at times of all the laws of health break down very
many constitutions, while still more are only saved
from this catastrophe by contentment with a very
partial performance of missionary ofiices. Besides, to
win prejudiced and contemptuous foreigners, and to
lead converts efficiently, give large scope for high
II. The Mechanical Demands. — These grow out
of the necessity of the missionary's making and draw-
ing all plans, arranging all contracts, superintending
all details of erection, and making with his own hands
such requisites as the native artisans cannot make, for
the proper construction and equipment of the needed
mission buildings in numerous stations, — out of the
necessity of quickening and directing the varied mate-
rial advancement of those whom his Gospel civilizes.
III. The Financial Demands. — To plan, in ad-
vance, the expenses of a large and complicated net-
work of missionary operations within the limits of
120 WILLIAMS COLLEGE.
fixed appropriations ; to spend wisely and economi-
cally the considerable funds entrusted to liim, and
meet promptly every financial obligation as it arises ;
to have well-kept accounts and present acceptable
reports and balance-sheets, with due regard to the
fluctuations of exchange, and the conversion back and
forth of the items of his accounts from the currency
of the home-land to that of his field ; and then to
finance his own snuo^ salary so as to cover also the
considerable requirements of private benefactions and
extensive hospitality, and all without the aid of regu-
larity or leisure, and among people who have no fixed
prices for anything and no conscience to spare in
money matters, — calls for abilities in this line of no
mean order on the part of the missionary.
IV. The Legal Demands. — These are for the
protection of the mission properties and other rights,
against the encroachments of avaricious neighbors,
bitter persecutors, and crafty rulers ; and for the
securing of suitable redress in cases of encroachment ;
and also to meet the obvious obligation to aid his
parishioners with proper legal counsel, which they
cannot obtain elsewhere.
V. The Diplomatic Demands. — When legal meas-
ures fail through corruption, the champion of honest
rights falls back upon diplomacy', consistently, of
course, with Christian honor. Through these diplo-
matic relations with the powers that be, he also guards
those general rights guaranteed to missions by treaty,
and obtains all possible additional facilities for his
work. Few, indeed, can know what expenditure of
time, what distasteful bondage to absurd etiquettes,
what humiliating rebuffs and agonies of ingenuity
it often costs to keep in motion under hostile gov-
ernments the agencies of Christian missions ! Or
what sad interruptions and disasters might doubt-
less be averted, were diplomatic gifts more generally
possessed by missionaries !
VI. The Medical Demands. — To open hearts and
districts hermetically sealed against the Gospel and its
herald without the aid of miracles, the missionary finds
medical service exceedingly effective. He, therefore,
needs as much skill as possible, that he may treat
with simple remedies a host of simple ailments, sure
to clamor for his help wherever he may be. It will
often be as foolish as cruel to plead inability, and
refuse to help those who have access to no other
source of relief.
VII. The Musical Demands. — Since worship is
not complete without sacred song, and music is so
helpful in evangelism, and since the missionary finds
no preparation in this line, he must himself prepare
both hymns and tunes, with such indifferent local
help as he can muster, and then must train the schools
and congregations himself, and the musical leaders
that are to be.
VIII. The Linguistic Demands. — To master even
one foreign language (and, in most cases, more are
needed) so as to do effective work with both the col-
loquial and the written forms, baffies not a few who
attempt it, and forms a signal difficulty of mission
work. It is far too often true that a missionary
122 WILLIAMS COLLEGE.
hobbles through his ministry, weak, if not ridiculous,
on this account.
IX. The Educational Demands. — From the ele-
mentary three R's up to the heights of philosophy,
science, and theology, the missionary has to carry
those pupils who are to be the teachers of the future ;
also to prepare the text-books, organizing and con-
ducting the various training-schools, colleges, and
seminaries, as well as the system of village common
schools, which he must superintend with vigilance,
and be so familiar with the text- books in the native
lanofuaofes that he can examine not only the schools
but the teachers, and give them the normal training
which they need. The importance of this branch of
the work is increasingly recognized by all missionary
societies.-^ It may be called the left arm of mission
work, being in most cases the only means available
for getting hold of those who are to be moulded by
the hammer of Divine truth wielded by the right
arm of preaching.
X. The Pastoral Demands. — These are more
exacting than miglit be supposed, because tlie mis-
sionary is really a superintending bishop of a diocese,
with a considerable corps of native helpers, who look
up to him as their pastor, and numerous congregations
tliat depend upon him at least for the settlement of the
knotty perplexities and serious troubles, that must, in
the circumstances of the case, be numerous and obsti-
^ "Wisely have the American missionaries, like the Pilgrim Fathers,
everywhere planted the school-house side by side with the church. In these
twin buildings lies the hope of India." — Dr. F. E. Clark, Y. P. S. C E.
nate, and call for much more paternal interference
than does the care of more advanced congreffations.
For the purity and prosperity of the laborers and
congregations he must exercise a wise and constant
XI. The Homiletical Demands. — The peculiar
pressure here grows out of the importance, to the
work, of such a reputation as a preacher as will
enable the missionary to draw to the services during
his tours, the many whom the native preacher in each
station fails to reach ; so that, attracted and moved
by the missionary at first, they may become regular
attendants. He also needs, by his high standard of
preaching, to give the native preachers, whose advan-
tages are slender at best, such a stimulus and pattern
as shall give them a strong uplift
XII. The Conversational Demand. — This is
exceedingly severe. The bulk of a missionary's
time is taken up with receiving visits. The visitors
usually come in companies, and believe in long visits.
All day is not at all uncommon. These will often
begin before his morning toilet is complete, and
continue till the wee hours of the night, sometimes
with no respite even at meal time. Their fullest
play comes when he is touring, and his fatigue is
greatest and his accommodations poorest. The call-
ers represent, of course, every grade of society
and intelligence, and every shade of prejudice and
belief. Many will be as hostile to his mission as they
are respectful to his person ; painfully sensitive in
regard to anything that seems even remotely to antag-
124 WILLIAMS COLLEGE.
oiiize their habits or creeds, and quick to imagine
intended insults on the slightest pretext ; and mutual
enemies will often be present at the same time. With
little or no reading matter, they depend a good deal
upon these missionary visits for reliable information
on all points. So, also, for the settlement of many
temporal difficulties, in the absence of any other fair
and kindly tribunal to which they can resort. But
these settlements always mean long hours, if not days,
of ingenious and varied argument and pleading, in the
interests of right and godliness.
Now wherever the missionary goes, the high regard
in which he is held makes it rude for his visitors to
have much to say, and still more rude for him to have
little to say. He must not only do the bulk of the
talking, but if he pauses, it is either a slight to his
visitors, or a confession that his own ideas have run
dry, in which case something very like contempt is
apt to be noticeable.
Let no one imagine it easy to steer the bark of a
conversation so one-sided in such perilous waters for
so many consecutive hours, and combine successfully
the requisite proportions of wit, science, news, and
politics, praise, reproof, and exhortation, with that
spiritual teaching which is his special mission ; so
that those who come to him for the first time, and full
of prejudice or indifference, and those who come self-
righteous or despondent, the ignorant and the intelli-
gent, believers and unbelievers, may all receive what
will do them good. But this is the largest and most
effective instrument the missionary has to wield, and
here, first and worst, ia most cases will his incompe-
tency show itself.
While recognizing the fact that many missionaries
have occasion to serve as specialists in medical, liter-
ary, or other work, and that circumstances modify the
demands made upon many others, it yet remains true
that the average missionary needs to meet, as far as
possible, the multifold demand just outlined. And
while no one can be supposed to meet all these varied
requirements successfully, it is not high proficiency in
some lines so much as fair proficiency in many lines
that best equips the missionary volunteer. Hence
the special value of the symmetrical and many-sided
development that a college training gives, no part
of which, from the athletics to the summit of philo-
sophical studies, but will come into honorable play
upon the mission field.
To keep the best college-trained men at home
where, through the multitude of workers, the division
of labor, and the helpfulness of the environment, suc-
cess is easy and failures largely atoned for by sym-
pathetic influences ; and to send the weaker and
untrained men abroad, where the conditions are re-
versed, and where each man must be prepared to serve
as athlete, mechanic, financier, lawyer, diplomat, phy-
sician, musician, linguist, educator, pastor, preacher,
and conversationalist, — cannot be justified. It would
be like planting the sturdy oak in the sheltered and
watered valley, and the dependent vine upon the dry,
Missions are so deeply rooted at home that all
126 WILLIAMS COLLEGE.
Christendom is proud of them, and gladly contributes
annually about fifteen million dollars, entrusted to
nine thousand missionaries from two hundred and
eighty societies ; while books, by well-known authors
on both continents, not officially connected with mis-
sions, depict their wonderful success.
The trunk of this great tree represents a community
of at least four million open believers (one-fourth of
whom are communicants) who cluster about seventeen
thousand stations, where forty-five thousand native
helpers labor; and who, in their poverty, give so
largely that three of the British societies report the
gifts of their native churches as two hundred thou-
sand dollars annually ; while the ratio of growth has
already left the home churches far behind, and the
pro rata cost is also immensely in favor of the mission
The branches, too, have stretched so far that not
only the governments of Christian lands, but even
heathen sovereigns and magnates, have paid both ver-
bal and financial tribute to this great cause; while
slaving kidnappers among the savage islands con-
tribute their spontaneous testimony, w^ien, to coax the
timid islanders aboard piratical craft, they dress one
of the crew in missionary garb.
So valuable are the fruits already yielded outside
the strictly missionary lines that numerous books
have appeared, dealing wholly with the material and
intellectual indebtedness of the world to missions.
I. The contributions to science, and especially to
Philology, Geography, and Anthropology have eli-
cited from great scientists the highest encomiums.
The colossal work of translating the Scriptures, in
whole or in part, into more than three hundred
languages and dialects, many of which were first
reduced to writing and system by the missionaries, is
of itself an incomparable contribution to Philology,
better appreciated when w^e recall what time and
pains each English version cost.
II. The contributions to the commerce of the world
are such that it is estimated that in Polynesia, every
missionary stimulates a trade worth fifty times his
salary, and that the American plows alone, sent to
Natal, would meet all the expenses of the mission
III. The contributions to the politics of nations have
also been enormous, so that the great historians, states-
men, and journalists combine in one inspiring chorus
lY. The contributions to civilisation and pure phi-
lanthropy head the list, of course. The latest and
brightest conspicuous example is Africa, with her
Living-stone and his successors. The Reform Move-
ments that in various countries aim at the suppression
of native evils, such as the suttee and child-widow-
hood, infanticide, human sacrifices, and cannibalism;
or of imported evils, such as the traffic in slaves and
chastity, fire-arms, liquors, and opium, — all have
their mainspring in Christian missions.
But even now this flourishing tree is still a stripling,
and full of buds of promise rather than of ripened
fruit ; while the fruit already borne is mostly of the
128 WILLIAMS COLLEGE.
intangible sort tliat, like all spiritual forces, no one
Not only are the greatest results still in the future,
but the greatest struggles too, no doubt, and in view of
the ''tug of war" that looms up before us, there never
was more need than now for the college and the
mission to swear fresh loyalty and stand together.
Whatever missions mean to Christian civilization,
that they also mean, pre-eminently, to the college,
which is the cream of this civilization.
Now Christian missions mean an honest effort, —
1. To obey the clear and most emphatic Divine
commands to fill the world with Gospel truth. This
is a debt of loyal Obedience.
2. To pay as much as possible toward the dis-
charge of the enormous debt owing to missions, from
the time that the Great First Missionary left regions
of light for those of darkness, and the Throne for the
Cross ; or that His chief Lieutenant gave to the
Church and world those matchless Epistles, every
one of which was written to mission churches, up to
the latest of the contributions we have just enumerated.
The Christianizing of our pagan British ancestors ;
the colonial impulse that crystallized on Plymouth
Eock ; the securing in Revolutionary days the friend-
ship of the '' Six Indian Nations ; " the preservation of
our Northwest Territories in Whitman's time ; the es-
tablishment of many of our colleges, such as Hamilton
and Dartmouth ; the deliverance of Protestant Chris-
tendom a century ago from rank rationalism and rigid
ritualism, and the phenomenal growth and excellence
of our college system, — all have in Christian missons
their immediate spring-. This debt is one of Honor.
3. To offset as much as possible that stream of
corruption which has borne from Christian to heathen
lands, by means of our marine and military, tourists
and traders, a dread infection of infidel ideas and
vicious practices, and to supply with better beliefs
the intelligent multitude abroad, whose superstitious,
puerile faiths, our civilization has demolished. This
is a debt of Justice.
4. To mitigate the multiform distress that hangs
like a pall over all heathen peoples, dwarfing, crushing,
and destroying them; in recognition of Christian
stewardship that looks up to God as Father, and
the Christian communism that looks out to every
human being as a brother. Brotherly interest in our
distant fellow-man is missions. This is a debt of
Compassion and Gratitude.
5. To realize the highest type of goodness, — self-
sacrifice ; and particularly the highest type of virtue,
— that which takes hold of subjects who have the
least natural claim, through distance, prejudice, and
Mere culture is intensely selfish, and, as such, is not
only impotent but pernicious. The Duke of Welling-
ton made no mistake when he said, '' Mere culture
apart from the moral element makes clever devils."
Culture is like the sun, that acts upon all within
its range centripetally only, and must be restrained
from its destructive tendencies by those more power-
ful centrifugal forces above and beyond it, of which
130 WILLIAMS COLLEGE.
science has only lately caught a gleam ; and of which,
as related to culture, our Christian civilization has
but just seen a glimmering dawn.
The highest ideals of unselfishness can only express
themselves in missions, and this fact alone ought to
bind together forever the college and the mission.
The larg-est, richest wish that we can tender to our
Alma Mater on this her Centennial Birthday, is that
she may maintain the lead she took so long ago
in Christian missions !
MONDAY, OCTOBER NINTH.
BY DEAN H. P. JUDSOK
THE RELATION OF THE SECONDARY SCHOOL TO
^ I "HE development of education in the United States
quite naturally has been like that of our polit-
ical institutions. It has grown from beneath, instead
of being imposed from above by the anxious forecast
of a paternal government. Educational institutions
have been local, individual, spontaneous, in their
origin. Freedom is always a foe to uniformity, and
so schools and their curricula from the first have been
a pretty fair reflex of the multifarious notions of a
great variety of communities. It is true that many
schools have a general similarity in many points.
This comes, of course, from their common origin, and
from the similar conditions under which our widely-
scattered commonwealths have worked out the prob-
lems of civic life. And yet, notwithstanding this
superficial similarity, a deeper study gives a pro-
found impression of confusion. There is confusion in
methods, confusion in courses of study, confusion in
quality of work. This is true of higher education.
It is true of secondary education. It is yet more
markedly true of the two systems as related to each
other. There is much college teaching which begins
134 WILLIAMS COLLEGE.
nowhere. There is much academy teaching which
leads nowhere. Only a small fraction of our high-
school graduates ever reach the college. And those
who do are as unlike one another in degree and char-
acter of preparation as they are in outlines of physi-
ognomy. A despairing professor of Latin once told
me that his freshmen knew as many kinds of Latin
grammar as they had varieties of nose.
The colleges and the secondary schools do not at
all points articulate.
In the States political order has come out of polit-
ical chaos. The nation of to-day has replaced the dis-
cordant thirteen commonwealths of 1787. We have
learned to combine a large degree of local freedom
with a large degree of unity of national life.
In education, however, local autonomy is yet su-
preme. The school and the college are each virtu-
ally an end unto itself It is only a moral influence
which Williams exerts on other colleges. It is only
an incidental and indirect influence which it exerts in
the preparatory schools. And these schools have little
to do one with another, and still less to do in shaping
the policy of the college. Each local community is
quite independent of every other.
Now, of course, there is no small advantage in this
vigor of local independence. The kind of education
furnished is a direct outgrowth of the popular wants,
and so has a more tenacious hold on the public in-
terest. Moreover, whatever else it lacks, it certainly
tends to create originality and strength of character.
And all these are things worth having.
Still, the lack of adjustment and harmony in our
educational system means on the whole a decided
waste of energy. And sound educational science
implies economy of effort.
Every piece of educational work should be defi-
nitely related to something else. Everything wrought
should be the immediate means of further accomplish-
ment. School curricula should not be mere blind
alleys. They should lead somewhere. There should
be the same economy of intellectual expenditure and
the same accurate adjustment of means to ends that
makes the success of a cotton factory or of a bank.
But, in many schools, the teacher ladles out knowl-
edge as if the Atlantic Ocean were his tureen, and it
mattered little how much may be spilled.
Waste of time, waste of effort, waste of knowledge,
— these are too common.
One form which the incoherence of our systems
assumes is the introduction of mere chance in the
direction given to a boy's education.
Undoubtedly, a considerable majority of those who
finish a course of study in a high-school or academy
never would go further in education. That must
always be the case.
But it is also true, as Herbert Spencer puts it, that
motion takes place along the line of least resistance.
If you make it especially difficult for a boy to get to
college, he is apt to drift away from it. Conversely,
if no especial intellectual obstacles lie between him
and a college course, then the decision will depend on
quite other considerations. And these will often be
136 WILLIAMS COLLEGE.
sufficient to turn him into other lines of Hfe. Surely
there is no need to multiply artificial and unnecessary
barriers between the boy and the freshman class.
Of course it is by no means desirable that every
hig'h-school boy should take a college course. Still
it seems to me that this is axiomatic : there ought to be
in the nature of a school curriculum no insuperable
difficulties calculated to make it impossible for the
student who finishes it to go a step higher.
But, to-day, just those difficulties exist in a great
majority of schools. As curricula are laid down,
certain lines of study lead directly to college.
Certain other lines lead just as definitely away from
college. When a boy starts out in one of these
lines, which he takes is quite as often a matter
of chance as of intelligent choice. Some parents
definitely intend to send their boys to college.
Others as definitely intend not to do so. But a
very considerable proportion have no intention at all
on the subject. They merely send their boys to
school, and what is done afterwards will depend
largely on what sort of tastes and capabilities the
boys manifest while there. And if the parent's mind
is blank as to the future, much more is tliat of the
urchin himself. He knows nothing about education,
nothing about himself, nothing about the world.
He merely tumbles into some sort of combination
of studies, and tumbles out of it into whatever
happens to come next.
In other words, what I insist is, that it is the merest
chance that brings many students to college, and the
merest cliance tliat keeps many others out. And
this predominance of chance is largely due to our
helter-skelter system, or no system, of organizing our
various educational institutions with reference one to
The problem, then, is : Can we preserve the advan-
tages of local freedom of control, and yet secure such
unity of adjustment as to save waste of educational
effort, and eliminate this chance-medley from school-
training, substituting for it the possibility of intelligent
I think it can be done. And if so, it must be by
such agreement and adjustment among the colleges
and schools that this fundamental principle of organi-
zation is firmly established : every course of study
in every secondary school shall always lead directly
to some course of study in some college.
Such agreement and adjustment mean nothing else
than a somewhat definite federation among our insti-
tutions of higher and secondary learning. This is
better than the uniformity of State control, because it
is free, it is natural, it is in strict accord with the
genius of institutions with which we are entirely
Such federation should include, not colleges alone,
not secondary schools alone, but both ; and those
not in one State or section, but in the nation at
And obviously, also, such combined action must be