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siderable ceremony, including a feast given by the owner.

The men were all good hunters and fishermen and general-
ly kept their families well supplied with meat and fish.
They had interesting customs connected with the hunting
of the deer and bear, and with the trapping of the muskrat
and beaver. Fish were speared, shot with the bow and ar-
row, caught with fishlines and seines, and trapped with fish-
traps built with boulders across streams. Pewaukee lake
was a particularly noted fishing ground. Fish were split,
smoked and sun-dried for later or winter use. They were
stored for use during the winter season in shallow pits or
caches dug in the ground and lined with leaves or bark.

There were corn fields near all of their more permanent
villages, those at Waukesha and Mukwonago being particu-
larly extensive. According to Solomon Juneau the Indians
at the latter village produced as much as 5,000 bushels in a
single year. Corn was planted in large hills, the same hills
being used year after year. The Indians also grew at their
planting grounds beans, pumpkins, gourds and tobacco. A
favorite dish of the natives was tassimanomin, made by
boiling together corn, wild rice and fish, and seasoning it
with herbs and berries. Maple sugar took the place of salt
in their cooking.

Before their contact with white men the Potawatomi made
pottery vessels of several shapes and sizes, mixing the clay
with crushed stone and baking them in a hot fire. Frag-
ments of some of these and a few unbroken vessels have
been obtained from their former village sites. They also
made and used wooden bowls, mortars, spoons and ladles.

They used dugout canoes which they hewed out of bass-
wood and other logs. Some'of these have been recovered
from the bottoms of southern Wisconsin lakes and streams.
They made woven bags of wild hemp, nettle, basswood, cedar
and other fibres. These the Wisconsin and Kansas Pota-
watomi still continue to make. The weapons of the Indians
were the wooden war club, the spear and the bow and ar-
row. They were fond of sports. At Mukwonago and Mil-



Pine, Beaver and North Lakes. 17

waukee a favorite sport was pony racing, these races being
often of a wild and exciting character.

The Waukesha County Potawatomi * "buried" some of
their dead above ground, the corpse being wrapped in a
blanket and seated on the ground. With it were placed a
pipe, tobacco and food. The burial was then surrounded
with an enclosure of branches to protect it from wild ani-
mals and birds. Sometimes the corpse was tied to a tree
trunk, or placed in the limbs of a tree. Other burials were
made in shallow graves and covered with logs or stones.
These several types of burial may have been those of differ-
ent tribal clans. Well-known burial places were at Wau-
kesha, Mukwonago, Pewaukee and Big Muskego, and small-
er cemeteries elsewhere in the county.

Alanson Skinner has recovered in recent years much in-
formation concerning the social life, material culture,
mythology and folklore of the Prairie Potawatomi of Wis-
consin and Kansas.*

In 'The Potawatomi" the late Publius V; Larson has re-
corded the history of both divisions of this once numerous
tribe.*

PINE LAKE REDMEN

Old settlers of the Town of Merton and of adjoining Wau-
kesha townships, some of whom were interviewed on this
subject years ago, all stated that Indians were still quite
numerous in the region of the Chenequa lakes in the late
thirties and early forties and continued to camp or pass
through the lake country for many years afterwards.

John H. Hall, one of these stalwart pioneers, who settled
in Merton township in 1842, stated that at this time : "This
land was accessible by Indian trails. Indians of the Pota-
watomi and Menomonie tribes were numerous, and all kinds
of game was plentiful."

"Mrs. Abner Dayton, daughter of James and Barbara Gib
son Rea, came to Merton township with her parents in 1843
Mrs. Dayton well-remembered the Indians having a camp

* Bulls., Milw. Pub. Mus. 1924_27.

* Wis. Archeologist, 19_2, 1920.



18 WISCONSIN ARCHEOT.OGIST. Vol. 10, No. 1

near her home." Other old settlers, now dead, had similar
stories to relate about the Indians who were always friend-
ly and to whom they occasionally gave food, clothing and
shelter.

Mr. Christ. Schwartz (N. C. Schwartz), a resident of
Chenequa, states that in his boyhood, in about the year 1869
and later, groups of Potawatomi from Pewaukee lake came
to Pine lake to spear and trap muskrats. There were some-
times as many as fifty Indians, men, women and children,
in these groups. They erected their lodges in the sheltered
hollow on the south shore of Beaver lake, south of the high
knoll upon which the Interlaken hotel buildings now stand.
This hollow is situated between the highway, which follows
the old Indian trail, and the lake shore. These lodges were
built of poles leaning together in the form of a cone and the
wooden framework was covered with skins, cloth and blan-
kets. Such lodges were quickly erected and as quickly taken
down again when necessary. There were at times ten or a
dozen such dwellings in the hollow. They but seldom re-
mained here for more than a week or two, then moving on
to North lake or Okauchee lake.

The nearby muskrat hunting ground of the Indians was
in Tuley's (Wilson's) bay of Pine lake in a reedy marsh
extending from opposite the Chenequa hotel property south-
ward across the bay to the wooded Niedecken point. Their
muskrat spears were long pointed and barbed iron rods in-
serted in or bound to a stout wooden handle. They speared
the rats through their houses, seeming to know just where
they were. Muskrats were prepared for eating by skin-
ning and roasting them in the fire, or by cooking the meat
in kettles. Some of the meat -was cut into strips and dried.
These Indians had no ponies. They had a number of dogs.
The last Indians to camp at this end of Pine lake on the
Beaver lake shore came in the year 1881.

Mr. Charles Rudberg, whose father, John 0. Rudberg,
settled on the northeast shore of Pine lake in 1842, says that
the Indians came from Pewaukee lake over the trail now
followed in a general way by the highway on the east side
of Pine lake and running between Pine and Beaver lakes.
In his father's time they passed over this trail, going and
coming, in numbers in both the spring and the autumn. He



Pine, Beaver and North Lakes. 19

does not remember that they had any guns. They used the
bow and arrow in hunting.

The Indians at some time or other camped on nearly
every sheltered point and bay on the shores of Pine and also
upon the shores of Beaver and North lakes of the Chenequa
lake group. Mud lake was a muskrat hunting and trapping
ground. They were chiefly Prairie Potawatomi (Mashko-
tens) with occasionally a few Menomini or Chippewa among
them. These Potawatomi appear to have chiefly come from
the Indian villages at Pewaukee and Waukesha, 6 1/2 and
10 miles distant by trail, or from the nearby smaller village
site at the head of Nagawicka lake. Some were from Pike
lake at Hartford. Others came from even greater distances.
Family or larger groups of Menomini came to or through
the region from their villages at Menomonee Falls fourteen
or more miles to the northeast or from the "Wild Marsh"
camp south of it. Some Indians were always moving over
the trail toward Milwaukee or westward to the Four Lakes.
Groups of Winnebago Indians also occasionally passed over
the Chenequa trails on their way to the Rock river and Lake
Koshkonong.

Among the Potawatomi chiefs who visited the Chenequa
region was Kewaskum (Kiwaskum, "goes-back-on-his-
tracks") who had a village at Pike lake, Monches of the
Oconomowoc river village, and Leatherstrap of the Wau-
esha village.

So far as the early settlers noted there was but little dif-
ference in the dress of the families or groups of Potowa-
tomi. Some of the men were attired in buckskin shirts,
long leggings and moccasins. Some wore shirts, trousers
and other cloth garments obtained from the settlers or from
stores or trading posts. Their headgear was often a piece
of colored cloth or a handkerchief bound around the head.
Some wore a strip of fur in place of a hat, a piece of otter-
skin ornamented with a single feather or bits of ribbon.
Some had trade blankets. In summer some of the men wore
only a breech cloth. The women wore cloth waists and
skirts and buckskin moccasins. Some wore buckskin gar-
ments, often with fringes. Silver brooches and bead neck-
laces were their common ornaments. Some of the women
carried on their backs babies strapped to cradleboards.



20 WISCONSIN AKCHEOLOGIST. Vol. 10, No. 1

Most bore bundles of spare clothing or camp equipment.
Some carried kettles. Some had a few ponies and these
were often heavily laden. Some of the hunters carried
guns, these being flint-locks, and of a poor quality.

John Shawano, Nawquakeshik (Noon Day), great-grand-
son of Waika or Wakusha, at present living in Forest Coun-
ty, states that the Chenequa lakes were a part of the hunt-
ing grounds of the Potawatomi of his Waukesha village.
They were very particular about their hunting territories
and would never permit any other tribe to trespass on them.
This may have been true before the white settlers came to
this region. The Menomini certainly also hunted about the
lakes in the early forties.

No one remembers seeing any Indian log canoes on Pine
lake, yet the Potawatomi must have had them as they did
on Pewaukee, Nagawicka and North lakes.

Wild animals were numerous in the regions about the
Chenequa lakes when the first white settlers came. Deer
were everywhere to be seen. Bear were occasionally killed.
Among the smaller animals were the wolf, wild cat, musk-
rat, otter, mink, raccoon, skunk, woodchuck, weasel and
squirrel. Wild fowl were abundant both in the woods and
on the waters of the lakes. The lakes were filled with fish.



THE NAMES OF THE CHENEQUA LAKES

The early Wisconsin maps, up to the year 1839, give no
names for the lakes of the Chenequa group. A "map of
Wiskonsin Territory, 1839", prepared by Capt. Thomas J.
Cram, government topographical engineer, gives the name
of Gay lake to Pine lake, Peekor to Beaver lake, and Ahko
to North lake. Lake Keesus is here named Meeshel lake.
Where he obtained these names is unknown. Farmer's
map, 1848, doubtless copying Cram, gives the name of Gay
lake to Pine, and Peekor to Beaver.

The name Gay is probably derived from the Prairie Pota-
watomi word que (quay), woman, or the Chippewa word
ikwe or akwe. Peekor, the name given to Beaver lake, may
be a slight distortion of the Winnebago word pee ka, signify-
ing "good", or "beautiful". The Potawatomi word for bea-



Pine, Beaver and North Lakes. 21

ver is mak or muk, and the Chippewa word amik. Ahko,
the name given to North lake, is the Potawatomi word for
doe (ako).

On a "Map of the Milwaukee Land District, 1840", the
name of Pine lake appears as the name for that lake. This
name also appears on the Milwaukee Land District Map of
1846, Nagawicka, Pewaukee and Oconomowoc lakes being
the only other northern Waukesha County lakes which bear
any names.

Dr. Increase A. Lapham may be credited with having
first given the attractive name of Chenequa to Pine lake.
In his book, "Wisconsin", published by P. C. Hall at Mil-
waukee in 1844, he says : "Pine Lake, lies immediately north
of Nagowicka, two miles long, three-fourths of a mile wide,
five and a quarter around, and has an area of six hundred
and ninety acres; being exactly the same as Nagowicka.
The Indian name is Chenequa or Pine, given in consequence
of a few pine trees having been found on a small neck of
land or island in this lake."

North Lake (or Shunakee) lies north of Pine Lake in
the town of Warren, is one mile and a quarter long, three
fourths of a mile wide, and has an area of five hundred and
eighty-one acres. The Oconomowoc Creek passes through
this lake.

Labraugh (Beaver) Lake lies half a mile east from Pine
Lake into which it discharges its waters. It is eighty-three
chains long, sixty-nine wide, and occupying an area of four
hundred and twenty acres."

Indians of both the Prairie Potawatomi and Menomini
tribes had camps and villages at Milwaukee in 1836, and
Winnebago villages were not far away. He may have had
his lake names from any of these. Although in Prairie
Potawatomi territory, Pine lake was visited by Menomini
Indians who had a village at Menomonee Falls and camps
elsewhere in Menomonee township only a dozen miles away
to the east, also by groups of Winnebago, who were on
friendly terms with the Potawatomi and occasionally wan-
dered through the region. The Potawatomi word for pine
is shquak and the Chippewa word jingwak. The pronun-
ciation and spelling of both words is sufficiently like Chene-
qua (the name given by him to Pine lake) so that Dr. Lap-



22 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST. Vol. 10, No. 1

ham may readily have derived his spelling of the name from
hearing either of them spoken. The Menomini word for
pine is aska.

A distinctive feature of Pine lake are the group of pine
trees on the Island and several other groups of the same
formerly and still existing on its eastern shore. These the
Potawatomi always remembered, and it is but natural that
they should have named this lake for them.

Rev. E. P. Wheeler, an authority on Wisconsin Indian
names, thinks that the name Chenequa may have been de-
rived from the Potawatomi word gih chih in nah quak",, or
"big tree grove". John Blackhawk, an authority on the
language and customs of his tribe, thinks that the name
might have been derived from the Winnebago word chenu-
kra, or "the village".

Huron H. Smith, the ethno-botanist, states that the word
Chenequa means "Indian woman" or "Indian maiden", and
the word is a Chippewa rather than a Potawatomi one.
"Chene" is an abbreviation of "inishinabe", meaning Indian
and pronounced "shini" or "shunay". Ikwe or akwe is the
word for woman.

The Potawatomi of the present day give to the lake the
name Shquak mbes, or Pine. lake.

Lapham gives the Indian name of North lake as Shuna-
kee. This name Simon Kahquados, chief of the Potawatomi
group near Blackwell and Laona in Forest County, believes
to be a shortening of the name Shanakoonebis, meaning
"south cloud water". Shanakoo was a Potawatomi chief
whose village was at this lake. John Blackhawk says that
the name may have been derived from the Winnebago word
chunaka, or "the blue one".

The name Labraugh given by Lapham to Beaver lake
John Blackhawk suggests may be a slight distortion of the
Winnebago word "lubra" or "rubra", meaning beaver.

There is no doubt but that the Prairie Potawatomi, Me-
nomini and Winnebago all had names for the Chenequa
lakes.



Pine, Beaver and North Lakes. 23

CHENEQUA OR PINE LAKE

EAST SHORE

Trail Village Site.

An Indian camp site is plainly indicated on the James A.
Friend property on the northeast shore of Pine lake. Evi-
dence of this former occupation by the aborigines, consist-
ing of burned and broken stones from wigwam fireplaces
and chips and fragments of grey and white flint, the refuse
of former implement manufacture, occur in the gardens
of the late Jacob E. Friend; on a piece of level land which
stretches from the James Friend residence on a prominent
knoll in its rear down to the lake shore. A portion of this
field had been fall-plowed during our first visit to this site
and no doubt camp refuse had been thus turned under, but
a considerable number of hearthstones of fist-size and
smaller were found scattered over limited areas in several
parts of this field. The former sites of at least three wig-
wams appeared to be thus recognized. Near these places
the flint refuse and a small piece of red pipestone were also
found. Doubtless many other hearthstones have been re-
moved from this site during the years of its cultivation. If
other parts of this tract, now under sod, are again plowed
other lodge sites and refuse should be disturbed.

This site has long been known to collectors of Indian im-
plements. Mr. Christ. Schwartz is among those who have
collected here. From these and other sources we learn that
there have been recovered here a considerable number of
flint arrow and spearpoints of various forms, several flint
knives, a number of flint scrapers, a flint perforator, several
pebble hammerstones, a stone celt or hatchet, and two
grooved stone axes, one of these with .a blade much worn and
shortened through long use and re-grinding. No potsherds
have been found by ourselves or reported found here by
others. These remain to be collected. They certainly
should occur, especially if this camp site is a fairly old one,
as it appears to be. Its early Indian inhabitants may, how-
ever, have employed bark or wooden vessels in their domes-
tic arts.

Years ago scattered deer and other animal bones were



24 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST. Vol. 10, No. 1

seen here, also scattered mussel shells. Some of the bones
had been split to obtain the marrow. If there were any
refuse pits in connection with this site they have not been
discovered.

This land, from the east and west road at its northern
limits southward to the creek joining Pine and Beaver lakes,
formed the estate of the late Judge M. F. Tuley. The por-
tion of it occupied by this camp site was in former years a
flat covered with forest trees. The fotawatomi claim this
as a former camp site. They certainly camped here in small
numbers in early days of settlement, spearing and trapping
fish in the stream conecting Pine and MucT lakes, and hunt-
ing deer and other game in the surrounding country. This
locality was a sheltered one and otherwise favorable for the
location of an Indian camp. South of it extending along
the lakeshore is a high wooded ridge upon which is the J.
V. Quarles home, in its rear is the elevated ground of the
James A. Friend property, and west of it another promi-
nent ridge upon which stands the residence of Robert E.
Friend. A fork of the old Indian trail between Pine and
Beaver lakes, on its way to the creek crossing between the
head of Pine and Mud lake, touched or crossed this village
site.

On the shore of Indian or Outlet bay, at the base of the
ridge upon which the Robert E. Friend residence is located,
is a path reported to be a remnant of an old lake-bank trail.
This can be traced from this point along the bay shore
northward for a distance of several hundred feet to where
the Friend garage is located. This continued northward to
the shore of Mud lake.

Chenequa Springs.

On the Pine lake shore at the base of the high wooded
lake bank a short distance north of the Chenequa Springs
hotel are several fine springs. These springs the Pota-
watomi knew and used when encamped in the vicinity.
Their name for these is reported to have been Tkepmbes, or
"springs at the lake." A spring on the Rudberg place a
short distance west of the house was also known to the In-
dians. It appears in the Waukesha County atlas of 1873
as a mineral spring.



Pine, Beaver and North Lakes. 25

Game was very plentiful in former days on the north-
east shore of Pine lake. The early settlers killed many
deer and now and then a bear. Mr. Christ. Schwartz and
Mr. Charles Rudberg both speak of the great numbers of
passenger pigeons. Their flights in the spring of the year
continued all day long, flight after flight. In returning in
the autumn they roosted in the woods, feeding on the abun-
dant acorns. Forty years ago Mr. Schwartz shot numbers
of them from the top of the hill upon which the Chenequa
Hotel stands. Flocks of the beautiful wood duck as well
as of other ducks were numerous. Muskrats were numer-
ous in the marshes. Raccoon were frequently shot. On the
George Vits place beyond the Tuley log cabin was a small
marshy area. Here Mr. Schwartz shot many partridges in
a poplar thicket. Fish were very abundant, the Indians
occasionally spearing them. In Tuley bay and extending
across to Niedecken point was a marsh in which the Indians
speared and trapped muskrats. This has been elsewhere
described.

Niedecken Point Camp Site.

In the forties and fifties a few Potawatomi occasionally
camped on this wooded point on the south shore of Tuley's
bay. Here the creek outlet of Beaver lake, flowing through
farm and pasture lands of the John 0. Rudberg estate, en-
ters Pine lake. This end of the once marshy bay was an
excellent muskrat hunting ground. The Indians erected
their lodges on the lands near the mouth of the creek.

This site must also have been occupied by redmen long
before the pioneer whites came to this region. The farm
field adjoining and near the creek has yielded many flint
arrow points in past years. Evidence of flint working
(broken nodules, spalls, flakes and chips of white and grey
and other flint) were also to be seen here. Mr. Christ.
Schwartz found a Siouan-type red catlinite pipe in the field
on the south side of the creek. .Mr. Louis W. Jacobson has
a blue hornstone knife found on this site. Other artifacts
collected here are a stone celt, flint blanks, a stemmed flint
scraper, a copper spearpoint with a socket, a bone awl, a
fragmentary mussel shell pendant, a glass bead .and an iron
harpoon point. Several small fragments of a pottery ves-



26 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST. Vol. 10, No. 1

sel are made of reddish clay, tempered with crushed rock
and unornamented.

In a small garden near the Niedecken home we found
scattered fireplace stones, a pebble hand-hammer, a broken
flint blank, and numbers of flint chips and spalls.

Niedecken point is a picturesque gravel knoll, at its high-
est part fifty or more feet above the waters of the lake. On
its top are a stand of cedar and other trees. The Niedecken
home stands on another attractive knoll.

Swallow Point.

Adjoining the Niedecken property on the south and ex-
tending along the Pine lake shore is a fine oak woodland.
The land rises gradually from the lakeshore, sloping to the
east, and is rolling in character. It is a part of the John 0.
Rudberg estate. It is an extension of the old Indian camp
site at the mouth of the creek at Niedecken point. Here
the Indian women in early days of settlement gathered
acorns, the supply being generally abundant. At the south-
ern extremity of this woodland tract is Swallow point, a
high rounded point occupied by several summer residences.
This point was years ago known as Leuthstroms point being
the place of residence of Dr. C. A. Leuthstrom, a widely
known specialist in chronic diseases. Mr. Christ. Schwartz
reports that an Indian burial was disturbed when a ditch
was dug at that time on the Leuthstrom, now a part of the
Anna M. Cudahy property. These bones a son of Dr. Leuth-
strom re-buried. No particulars concerning this burial ap-
pear to be available. Other Indian burials are said to have
been made here but these have not been found.

The Island.

In Pine Lake, at a distance of over six hundred feet west
of Swallow point, is a pear-shaped island owned by the Pine
Lake Yacht Club. This picturesque island is a hog-back
rising out of the lake with a group of pine and other trees
growing on its top and sides. Its northern end is produced
in a long narrow point, its southern extremity rounded.
Its general direction is northeast and southwest. Its length
is given as about seven hundred feet and its greatest width
as about two hundred feet. Some of the deepest water of
Pine lake (79 to 84 feet) lies off the west shore of this



Pine, Beaver and North Lakes. . 27

island. Between its eastern shore and the mainland its
depth is 50 feet in places.

This island, once known as Sands island, belonged in the
seventies to Josiah J. Sands, who had an estate on the main-
land at Anchor point the next point south of Swallow
(Leuthstrom) point. The Indian name for this island is
given as Shquak mineshe, taking its name from the pine
trees. Some flint points have been collected on this island
and picked up along its shore, the latter being probably
washed up from the lake. Years ago an Indian burial was
also unearthed on this island. Particulars concerning its
character are not obtainable.

Anchor Point Camp Site.

Another former Indian camp site was on the old Sands
estate on the shore of Sands bay lying north of Anchor point.
The Josiah Jones Sands estate in 1873 extended from the
present north boundary of the Mayer estate northward to
the north boundary of the present Wahl estate. It included
in its extent the present Finkler, Hanson, Briggs and Wahl
(Weld) properties. North of it was the former J. A. Kirk



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