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estate (Kirkwood), which extended from the present Wahl
place northward to the Cudahy property, and included the
present Elser, Ott and Helmer places. Along the front of
the former Kirk estate the shore bank is high.

Along the Sands bay shore the land along the lake shore
is rather level and sheltered by the higher land to the north
of it. It was in the early days occupied by a fine oak forest
through which deer and bear roamed. To-day velvet lawns
slope from the lake shore eastward to the fine homes on the
higher land a short distance beyond. If these lawns are
ever disturbed evidence of the former early Indian camp
site must be found. A few Indian flint points have been
found here in recent years in preparing flower beds and in
making other improvements of these estates. Mr. Edward
Krause, the well-known Hartland collector, reports the find-
ing of two native copper spearpoints on the former Kirk
property, on the present Helmer and Ott places. Several
stone celts and a number of flint arrow points were obtain-
ed from fields on this estate when Mr. Kirk was its owner.



28 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST. Vol. 10, No 1

Burned stones and ashy soil in one of these fields indicated
the site of the early location of a wigwam home.

Anchor point takes its name from its shape which has a
curved projection on either side of its rounded extremity.
It is a part of the beautiful Ida Finkler estate. The point
is a high, narrow gravel ridge covered with a grove of oak,
cedar and some pine trees. There is an especially fine stand
of tall pine trees at its base. On the southern side of these
is a small strip of cattail marsh in early days more exten-
sive than today. It was a muskrat hunting ground.

From the point southward the Finkler land along the
lake shore has high banks and is covered with a fine wood-
land of oak and other trees. There are a number of pic-
turesque kettle holes, some circular and others ravine-like.
At its southern limits a small marshy tract now partly in
use as a hay meadow extends eastward to the Pine lake
highway. This was another muskrat hunting ground of
the early Indians. In the gardens of the Finkler estate
flint arrow points have been found. A grooved stone axe
was found in removing a stump on this property.

Because of the many kettle-hole depressions this land has
the Potawatomi designation Mttesh wan kquetwen. The
lake a short distance east of Anchor point attains a depth
of 55 feet.

Randall-Koehring Point Camp Site.

South of the Anchor point property, on the southeast
shore of the lake, and separated from it by the Mayer estate
property is a curious T-shaped point, now an island and
connected with the mainland by a small bridge. This forms
a part of the Philip A. Koehring and Marjorie G. Randall
(Rock Terrace) estates on the lakeshore opposite it. The
T-shaped end of this point is over 1300 feet in length and
about 300 feet in width at its widest part, near its middle.
In former years there was a small bay with a cattail marsh
both on the north and on the south side of the point. This
has been partly filled in and this area converted into lawns
and flower gardens.

In early days of settlement a few Potawatomi Indians
occasionally camped on this point. The former marshland

'Mtte is pronounced like che.



I'ine, Beaver and North Lukes. 29

(Sheshko wabshkoke, muskrat marsh) at the southern end
of the lake, a narrow strip of which still fringes the lake-
shore from the Koehring property southward along the Gib-
son shore, furnished good muskrat hunting for the Indians.
A few flint arrowpoints have been found on the Point in
planting shrubbery and making other improvements.
Some have been found in the lake itself.
^ The Koehring and Randall properties were formerly the
Best estate. On the Koehring place the lake banks are high,
with pot-holes in their rear.

Gibson Site.

The Gibson lands at the southern end of Pine lake are
rolling in character and largely in use as pasture. Grow-
ing on top of the high lake banks are oak and cedar trees,
some of the latter being of quite good size. At their base
is a narrow strip of cattail marsh. The east and west In-
dian trail from Pewaukee lake to the Oconomowoc lakes
passed by the southern end of Pine lake. The Gibson lands
were a convenient camp ground for Indians passing on that
trail, or those residing at the village on the northeast shore
of Nagawicka lake, a half-mile south of Pine lake.

Some flint arrow and spearpoints have been found in the
Gibson fields back from the lake bank on the east and west
sides of the lake. If the present pasture lands are ever
plowed the finding of additional stone and other implements
and other evidence of early aboriginal occupation is to be
expected.

WEST SHORE

Brumder Shore Vilage Site.

The site of an early Indian village was on the northwest
shore of Pine lake extending over the present residence
properties of the several members of the Brumder family.
This site appears to have extended from near the head of
Indian bay at the north end of the lake southward along the
shore of the lake to Oakland point, a distance of half a mile
more or less. Along this shore the land along the lake bank
is rather level with wooded hills rising in the rear. Much
of the land along the lake bank was in former years under
cultivation as a part of the J. Jacobson farm and in these



30 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST. Vol. 10, No. 1

fields, now occupied by the lawns of the Brumder homes,
the scattered hearth stones, flint workshop refuse, broken
animal bones and clam shell fragments, scattered by the
plow and harrow, were in former years to be seen. Here
many stone and other implements have been collected.
Others have since been found by workmen in gardening and
engaged in other work on these properties.

In a very good archeological collection owned by Louis W?
Jacobson are ma*ny flint implements and other specimens
collected from the former cultivated fields at this place.
Especially notable among these are a grooved stone axe,
several rude stone celts, stone balls, a flint flaking imple-
ment, a quartzite scraper, a flattened piece of native copper,
a rhyolite celt or blank, and several large flint blanks. Of
flint arrow and spearpoints he has a large number of vari-
ous forms (leaf shaped, triangular, stemmed, notched and
barbed) : of perforators, scrapers and knives there are a
number of specimens. Among many other specimens gath-
ered here in past years by other collectors are several
grooved stone axes and two socketted copper spearpoints.
Flint arrowpoints are still now and then picked up in the
garden plots near the residences. Several sherds of cord-
marked earthenware vessels have been found on this site.
The late Mr. George Brumder is reported to have also pos-
sessed some specimens from this site. Indications are that
this is the former site of an early Algonkian village, of just
what date we may never know. There may have been some
connection between this site and that on the opposite shore
of the bay.

In pioneer days small numbers of Potawatomi ocasionally
erected their wigwams on this site. Both the fishing and
the hunting were good at this place. Some fish were
speared and others caught with seines. Turtles were also
caught in shallow places and thrown on the banks to be
killed and the meat removed. At this place the trail run-
ning between Mud and Pine lakes was intersected by the
trail along the west shore of Pine lake.

There probably was a planting ground connected with
this site but no one appears to now possess any certain in-
formation concerning it. Some red willow, the bark of



Pine, Beaver and North Lakes. 31

which was used by the Indians for smoking, still grows
here. Their name for this kinnikinnik is pokkeegan.

West Bay Site.

Another Indian camp site was located on the shores of
the fine large bay located on the west shore of Pine lake, a
short distance south of the site on the Brumder estates.
This bay cuts into the lands in a well-rounded curve, at its
opening on the north shore being Oakland point (now oc-
cupied by Dr. Henry Hitz and Wm. K. Winkler) and on its
south shore Pritzlaff point. Fronting on this fine bay are
the Fagg, Vilter, Upmeyer, Messer, Schultz, Geeser, Weigel,
Lynch, Spiegel, Pritzlaff and other attractive homes. High,
wooded hills are in the rear of some of these estates.

This is an Indian site of whose prehistory and history
we possess only meager information. As the shores of West
bay are completely occupied by residences, lawns and gar-
dens there is now no opportunity of recovering much of it
from the soil. A few flint points are occasionally found in
garden plots. In past years more implements were found.
Louis W. Jacobson has in his collection a small well-made
stone celt or hatchet found on the Winkler place; also a
notched stone sinker found on the Dorestan place. This
latter specimen is oval in form and made of a black gritty
stone. The notches are pecked into the top and bottom
edges rather than into the sides of the implement as is most
frequently the case. Flint arrowpoints are from some of
the neighboring properties. From the Jacobson farm in the
rear of the estates on the north side of the bay he has a
number of flint arrow and spearpoints, stone balls, a pebble
hand-hammer and a grooved stone axe. A small rectangu-
lar piece of grey steatite (soapstone) from this place is
about 1 1/8 inches in length, and one-half inch wide with
flattened edges. It has been perforated in two places and
has been broken at a third perforation. It is probably an
ornament.

In former years a few flint arrows and spearpoints were
also found on the then J. C. Iverson place on the north shore
of the bay. Other persons have found in past years on the
west shore of the bay flint points, a grooved axe and a few
shell heads.



32 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST. Vol. 10, No. 1

The few Potawatomi who camped here from time to time
in pioneer days were chiefly engaged in spearing and catch-
ing fish, some of which they dried for future use. The old
west shore Indian trail passed this site.

Vogel Bay Site.

About half a mile south of West bay a smaller bay indents
the west shore of Pine lake. On its north shore is the sum-
mer residence of Mr. August H. Vogel and in its rear the
Vogel farm and Paulines Wood Co. property, likewise the
summer residences of Mrs. Emilie Nunnemacher, Mrs. Hed-
wig Earth and Mr. and Mrs. August C. Helmholz. This
property was the former homestead of William Schuchardt,
who settled here in 1852, and was sold after his death to
the late Rudolph Nunnemacher, and purchased by Frederick
Vogel, Senior, in 1885, whose descendants have resided here
since that date. The south shore of this bay is high and
steep with a number of pretty summer homes on its top. At
the head of this bay hearthstones and a few flint chips were
found in the rear of a small cottage in a spot from which the
sod had recently been removed. Others were found on the
adjoining cultivated field of the Vogel farm. At least one
Indian wigwam was at some time located here. A few flint
points and a chert pecking hammer have been picked up in
this field. The west shore trail crossed these lands.

Dorner Point Camp Site.

Scattered stones from an Indian wigwam fireplace were
found in a vegetable garden and small vineyard on the Fred
H. Dorner summer residence property. Scattered near these
were flint chips and fragments and it is evident that the
manufacture of at least a small number of flint implements
must have been carried on here at some time by the occu-
pants of this primitive dwelling site. Inquiry of the em-
ployes on neighboring properties brought no information of
other sites on this pretty point. Mr. Edward Krause years
ago collected twelve flint arrowpoints from the fields of the
E. Krause farm of which this site formerly formed a part.

The garden on the Dorner place is on the top of a high
lake bank. From this place a gravel road leads down to
a hook-shaped point on the lake bank below. Mr. Louis R.
Bunde, Jr. states that years ago there was located on this



Pine, Beaver and North Lakes.



point, a short distance southeast of the house, a boulder
heap which he and others undertook to examine. They re-
moved the stones until they came to a stone-lined excava-
tion, possibly an Indian burial place, but went no further in
their exploration. No further information concerning it
appears to be now available.

A wooded ravine or kettle hole is in the rear of the Dor-
ner, Ott and other summer homes on this point. A wild
cat is reported to have been killed in this locality in pioneer
days. On the Waukesha atlas map of 1914 the region on
the west shore of Pine lake from the north line of the Nun-
nemacher property northward to Dorners point is designat-
ed as Pine Lake Park.

BEAVER LAKE

(Lubra)
Interlachen Camp.

Mr. Christ. (N. C.) Schwartz, a resident of Chenequa,
states that in his boyhood, in about the year 1874 and later,
groups of Potawatomi Indians from Pewaukee lake and else-
where came to Pine lake. There were sometimes as many
as fifty Indians, men women and children, in this company
of prairie folk. They erected their lodges in the sheltered
hollow on the shore of Beaver lake south of the high knoll
upon which the Interlachen hotel now stands. This de-
pression is between the highway (the old Indian trail) and
the lake bank. These lodges they built of poles which they
leaned together in the form of a cone, the wooden frame-
work being covered with skins or cloth. Sometimes there
were nearly a dozen habitations of this nature in the hollow.

The Indians seldom remained in camp here for more than
a week or two, moving on from this spot to Mud, North and
Okauchee lakes. Some came to hunt muskrats, these ani-
mals then abounding in the marshes. Their muskrat spears
were long pointed and barbed iron rods fastened to a wood-
en shaft. They speared the animals through the roofs of
their rush and mud house. Muskrats were prepared for
eating by removing the skins and roasting the carcass in
the fire or by cooking the meat in a kettle. These kettles
were of sheet metal and light enough to be transported.



34 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGIST. Vol. 10, No. 1

The nearest muskrat hunting ground was in Tuleys or Wil-
son's bay, only a few rods away, in a grassy and reedy marsh
extending from the bank below the Chenequa hotel across
this Pine lake bay to Niedecken point. These Indians had
no ponies. They always Jiad a number of dogs of the Indian
breed. The last Indians whom Mr. Schwartz remembers
camping in this locality came in 1881.

Mr. Charles Rudberg, whose father, John 0. Rudberg,
settled on the northeast shore of Pine lake in 1842, states
that the Indians came from Pewaukee lake (some four and
a half males distant to the southeast) over the trail, now
the road between Pine and Beaver lakes. In his father's
day they passed over the trail in both the spring and au-
tumn, sometimes in considerable numbers. They had no
guns, using the bow and arrow in their hunting.

There were still many Indians camping about the Chene-
qua lakes in the late thirties and early forties. Other old
settlers and their descendants remember that some of these
natives came from other camps at Keesus and Nagawicka
lakes.

Chenequa Country Club Camp Site.

All traces of a former Indian camp site located on the Bea-
ver lake shore of the Chenequa Country Club have been ob-
literated in recent years by the construction of the golf fair-
ways, clubhouse and road. The only traces of this site
which remained exposed to view in November, 1928, were
a few scattered hearthstones, flint fragments and chips, a
broken flint blank and a small hammerstone which were
found in a small vegetable garden on a small property (care-
taker's house) belonging to the George Vits summer home
on the opposite (west) side of the Chenequa highway. This
small tract adjoins the southwest corner of the Country
Club property. Mr. Frank Opithka, the caretaker, has a
three inch notched spearpoint, made of light brown flint,
which was recently found in this garden. In preparing the
golf course a few flint points were found.

Below this garden and between it and the gravel ridge
upon which the Interlachen hotel buildings now stand is a
small hollow where in former years a few Potawatomi In-
dians are reported to have occasionally camped. It was a



Pinr, Beaver and North Lakes. 35

sheltered spot and opens on to the Beaver lake shore. A
former hotel keeper at Interlachen was Dr. John A. Rice
whose interest in Indian history and ethnology was well
known.

Two conical mounds are located on the west shore of
Beaver lake. These are beyond the limits of Chenequa Vil-
lage, on sloping ground near the road to the Country Club.
They are within about one hundred feet of the lake shore.
Near them indications of an Indian camp site (flint refuse
and a few arrowpoints) have been found.*

MUD LAKE

(Askewee)
Mud Lake Camp.

Mud Lake is a small body of water, between Pine and
North lakes. It is almost completely surrounded by high,
wooded hills. The body of open water in its middle is sur-
rounded by a cattail marsh of considerable extent. This
pond was in former days, because of the good muskrat hunt-
ing and for other reasons, a favorite camp ground of the
Potawatomi who erected their lodges on the lower land at
the southeastern end of the ridge and a short distance north
of the end of Indian bay of Pine lake. Here the Indian
trail on its way to Mouse (Moose) and Okauchee lakes
passed between Pine and Mud lakes, the present highway
marking the former course of the earlier Indian pathway.

In Mud lake the Indian women dug the roots of the arrow-
head (white potato) for cooking or roasting. Here they
also cut and dried the leaves of the cattail for the making
of matting. Old settlers remember seeing some of the In-
dian women carrying bundles of rushes on their backs.

NORTH LAKE
(Shanakoo)

North Lake Village Site.

At the foot of this very attractive lake, about one-half
mile north of the head of Pine lake, there is an area of marsh
above which there towers a semi-circle of high oak-clad hills.



Wis. Archfeologist, 2 1, n. s.



WISCONSIN A.RCHEOL,< M V< I. lii. No. I



r l'his cattail marsh was, like thai surrounding Mud lake, a
favorite rnuskrat hunting ground of the early Indians, who
rame over I he trails from their villages at IVwaukee, Naga-
wieka and elsewhere to supply themselves with muskrat
flesh and skins. Some of the meat, cut in strips, was
smoked or dried in the sun. A creek connects the southern
end of North lake with Mud lake lying south of it.

The site of an early Indian village appears to have been
on the south shore of North lake extending from the very
picturesque high point, once known as Riedeburg's point,
westward along the south shore of the west lobe of the lake,
on property now owned by Mr. Geo. W. Adams.

On the point the greater part of the land is turf -covered
so that no evidence of this village was obtainable at the time
of its examination. On the Adams subdivision west of its
base this was also largely the case. Both here and on the
point numbers of flint implements and some stone axes and
other Indian tools and weapons have been collected in past
years when parts of this land were being farmed. .

In a small garden spot in the rear of a solitary cottage on
the west bay shore hearthstones, a pebble hammerstone, a
small triangular flint arrowpoint and a few flint chips were
found. A short distance west of this wigwam site another
small site was located in a cultivated field overlooking a
marsh now partly drained. This level field is elevated about
thirty feet above the marsh. At two different places near
the edge of this Held two separate groups of fireplace stones
were found, doubtless marking two former wigwam loea-
tions. In this field, which lies to the west of the entrance
driveway into the Adams subdivision some flint points have
also been found.

This locality at the south end of North lake may have
been the site of the village of the Potawatomi chief Shiina-
ko6. The only information available concerning him or his
village is that North lake once bore his name Shanakoonebin
or "south cloud water", and that his son, Shawananuquot.
was born here, or near this place. Shunakee is a slight dis-
tortion of these names.

From the foot of North lake northward as far as the
northern boundary of ('heiieqiia Village the east shore of the
lake is high and with a woodland of oak and some cedar



Pine, Beaver and Noi-th Ivak.-s. 37

trees. In its rear are numerous kettle holes. Some at-
tractive summer homes are perched on this bank of the lake.
Over these properties ran the Indian trail to the Oconomo-
woc river at the head of the lake. Other Indian camp sites,
generally of small extent, are on the other shores of North
lake. From these, in recent years, many flint points, several
stone axes and celts, stone balls, a slate gorget and several
socketted copper points have been collected. Several
crushed stone tempered unornamented and cord-marked
potsherds have been found.



INDIAN IMPLEMENTS

The Indian camp and village sites on the shores of the
Chenequa lakes have produced a quite large number of stone
and other implements, weapons and ornaments since the
cultivation of the first lands in the region by the pioneer
settlers. Only a comparatively small number of these are,
however, to be seen in private or public collections at the
present time. One wonders what has become of the many
Indian artifacts found on these sites during the past eighty
or more years. They have been given away to friends,
some have been sold to collectors and to dealers in Indian
relics, others have been lost or destroyed. But very few
have found way into Wisconsin museums.

In the extensive archeological collections of the Milwau-
kee Public museum there is a single socketted copper spear-
point and two flint arrow points from Pine lake and a cop-
per spearpoint with a single-notched tang from Beaver lake.
From Hartland, near Pine lake, there is a socketted copper
spearpoint and another with a rattail tang. Two pieces of
worked catlinite (pipestone) come from the same locality.
There are no specimens from North lake.

In the Logan museum at Beloit College there is a knife
made of dark brown quartzite, five inches in length, and a
chisel made of greenstone from North lake, a flint knife
4 :i/4 inches in length, and a fluted stone axe with faint
grooves from Hartland, a spud made of black diorite, a cat-
linite gorget of an oval form with one perforation from Lake
Keesus, a brown quartzite spearpoint and a spatula-shaped



38 WISCONSIN ARCHEOLOGI&T. Vol. 10. No. 1

copper spearpoint from Merton. In the State Historical
museum there are several flint arrowpoints from Pine lake,
a curved-blade scraper made of brown chalcedony from
Hartland, and three socketted and one spatula-shaped cop-
per spearpoint from Merton.

The best collection from the vicinity of Pine lake is that
of Mr. Louis W. Jacobson. His specimens are largely from
village and camp sites on its northwest shore. This collec-
tion contains about five hundred flint implements (arrow
and spearpoints, knives, perforators and scrapers), flint
blanks, grooved axes, celts, stone balls, hammerstones, a
a stone sinker, a steatite ornament, a piece of worked cop-
per and a single socketted copper spearpoint.

In private collections at Waukesha, Pewaukee, Oconomo-
woc and Milwaukee are a few other specimens from sites
and other places on the shores of the Chenequa lakes.

THE CHENEQUA TRAILS

Of the trails or Indian pathways which passed through
the Chenequa lakes region the principal one was the trail
which ran from the Potawatomi and Menomini villages at
Milwaukee to the Oconomowoc lakes, and westward to the
Four Lakes at Madison. This important trail, traveled in
succession by Indians, fur traders and early white settlers,
became the early road from the Lake Michigan shore to
western Wisconsin. It passed through the present villages
of Pewaukee and Hartland and very close to the southern
extremity of Chenequa (Pine) lake in its westward course.
It appears on the Milwaukee Land District map of 1840 and
on other early state maps. Its course is still largely fol-
lowed by state highway 19.

A well-traveled trail ran from the Potawatomi village on
the Fox river at Waukesha to Chenequa. From Waukesha
(Prairieville) this Indian path pursued a northwesterly di-
rection to opposite the western end of Pewaukee lake (Pee-



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