge, arts, and civilisation. They are
Buddhists, and in their own country have regular establishments of
priests, well versed in the mysteries of that religion. The majority
of the laity can read and write their own language, the boys of each
village being (as in Burma) instructed by the village priest or bdpu.
The priests carve with great taste in wood, bone, or ivory. The chiefs
pride themselves upon their manual dexterity in working in metals, and
in ornamenting their shields of buffalo or rhinoceros hide with gold and
lac. The women are skilled in embroidery. The dress of both men
and women is marked by simplicity and neatness, and closely resembles
that of the Burmese.

The principal settlement of the Khamtis in Assam proper is at Nara-



KHAMT1 HILLS AND TRIBE

'45

yanpur, and the following description of the little colony j

from the Assam Census Report of 1881 :— 'The colony at Nariiyanpur

affords a good example of the mode of life characteristic of the K:
in Assam. The houses are built on platforms raised a few feet
the ground. The chief's house is a very large structure, 90 feet V
30 feet broad, with the customary deep verandah or porch in I
Both men and women still retain their national costume, viz. a
cotton jacket and kilt of chequered cloth for the former, and f<
latter a blue cloth tied under the arms and reaching down nearly to the
ankles, with a jacket above. Thus attired, the women may be seen < i
an evening bringing in large loads of firewood to the village. Both
sexes have that robust and well-nourished appearance which distin-
guishes the non-Aryan races of Assam from the Hindu, whenever the



Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 8) → online text (page 17 of 64)