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kansas city
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San Francisco, California
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THE WISCONSIN
ARCHEOLO6IST




THE MOLASH CREEK RED OCHER BURIAL
by John R. Halsey

THE POPE SITE

by Robert Ritzenthaler

THE INFLUENCE OF THE CLIMATE
OF THE 1820's AND 1830's
by Sharon Hastenrath

AN EIGHTEENTH CENTURY INDIAN SITE
IN THE MICHIGAN UPPER PENINSULA
by Robert Ritzenthaler

THE BOOKSHELF



15
20

40
42



WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Incorporated, 1903

For the purpose of advancing the study and preservation of
Wisconsin Indian Antiquities

Meets Third Monday of Month, 8 P. M., Milwaukee Public
Museum, September thru May



OFFICERS

PRESIDENT

Neil Ostberg

VICE - PRESIDENTS

Paul A. Koeppler, Allen Prill, Thomas Kehoe, Wayne J. Hazlett

TREASURER

Leonard Fonder, 5719 N. 73rd. St., Milwaukee, Wis. 53218

SECRETARY

Mrs. Edward Flaherty, N62-W15127 Tepee Ct, Menomonee Falls, Wis. 52

EDITOR

Dr. James B. Stoltman

DIRECTORS

Dr. Robert E. Ritzenthaler, Paul Turney, Phillip Wiegand

ADVISORY COUNCIL

G. Richard Peske, Robert Hruska, Dr. Joan E. Freeman, J. K. Whaley, Fn
Squire, W. O. Noble, Robert J. Salzer, E. K. Petrie, Dr. Melvin Fowler, Rol
Vander Leest. Elmer Daalmann, Gale Highsmith, Thomas Jackland, Hi
Brown, John R. Halsey, Dr. James Norton, Keith Schultz, Judith Pii
Thomas T. Struebing.

BUSINESS AGENT

Wayne J. Hazlett, 3768 S. 89th St., Milwaukee, Wis. 53228



MEMBERSHIP FEES

The Wisconsin Archeologist is distributed to members

as part of their dues.

Annual Members, $5.50



All communications in regard to the Wisconsin Archeological Society
and contributions to the Wisconsin Archeologist should be addressed to
Mrs. Edward Flaherty, Secretary, N62-W15127 Tepee Ct., Menomonee
Falls, Wis. 53051. Entered as Second Class Matter at the Post Office at
Lake Mills, Wis., under the Act of August 21, 1912. Office of Publica-
tion, 316 N. Main St., Lake Mills Wis. 53551.



THE WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST

New Scries

MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN - MARCH, 1972
Published Quarterly by The Wisconsin Archeological Society

THE MOLASH CREEK RED OCHER BURIAL

John R. Halsey
State Historical Society of Wisconsin



Although the Molash Creek burial first came to light
March 20, 1898 and was mentioned in print soon after
(Hamilton, 1898) and has subsequently been referred to
in numerous publications (Brown, 1905; Brown, 1907;
Brown, 1915; Falge, 1915; Brown, 1940; Quimby, 1958;
Faulkner, 1962; and Ritzenthaler and Quimby, 1962), it
has never been adequately described and the references
listed above merely mention the numbers of artifacts and
the types of artifacts found. These artifacts presently
constitute part of the large collection donated to the State
Historical Society of Wisconsin by the noted collector and
industrialist, Henry Pierpont. Hamilton, of Two Rivers,
Wisconsin.

Hamilton describes the finding of this burial as follows:

. . .It was. on this site, four miles north of the city
limits (Two Rivers) that this discovery was made.
Two boys were walking over the tract looking for
relics and one of them stepped on a r heap of flint disks
but slightly covered, and the rubbing of the flints
attracted his attention, when an examination was made.
One hundred disks from two to four inches long were
taken out of this deposit, and one large flint, shown in
the center of the cut, is ten and a fourth inches long and
most beautifully made. This was all that was discovered
on that day, and the boys returned to the city without
having extended their investigation further, as they had
no tools with them for digging. On the next day they
returned to the place with shovels, and after sinking a
trench about two feet in depth they came to an ocherous
deposit about three inches thick of a reddish brown color.
In this there were small fragments of bones badly



2 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 53, No. 1

decayed which crumbled to small particles when
exposed to the atmosphere. . . .The ocherous deposit
mentioned above was of considerable extent, but I
have not been able to ascertain its nature. It had
stained most of the disks with its own color. The human
bones imbedded in it had so far decayed that I was
unable to preserve any of them; but a careful exam-
ination at the time of their discovery might have
resulted in better success. Unfortunately the deposit
was uncovered in a careless and hasty manner by the
boys, who had no idea of the value of close observation;
their only object being to secure relics (Hamilton,
1898, pp. 158-159).

The site was located in Section 29, R-25-E, T-20-N,
Town of Two Rivers, Manitowoc County, Wisconsin. Quimby
(1958, p. 176) states that the site was near the bank of
Molash Creek about one-half mile from its mouth.

The most striking artifact in the Molash Creek find is
a large bifacial blade (Plate 1A). This specimen is 259
mm. long, 39 mm. wide and 12 mm. thick. It is made on a
pinkish-white flint that may actually be called flesh-colored.
There is some purplish mottling toward the tip. Approxi-
mately one half of the blade has a different surface texture,
although whether this is due to exposure and weathering in
the burial or whether it was on the original nodule is
uncertain. The presence of a fairly consistent ocher stain
the length of the blade suggests that the latter is the case.
The primary flaking is undistinguished and the secondary
retouch gives the edges a somewhat serrated appearance.
The tip terminates in a rather blunted point and the base
is irregularly convex. This specimen does not appear to
have been used as a tool.

A copper knife or spear point was also found in
association with this burial (Plate 1 E). It is 134 mm. long,
has a maximum width of 34.0 mm. and is 3 mm. thick.
There are impressions of what appear to be animal fur
preserved in the green copper salts. Also visible on the
surface of the copper blade itself are small striae or
scratches which tend to parallel the long axis of the blade.
The tang of the blade is somewhat unusual. It represents
31 mm. of the total length of the implement. It has been
battered on both edges and has a somewhat crudely



The Molash Creek Red Ocher Burial



I




C D



CESSES



4CMV

j X*?**;








Plate 1.



4 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 53, No. 1

serrated or scalloped appearance. This treatment was
apparently to make the tang less mobile in the haft. The
patination and corrosion on the tang is of a different nature
than that on the rest of the blade indicating that it probably
was hafted at the time of burial. The edges of the blade
are too heavily corroded and eroded to indicate clearly
whether or not this implement was used as a knife or a
spear. This point or knife does not seem to be an example
of any of the types established by Wittry (19$7, pp. 214-
215).

There were originally four stemmed projectile points
found with the burial. Three of them are still in the
collection, the fourth having been given many years ago to
the geology museum of the University of Wisconsin and
has since been lost (Plate 1 B-D). All three have ovate
blades with straight stems and relatively straight bases.
On two of them, the bases are actually remnants of the
striking platform of the original flake blank. All three
could .have been and probably were made from ovate-
triangular bifaces similar if not identical to those
described below. They are made on chert which can be
duplicated in the above-mentioned bifaces. The metrical
attributes are presented in Table 1.

There are presently 46 of 110 copper beads originally
found available for study (Plate 1 F). For some unknown
reason a necklace of small copper beads was not included
with the rest of the collection when it was donated to the
State Historical Society. They range in size from 5.5 to
23.25 mm. in length, 7 to 21 mm. in diameter and have a
wall thickness ranging from 1.5 to 8 mm. The majority
are quite thick, heavy and crudely worked. Short strips
of copper 1.5 to 4 mm. long were probably hammered out

Table 1
Metrics of Stemmed Projectile Points (mm. )



Length


Width


Thickness


Minimum Stem
Diameter


Base to Minimum
Stem Diameter


79.0


30. 5


11.5


19.0


19.0


69.


38.


10.


21. 5


15.0


63. 5


30.


8.


23.0


18.0



Che Molash Creek Red Ocher Burial



Length


Diameter


Thickness


46


46




46


591.75


551.


59


128.25


8222. 3125


6963.


5017


392.8125


12.86


11.


99


2.79


3.66


2.


76


.87


.285




230


.311


23.25- 5. 5


21.


0-7.0


6. 0- 1.5



Table 2
Metrical Summary of Large Copper Beads (mm. )



N

Sx

Sx 2

X~

s

V

Range

flat and then formed into a roughly cylindrical shape,
frequently creating beads which have a hole with a triangular
cross section. There is often a considerable amount of
overlap between the two ends of the strip. It is difficult
to say what the relationship between the two groups of beads
(the large ones described here and the missing small ones)
was, as there is no evidence in the original description
specifically stating the spatial relationship between the two
groups, if in fact there was one. It seems more likely that
all the beads were originally part of one necklace. A
summary of the metrics is presented in Table 2.

There was also a stone bead present in the original find
but it too is missing.

There are 165 unstemmed bifaces exclusive of the large
"dagger." There is a seemingly great diversity in the
types of stone used, but this is an illusion. In a preliminary
sorting attempt, twelve major categories of chert were
distinguished, with twelve more represented by single
specimens. This problem of the number of types presenl
was further compounded by one specimen which contained
as the matrix and inclusions, no less than three of the
major stone types distinguished. Another limiting factor
was the desirability of maintaining the ocher stain on the
surface, as these were to be used in an exhibit on "Red
Ocher" cache blades. Most of the stone appears to be
derived from small nodules or pebbles probably obtained



6 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 53, No. 1

from the beach. This material is generally gray to light
grayish green in color and some of it is bajided in concentric
rings. Much of the material appears to be cortical in nature
rather than good "solid" chert. This is another confusing
factor since the texture of the chert from the interior and
that from the exterior of a nodule may be quite different.
There is only one "foreign" piece in the whole series.
This particular specimen is made of what appears to be
Indiana hornstone, a fine gray, homogeneous flint found in
southern Indiana and other areas along the Ohio River. The
hornstone itself is present on only one end of the artifact
and the rest is a much lighter gray chert, entirely different
in appearance.

For descriptive purposes, these 165 bifaces have been
divided into three groups: (I-) bipointed ellipsoidal (Plate
2 A-H); (II-) ovate triangular with convex base (Plate 2
I-P); (III-) ovate triangular with a more or less straight
base (Plate 2 Q-Y).

Type I. As an average this group was longer, slenderer
and thinner than the other two groups. There were 13
specimens, 7.9% of the total bifaces, in this category. The

primary flaking is quite crude on all of these specimens
and in most cases the only secondary retouch is confined
to the very edge. -On three specimens, the only chipping
done on the ventral surface of the flake was to remove the
positive bulb of percussion created when the flake was
removed from the core. The flake-blank orientation
appeared to be proximal or distal rather than oblique or
transverse (Binford, 1963). All seem to have been used.
Type II. This group is the most numerous of the three
containing 116 of the 165 total bifaces or 70.3%. These are
typically slightly less than twice as long as they are wide
with a convex base and generally convex sides. Twenty-four
of these have remnants of the striking platform for the
flake blank still visible and it is invariably at the basal end
either directly in line with the long axis of the flake or off
to one side slightly near one of the rounded corners of the
base. Usually only primary flaking is present. Nearly all
of these appear to have been utilized as tools. Some were
apparently hafted, pointed end first with the base being used
as the working edge of a scraper. In this process small
flakes were removed from the "up" or dorsal side of the
tool. Others show use as knives and scrapers. A frequent







The Molash Creek Red Orher Hurhil




II








O H




. . .



I







K



11



M N








Q R






II

A A A



W X



Plate 2.



8 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 53, No. 1

use pattern noted here is a series of small use flakes
removed along one edge, usually toward the base on one
surface. When the reverse side of the tool is looked at
the usage chips are in the same position. In other words
the edges have been alternately utilized and flaked in the
same manner that creates beveled-edge projectile points.
The implement was used for a while on one edge and then
simply flipped over and the opposite side brought into play.
A lesser number of the. tools show use chipping on both

Table 3
Metrical Summary for Type I Bifaces (mm. )



N
Sx
Sx 2
X

s
V
Range



Length


Width Thickness


13


13




13


848.0


370.


5


108.


55827.0


10682.


75


927.


65.23


28.


50


8.31


6.27


3.


08


1. 50


.096


.


108


. 181


73.0- 57.


33.


0- 24.


11. 0- 7.



Table 4

Metrical Summary for Type II Bifaces (mm. )
Length Width Thickness



N


116




116




116


Sx


7494.





3892.





1048.5


Sx 2


490761.


5


132072.


5


9662.75


X


64.


60


33.


55


9. 04


s


7.


58


3.


60


1.25


V




117


.


107


. 138


Range


92.


5-48.


5 47.


0- 28.


12. 5- 6.0



The Molash Creek Red Ocher Burial

Table 5
Metrical Summary for Type III Bifaces (mm. )



Length


Width


Thickness


36


36


36


2143. 5


1203.


305. 5


129018.25


40641.0


2642.25


59. 54


33.42


8.49


6.23


3.46


1. 14


. 105


. 104


.134


70.0- 45.5


41.0- 28.


5 12.0-7.0



N = Sample size or total number of specimens.

Sx = Total of measurements.

Sx 2 = Total of the squares of individual measurements.

X = Mean or average measurement.

s = Standard deviation. This is a statistical term indicating that under
a normal distribution curve roughly two- thirds of the specimens
will fall within one standard deviation on either side of the mean.
Fox example, taking the width category for Type I bifaces, 8 of
the 13 specimens fall between 9.81 mm. and 6.81 mm.

V = Coefficient of Variability. This shows the size of the standard
deviation relative to the mean. In other words, again taking
Type I bifaces as an example, even though length has a much
larger standard deviation than thickness, the attribute of length
shows relatively less variability than does thickness.



sides of one edge or with all use chips on one side of
biface.

Type III. Type III is not much different than Type II
except that it has a more or less straight base. There are
36 of these (21.8%). Fifteen have a portion of the bulb of
percussion present at the base of the artifact. These bulb
remnants are positioned exactly like those of Type II and



10 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 53, No. 1

in several cases they comprise the entire base. These also
bear the same usage marks as noted for Type II. Metrical
summaries for all three types are presented in Tables 3-5.



DISCUSSION

The Molash Creek burial was included by Ritzenthaler
and Quimby in their 1962 definition of the Red Ocher Culture
and was even called "typical" (p. 256) although it lacked
one of the three distinctive nuclear traits, turkey-tail
blades. Nevertheless it does contain five of the seven major
nuclear traits, lacking in addition to the turkey-tails only
tubular marine shell beads. As it is not my purpose to
undertake another major survey or updating of the Red
Ocher Culture, my remarks will be fairly short.

The large blade generally conforms quite well to the
description given by Ritzenthaler and Quimby (p. 247) but
it is the slenderest of any of those observed in the
literature and is slightly below the average length for
this class of artifacts.

The copper knife or spear point is one of three reported
for Red Ocher sites in Wisconsin. The Molash Creek
specimen is the smallest of the three in all dimensions.
Quimby (1957, p. 3) noted that the copper blade from Port
Washington fit none of the established categories of Old
Copper implements although he goes on to say that this
form has been found with typical Old Copper specimens at
two sites (unnamed) in Michigan. The Molash Creek specimen
is similar to that from' Port Washington and also does not
fall into any of the Old Copper types and would seem to be
distinctive of Red Ocher although obviously descended from
Old Copper.

The large copper beads are quite similar to those
described from Carey (Brown, 1916), Thiensville (Ritzen-
thaler and Niehoff, 1958), Stoughton (Brown, 1916), Peterson
(Faulkner, 1960), Morse (Morse, 1959), Banner (Morse
1959), Dyer (Quimby, 1960), Sny-Magill Mound 43 (Beaubien
1953) and Harpers Ferry (Beaubien, 1953). Almost identical
beads are found in Glacial Kame burials such as the
Zimmerman site, the Burch site (Cunningham, 1948), and
several lots which I have seen in the Ohio State Museum
from sites in Ohio.



The Molash Creek Red Ocher Burial 11

The ovate-trianguloid blades can only generally be
compared with those from other Red Ocher sites as there is
usually only a tabulation of the number present with no
metrical information beyond general size range. Bearing
this in mind, a survey of the literature indicates that the
Molash Creek population of blades has a larger range of
sizes and is on the average larger than any other group.
Only the quartzite blades from Port Washington approximate
this size range. The only reports having any comparable
metrical data are those of Binford (1963 and 1963a)
concerning caches from Michigan. Once again these prove
to be considerably smaller than the Molash Creek specimens
and have a smaller range of variation in all dimensions.

The stemmed projectile points are fairly indicative of
a Late Archaic-Early Woodland time horizon and appear
rather similar to those from the Red Ocher type site
F 11 in Fulton County, Illinois (Cole and Deuel, 1937,
Fig. 19), and those illustrated by Quimby (1957, Fig. 2).
They are virtually identical to those illustrated by Morse
(1959, Fig. 5) and Beaubien (1953, Fig. 21, c,f). A stemmed
point or drill was present in an elaborate Red Ocher burial
from Empire Township, Fond du Lac County (Rueping,
1944, p. 14 and Ritzenthaler, 1965, p. 145) and a large
stemmed point, 8 1/2 inches long is reported from the
Whitefish Bay site in Door County (Brown, 1907, p. 62;
Brown, 1924, p. 70; Schumacher, 1918, p. 141).

Since projectile points, stemmed and notched, occur at
as many of the type sites used by Ritzenthaler and Quimby
(1962) as do large ceremonial flint knives and occur at
more sites than do worked copper, tubular marine shell
beads and all of the peripheral traits listed by Ritzenthaler
and Quimby, it would seem prudent to consider them more
closely in future analyses of the Red Ocher Culture.

The dating of this site was discussed previously by
Quimby (1958) and he came to the conclusion that it belonged
in the time period between 900 B.C. and 400 B.C. At the
present time there seems to be no new evidence suggesting
a date other than in this time span.

The purpose of this brief article was to describe in detail
the artifacts discovered in a Red Ocher Culture burial
discovered in 1898 and to provide a comparison with some
similar artifacts from elsewhere in the state of Wisconsin
and also Illinois and Indiana. Even though it contained



12 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 53, No. 1

nothing really unusual I think it is important that every
such find be reported in as great detail as possible to
facilitate future syntheses of the Late Archaic -Early
Woodland time level in the Midwest.



BIBLIOGRAPHY

Barrett, S.A. and Alanson Skinner

1932 Certain Mounds and Village Sites of Shawano and
Oconto Counties, Wisconsin. BULLETIN OF THE
PUBLIC MUSEUM OF THE CITY OF MILWAU-
KEE, Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 401-552. Milwaukee.

Beaubien, Paul L.

1953 Cultural Variation within Two Woodland Mound
Groups of Northeastern Iowa. AMERICAN ANTI-
QUITY, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 56-66. Salt Lake City.

Binford, Lewis R.

1963 "Red Ocher" Caches from the Michigan Area: A
Possible Case of Cultural Drift. SOUTHWESTERN
JOURNAL OF ANTHROPOLOGY, Vol. 19, No. 1,
pp. 89-108. Albuquerque.

1963a The Pomranky Site: A Late Archaic Burial
Station: In Miscellaneous Studies in Typology and
Classification, ANTHROPOLIGAL PAPERS,
MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY, UNIVERSITY
OF MICHIGAN, No. 19, pp. 149-192. Ann Arbor.

Brown, Charles E.

1905a The State Fair Exhibit of the Wisconsin Archeo-

logical Society. THE WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST,

Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 201-221. Madison.
1905b Wisconsin Caches. RECORDS OF THE PAST,

Vol. 4, Part 3, pp. 83-95. Washington, D.C.
1907 The Implement Caches of the Wisconsin Indians.

THE WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST, Vol. 6, No. 2,

pp. 47-70. Madison.
1915 Ceremonial Knives. THE WISCONSIN ARCHEO-



The Molash Creek Red Ocher Burial 13

LOGIST, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 176-181. Milwaukee.
1916 Archaeological History of Milwaukee County. THE

WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp.

25-105. Milwaukee.
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WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp.

65-82. Milwaukee.

1940 Red Paint with Wisconsin Burials. THE WIS-
CONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp.

74-76. Milwaukee.

Cole, Fay-Cooper and Thorne Deuel

1937 Rediscovering Illinois. The University of Chicago
Press. Chicago.

Falge, Louis

1915 Indian Remains in Manitowoc County. THE WIS-
CONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp.
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Faulkner, Charles H.

1961 The Red Ochre Culture: An Early Burial Complex
in Northern Indiana. THE WISCONSIN ARCHEOLO-
GIST, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 35-49. Lake Mills.

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SIN ARCHEOLOGIST, Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 1-8,
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Hamilton, H.P.

1898 Letter to the Editor. THE AMERICAN ARCHAE-
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Hruska, Robert

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in Michigan. THE WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST,
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Morse, Dan F.

1959 Preliminary Report on a Red Ocher Mound at the
Morse Site, Fulton County, Illinois. PAPERS OF
THE MICHIGAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, ARTS
AND LETTERS, Vol. 44, pp. 193-207. Ann Arbor.



14 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST Vol. 53, No. 1

Quimby, George I.

1957 An Old Copper Site ? at Port Washington. THE
WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp.
1-5. Lake Mills.

1958 Late Archaic Culture and the Algoma Beach in the
Lake Michigan Basin. THE WISCONSIN ARCHEO-
LOGIST, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp. 175-179. Lake Mills.

1960a Burial Yields Clews to Red Ocher Culture.
CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM BUL-
LETIN, Vol. 31, No. 2, p. 5. Chicago.

1960b INDIAN LIFE IN THE UPPER GREAT LAKES.
The University of Chicago Press. Chicago.



Ritzenthaler, Robert

1965 A Red Ocher Site in Fond du Lac County. THE
WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST, Vol. 46, No. 2,
pp. 143-147. Lake Mills.

Ritzenthaler, Robert and Arthur Niehoff

1958 A Red Ochre Burial in Ozaukee County. THE
WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST, Vol. 39, No. 2,
pp. 115-120. Lake Mills.

Ritzenthaler, Robert and George I. Quimby

1962 The Red Ocher Culture of the Upper Great Lakes
and Adjacent Areas. FIELDIANA ANTHROPOL-
OGY, Vol. 36, No. 11, pp. 243-275. Chicago.

Rueping, Henry J.

1944 A Fond du Lac Gravel Pit Burial. THE WIS-
CONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp.
13-16. Milwaukee.



Schumacher, J.P.

1918 Indian Remains in Door County. THE WIS-
CONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp.
125-145. Milwaukee.

Wittry, Warren L.

1957 A Preliminary Study of the Old Copper Complex.
THE WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST, Vol. 38, No. 4,
-pp. 204-221. Lake Mills.



The Molash Creek Red Ocher Burial 15

Wray, Donald E.



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