50. The PLANT OF THE LOS ANGELES COCA-COLA BOT-
TLING COMPANY (visitors), 1334 S. Central Ave., somewhat
resembles an ocean liner. While its gleaming white walls with their
numerous portholes look as though they were constructed of steel plate
they are actually of concrete. The lone tower is a stylized ship's bridge,
and the interior, continuing the nautical motif, is lined with mahogany
and trimmed with stainless steel. The factory is one of i,2OO Coca-
Cola plants in the United States.
Viewing the operations from a promenade deck, visitors see the
battery of six large washing machines, cleaning and sterilizing more
than 50,000 bottles an hour. Other machines fill them with syrup and
charged water, and add a cap.
WYVERNWOOD, spreading over seventy-two landscaped acres
along E. Olympic Blvd. and E. 8th St. between Soto St. and Grande
Vista Dr., is a government-supervised but privately owned and financed
low-cost housing project. With a total of 1,102 units, the project
comprises 142 two-story buildings, 14 acres of lawns, 54 acres of parks
planted to more than 600,000 trees, flowering plants, and shrubs, and a
5-acre children's playground.
Wyvernwood was completed in January 1940 at a cost of $6,200,-
ooo, of which $3,000,000 was a bank loan insured by the Federal
Housing Administration, which requires the owners to set aside 25 per
cent of all income for maintenance and repair, and dictates the rent
schedule. To meet the first requirement a full-time staff of gardeners,
painters, carpenters, plumbers, and electricians is maintained. Rents
for the three-, five-, and six-room apartments, flats, and studios range
from $29.25 to $43.75 a month, unfurnished. Designed for families,
preferably with children, of business, trades, and professional people
with incomes between $125 to $400 a month, the units are rented on
Art and Education
Index oj American Design
A STATION OF THE CROSS, MISSION SAN GABRIEL ARCANGEL
PROMETHEUS, MURAL BY JOSE OROZCO
IN FRAY HALL, POMONA COLLEGE, CLAREMONT
Index of American Design
LOGGIA, MISSION SAN JUAN CAPISTRANO
Burton O. Burt
BELFRY, MISSION SAN GABRIEL ARCANGEL
MISSION SAN FERNANDO
F. W. Carter
DETAIL FROM PAINTING,
A PITCH POOLS
IMPERIAL ELEPHANT, LOS ANGELFS
SCIENCE, AND ART
F. IV. Carter
IN THE PLANETARIUM, GRIFFITH OBSERVATORY, LOS ANGELES
YOUNG PUBLIC SCHOOL ARTIST
Board of Education, Los Angeles
EXPERIMENTAL PUBLIC SCHOOL, LOS ANGELES
Richard J. Neutra, Architect
THOMAS JEFFERSON HIGH SCHOOL, LOS ANGELES
Stiles O.Clement, Architect Board of Education. Los Angeles
Fairchild Aerial Survey
Hollywood Chamber of Ci
MT. WILSON OBSERVATORY
THE INDUSTRIAL SECTION 165
a thirty-day basis with the verbal understanding that the renter will
remain at least one year.
The architectural style is eclectic, and the buildings are grouped to
avoid monotony through the close proximity of similar designs and
colors. Wide lawns and gardens separate the buildings, all of which
face upon parkways rather than the street. Designed to be earthquake
and fire resistant, exterior walls are of metal-mesh reinforced concrete.
Floors are of one-inch hardwood, walls are insulated against heat and
sound, and each unit is equipped with electric water heaters, gas or elec-
tric room heaters, individual electric refrigerators, and gas or electric
51. The CALIFORNIA ROTOGRAVURE PLANT (visited on
application), 2801 E. nth St., a one-story brick and glass building,
does commercial rotogravure work, and prints several weekly and
Visitors see the art department, where pages are designed ; the camera
room, with cameras capable of making a negative two feet square;
the layout department; the plating and polishing room, where the
copper cylinders are prepared; the etching room; and the press room.
The press has a capacity of 24 full newspaper-size pages, eight of them
in color; or 48 tabloid-size pages, with 16 in color.
52. The GENERAL CABLE CORPORATION FACTORY (vis-
ited 8-4 workdays), 3600 E. Olympic Blvd., manufactures various
types of electrical conductors. The company designed and manufac-
tured the i. 4-inch hollow copper cable that carries 287,000 volts of
electrical energy from Boulder Dam 271 miles across mountains and
desert to Los Angeles. This cable is 1,640 miles long.
Visitors see the conversion of 2OO-pound copper billets into wire,
the spinning of these wires into cables, and the covering of the cables
with cotton braid and asphalt, to the accompaniment of a deafening
roar of machinery.
53. The low, metal O'KEEFE & MERRITT COMPANY FAC-
TORY (visited on application), 3700 E. Olympic Blvd., covering six
acres, presents a serrated profile along its sides becaues of its rows of
tilted skylights. It annually produces $2,500,000 worth of gas ranges,
room and water heaters, electric refrigerators, air coolers for desert
homes, and other home appliances, and employs 500 to 600 men. Visi-
tors see the various operations of manufacture: rolling and stamping of
sheet metal parts, iron foundry work, and the enameling of stove and
54- The LOS ANGELES UNION STOCK YARDS (visitors ad-
mitted), 4500 Downey Rd., is the largest in the n western states, oc-
cupying approximately 35 acres, 75 per cent of which holds pens for
cattle, sheep, and hogs. It has loading docks, trackage, and six large
scales. The trim administration building of modified Spanish type,
with towers and tiled roofs, is particularly elegant for such a business.
The rancher ships his stock to the yards, addressed to himself or
his commission man; there it is weighed on government scales and run
1 66 LOS ANGELES
into sales pens for inspection by the buyers. All sales are on an imme-
diate-cash basis. In 1937, 365,037 cattle, 114,405 calves, 90,305 sheep,
and 856,000 hogs were sold from the yard.
55. The PACKING HOUSE OF THE CALAVO GROWERS
OF CALIFORNIA (visitors 8-5 workdays), 4803 Everett Ave., an
elongated concrete and glass building, packs and ships 85 per cent of
the fruit from southern California's 14,000 acres of avocados. The
plant, together with one in San Diego County, both owned by the
grower's co-operative association, handles as much as 17,000,000 pounds
of avocados a year, direct from the orchards (see Tour 3).
The fruit is carried by belt through a cleaner of revolving brushes,
then to brightly lighted tables for grading and branding. Fruit that
fails to meet the test for branding is sold locally.
Besides avocados, the association handles 85 per cent of the Cali-
fornia date crop (see Tour 2), much of the California lime crop, and
its imported citrons and mangoes.
56. The STUDEBAKER PACIFIC CORPORATION PLANT
(visitors 10-2 workdays), 453O Loma Vista Ave., consists of a building
of modern lines and an older assembly plant of yellow brick. This is
the only branch assembly plant in the United States of the Studebaker
Corporation of South Bend, Ind., and serves, the far western states.
A hundred cars can be turned out daily in an eight-hour shift. Such
equipment as tires, batteries, springs, bumpers, paint, and thinner comes
from local factories.
Visitors inspect the paint shop, where a coat of paint is applied and
dried in five minutes; and the assembly line, where, beginning with a
frame, parts are added until the car rolls away under its own power.
57. The massive eight-story WESTLAND TERMINAL BUILD-
ING (open 8-5 workdays), 4814 Loma Vista Ave., is topped with an
ornate tower. From it are distributed motor cars, radios, and refriger-
58. Under the saw-toothed roofs of its four-and-a-half-acre plant, the
WOOLWINE-NORRIS CORPORATION (visitors 8-5 workdays),
5119 S. Riverside Dr., manufactures electric ranges and water heaters,
oil-burning space heaters, and sheet metal products. All parts of the
ranges, with the exception of porcelain, are manufactured here. Visi-
tors see lo-foot shears that cut metal of lo-gauge thickness, stamping
machines that form metal parts under a pressure of 115 tons, electric
spot welding machines, and the range assembly line.
59- The office facade of the U.S. PORCELAIN ENAMEL COM-
PANY PLANT (open to groups on request, 8-5 workdays), 4653 E.
52nd Dr., is ornamented with bright "tiles" of porcelain-enameled iron.
Visitors are taken through the metal room, with its lO-foot shears and
115-ton stamping machines; and the rooms where the metal is coated
with feldspar and silica, colored with various oxides, and baked in
ovens at 1,600. In the ovens the minerals are melted into glass and
fused with the iron, producing a durable glossy coating.
60. The MAYWOOD GLASS FACTORY (visited on application),
THE INDUSTRIAL SECTION 167
5615 S. Riverside Dr., a miscellaneous collection of buildings covering
ten acres, manufactures an average of 70 to 80 tons of bottles and jars
a day. Visitors see the two huge furnaces, each with a capacity of 125
tons of molten glass. Silica, soda ash, and lime are constantly fed at
one end of the furnace, while molten glass is measured out at the other,
the exact amount required for each article being released automatically
into the molding machines, from which the bottles are carried on slow
conveyors through long annealing ovens; there they are gradually
cooled until ready for packing.
61. The CONSOLIDATED STEEL CORPORATION PLANT
(open to students and technicians), is entered at the northeast corner
Slauson and Eastern Aves. but is scattered over fifty acres of land.
The steel-fabricating factory with saw-toothed roofs rises behind
sprawling white office buildings of the ranch type. The plant, employ-
ing I >35 m busy seasons, ships steel boilers, bridges, cables, derricks,
gates, oil refinery equipment, portable buildings, and towers.
The corporation supplied three ring-seal headgates, costing $120,-
ooo, to the TVA for the Hiwassee Dam in North Carolina, and 40
ring-seal headgates for the Grand Coulee Irrigation Project in Wash-
ington; it fabricated the 2,422 steel towers for the Boulder Dam
transmission line; and fabricated and installed the huge steel dome for
the telescopic lens of the Palomar Mountain Observatory in San Diego
62. The administration building of the CHRYSLER MOTORS AS-
SEMBLY PLANT (group tours 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. workdays), SE.
corner Slauson and Eastern Aves., is of the modified Mediterranean
style, with red-tiled roofs and massive oak doors. In the 3O-acre plant
behind it all Plymouth motor cars and Dodge trucks sold in California,
Nevada, Arizona, and Hawaii are assembled. The plant has a daily
capacity of 240 cars and 50 trucks, and receives 64 car loads of material
63. Seen from the air, the 27-acre concrete PLANT OF THE PIO-
NEER-FLINTKOTE COMPANY (open to adults on application),
5500 S. Alameda St., forms an intricate pattern, combining curves with
the parallels of serrated roofs. It manufactures a wide variety of as-
phalt roofing and waterproofing materials, chipboard, corrugated car-
tons, and the like. It is the largest of six factories producing similar
products in the Los Angeles area.
Visitors are first shown the storage rooms, where are stacked thou-
sands of tons of baled rags, collected from many parts of the world, and
wood pulp from the forests of northwestern America and Sweden. The
processing operations are seen next: the shredding and mixing of the
raw materials that are then fed from roller to roller of a machine more
than 400 feet long, from which they emerge as the finished product.
In other rooms paper is impregnated with asphalt distilled from oil in
the plant and cut into strip shingles.
64. In the PLANT OF THE CALIFORNIA SANITARY CAN-
NING COMPANY, LTD. (visited on application), 5000 Long
1 68 LOS ANGELES
Beach Blvd., many kinds of California fruits and vegetables are proc-
essed and canned for a world market. During an average season 7,500
tons of peaches, 5,000 tons of apricots, 7,000 tons of tomatoes, 3,000
tons of spinach, and large quantities of lima beans and ham, pork
and beans, baby lima beans, kidney beans, peas, and olives are handled.
65. The FACTORY OF THE GOODYEAR TIRE AND RUB-
BER COMPANY OF CALIFORNIA (two-hour guided tours 9:30
a.m. and 1:30 p.m. workdays}, 6701 S. Central Ave., is a group of large
brick buildings on a 74-acre tract planted with lawns and trees. This is
the largest of four major automobile tire manufacturing plants in the
Los Angeles area. This plant, supplying 1 1 Western states, Alaska, and
Hawaii, has a maximum production of 15,000 tires daily, and employs
1,500 to 2,500 workers.
Visitors first see the storage room, where thousands of tons of raw
rubber from the company's own plantations in Sumatra and the Philip-
pines are stacked. The raw rubber is cut into small pieces by a machine
called a pie-cutter and thoroughly mixed with chemicals. It is then
pressed together with fabric (strong cotton cords), between large
cylinders. The resulting material is combined with beads of rubber-
covered piano wire to produce a raw tire, which is then cured and
vulcanized with a tread. In another department, compounded rubber
in a long continuous tube is marked off in lengths, fitted with valves,
and cut. The ends are then spliced together by an electric weld process,
forming inner tubes.
66. A wide expanse of lawn and flower-beds and the brick administra^
tion building of the U.S. ELECTRICAL MOTORS, INC., PLANT
(one-hour tour, ivorking hours), 2OO E. Slauson Ave., hide the factory
buildings with their saw-toothed roofline. This is the largest producer
of electric motors in the western states.
Visitors follow the making of a motor from the rough castings to
the completed products in the testing department.
The North and East Sections
Northeast Los Angeles occupies a corner of the original Pueblo of
Los Angeles, and the southern part of Rancho San Rafael, oldest land
grant in Alta (upper) California, dating from 1784. Eight square
leagues 443 square miles comprised the gift of Pedro Fages, fourth
Spanish governor of California, to Jose Maria Verdugo, in token of the
friendship of a captain for one of his privates on the Portola expedition
of 1769 (see The Historic Background). Intervening years have
transformed the region into an urban residential section, broken by such
metropolitan features as a large county hospital, a zoo, an anthropologi-
cal museum, a university, and four much-frequented city parks.
Streets crossing at oblique angles in the hilly terrain require a close
watch for the markers.
S. from City Hall on Main St.; L. from Main on 3rd St.; R. from
jrd on 4th PL which becomes E. 4th St.
Crossing the Los Angeles River, East 4th Street traverses BOYLE
HEIGHTS, an area roughly bounded by the river, Brooklyn Ave.,
Indiana St., and 9th St., a section teeming with Jews and Mexicans.
It was named for an Irish immigrant, Andrew A. Boyle, who in the
early days operated a vineyard and winery in the vicinity. In the late
i88o's the section was one of the city's finest residential districts; many
of the old houses still stand, dilapidated and subdivided into cramped
flats; around them are the newer, smaller houses occupied by the rest
of the 2OO,oooodd residents of the district. On the main business
street, Boyle Avenue, which is crossed by 4th Street and lined with
large open-air fruit-and-vegetable stands, 5-and-io cent stores, fish stalls,
and kosher markets, an occasional bronze-skinned Mexican boy with
shoeshine equipment slung over shoulder darts among gesticulating
shoppers, alert for cut-rate street-corner customers. In the district are
many small, frame Jewish synagogues, several large homes for the
Jewish aged and blind, two city parks, a hospital, and a girls' orphanage.
HOLLENBECK PARK (R), a breathing spot between E. 4th
St., S. St. Louis St., S. Boyle Ave., and Cummings St., covers more
than 20 acres. Lying in a rough curve below the steep landscaped
hills is a five-acre lake (boating}. Only small sections of the shore are
visible from any one spot, and unsuspected vistas open with each turn.
I7O LOS ANGELES
L. from 4th St. on Soto St.; R. from Soto on 3rd St.
67. CHURCH OF OUR LADY OF LOURDES (open all hours},
3772 E. 3rd. St., was designed by L. G. Scherer in a highly stylized
adaptation of the Spanish mission type of church. The building, dom-
inated by a lofty, metal-capped corner tower, is notable for fine stone
and metal grilles. The traditional beamed ceiling of the nave is in
sharp contrast with the pointed arches bordering the side aisles and the
stepped silhouette of the chancel arch. Over the altar is a slender
silk and gold canopy.
Retrace jrd St.; R. from 3rd on Soto St. passing out of Boyle Heights;
L. from Soto on Marengo St.; R. from Marengo on N. State St.
68. The 2O-story ACUTE UNIT (adm. Fri. 2-3 p.m.; guide, free),
1 200 N. State St., largest of the 123 structures on the 56-acre grounds
of the LOS ANGELES COUNTY GENERAL HOSPITAL, stands
on a knoll and is visible from a large part of the city. The building,
of white concrete, is constructed in the wing and set-back style. From
both sides of the long, narrow central mass two large wings extend to
form the four shafts of an H ; front and rear extensions of the central
portion carry a smaller wing on either side. The $13,000,000 building,
completed in 1933 after five years of research and six years of construc-
tion, is the composite work of 60 local architects. It has 75 wards, 1 6
major surgeries, 4 maternity suites, an acre of kitchen space where
10,500 meals a day are prepared for the staff and patients, and a bed
capacity of 2,500.
From the unit an underground passage cuts westward through the
grounds to the red-brick and concrete buildings of the OSTEOPATHIC
HOSPITAL, which is the second of the two divisions in the hospital
administration. Adjacent are the two-story Main Nurses' Home and
its cottages, the three-story Laundry, the two-story COMMUNICABLE
DISEASES BUILDING, the two-story PSYCHOPATHIC BUILDING, and a
heavily-barred two-story building for confinement of ailing county jail
The General Hospital is the outgrowth of the Los Angeles In-
firmary, opened in an adobe house in the i85o's. The first building on
the present site, a two-story frame structure, was erected in 1878.
Today (1939) the institution has a bed capacity of 3,600, which can
be expanded to 5,000 in an emergency. The average daily ward-patient
load is 2,500. Of the 3,500 employees in the institution, 237 are full-
time physicians and internes, 784 are registered nurses, and 397 are
student nurses; 525 local physicians contribute part-time services free.
The hospital admits indigents able to meet residence requirements
who are acutely ill or maternity cases, indigent emergency, communi-
cable disease, and psychopathic cases and county jail prisoners.
L. from N. State on Zonal Ave.; R. from Zonal on Mission Rd.
Forty-six-acre LINCOLN PARK (R), in the angle formed by
Mission Rd. and Valley Blvd., with rolling tree-shaded lawns around
THE NORTH AND EAST SECTIONS 171
a six-acre lake (boating), is next to Sycamore Grove in popularity for
state society picnics.
69. At the extreme eastern edge of the park is a CONSERVATORY
(open workdays l-$; Sat., Sun. and holidays 10-5 ; free), in which is
an extensive collection of tropical plants. Other attractions are a picnic
ground (free), and facilities for outdoor sports.
70. A white one-story stucco house with two-story tower rooms at the
ends is the entrance to the LOS ANGELES OSTRICH FARM
(open 9-6; adm. 2$$, children 10$), 3609 Mission Rd., lone survivor
of several such farms that thrived in southern California in the days
of plume-bedecked feminine headgear. The farm was opened in 1906
during the picture-hat vogue. It now breeds ostriches exclusively for
exhibition on the grounds, in zoos, circuses, and motion pictures. The
birds are sold to foreign markets as well as in America.
71. Behind a white stucco entrance building with a narrow two-story
columned portico over a long, one-story columned porch is the CALI-
FORNIA ALLIGATOR FARM (open 9-6; adm. 25 j), 3627 Mis-
sion Rd., home of 1,000 alligators of various sizes and ages, from four-
inch newly hatched babies to a 1 3-foot monster 325 years old. Not
counted in the census are the potential 'gators in the incubators, which
are also on exhibition. The great cannibalistic lizards are segregated,
according to size, in 20 pools on the farm. Some of them perform
tricks for visitors, such as sliding down chutes.
L. from Mission Rd. on Huntington Dr. N.; L. from Huntington on
Monterey Rd.; L. from Monterey on Ave. 60.
North of the intersection with Monterey Road, Avenue 60 crosses
a bridge over ARROYO SECO (dry watercourse), a steep-banked
channel that, dry in summer, carries winter rainy-season run-off from
the San Gabriel Mountains into the Los Angeles River.
72. ARROYO SECO PARK is that part of the Arroyo Seco extend-
ing from the crossing of Pasadena Avenue in Los Angeles to the south-
ern boundary of Brookside Park. In the 276-acre strip, still largely
unimproved, are tennis and horseshoe courts, softball diamonds, bowling
greens, and a children's playground. Northeastward, the Arroyo Seco
forms part of the western boundary of Pasadena (see Pasadena).
R. from Ave. 60 on N. Figueroa St. (US 66, State n).
73. The intersection of North Figueroa St. and Colorado Blvd. af-
fords the best view of grayish, dome-like EAGLE ROCK (R), with
a natural formation on its west face which resembles a great spread-
winged eagle; the likeness is most pronounced when the shadows fall
directly downward at noon. The formation was remarked by the
Franciscan explorers and chronicled by many writers of early southern
California historical lore. The rock is privately owned.
L. from N. Figueroa St. on Colorado Blvd. (State 134).
Colorado Boulevard is the main business street of EAGLE ROCK
(562 alt., 12,349 pop.), a suburban district settled in the i88o's and
172 LOS ANGELES
incorporated in 1911, when it was approximately nine miles from Los
Angeles. The metropolis eventually surrounded and in 1923 absorbed
L. from Colorado Blvd. on Eagle Rock Blvd.; L. from Eagle Rock
Blvd. on Ridgeview Ave.; R. from Ridgeview on Campus Rd.
74. The 14 buildings on the 85-acre campus of OCCIDENTAL
COLLEGE, 1600 Campus Rd., describe a rough semicircle in the
San Rafael Hills. The buildings, of modified Italian Renaissance type,
are of grayish-white stucco with red-tiled roofs. They have often been
used as the setting for movies with college scenes.
The college, now nonsectarian and co-educational, was founded by
Presbyterian ministers and laymen in Boyle Heights in 1887. The
present campus was acquired in 1910. A thousand-acre tract in the
foothills of the Santa Monica Mountains has been donated to the
college for future expansion.
The college offers courses in liberal arts and natural sciences; a
graduate school grants the Master of Arts degree. The student body
numbers about 750, the faculty 70. There is an outdoor Hillside
Theatre seating 5,000 in addition to the usual college recreational
Campus Rd. curves southward and becomes Ave. 48; L. from Ave. 48
on York Blvd.; R. fro?n York Blvd. on Ave. 50; R. from Ave. $0
on Figueroa St.
SYCAMORE GROVE PARK, bounded by Figueroa St., Ave. 49,
and the Arroyo Seco, covers 15 landscaped acres adjoining a section
of Arroyo Seco Park. Sycamore Grove is one of the favorite picnic
grounds of state societies. At these affairs thousands of former resi-
dents of other states gather annually for speeches, sports, and picnic
lunches. The park, purchased by the city in 1905 and increased to its
present size by donation in 1907, accommodates 28,000 picnickers.
Facilities include a public address system, tables, stoves (free firewood) ,
and tennis courts.
75. CASA DE ADOBE (open 2-5 Wed. and Sun.; free), 4605 N.
Figueroa St., at a corner of the park, is a faithful copy of an early
19th-century southern California house built in 1916 to perpetuate the
home setting of the state's Spanish settlers. It is owned by the South-
The one-story yellow-stuccoed, tile-roofed building surrounds a
patio, 50 feet square planted with a profusion of trees and flowers.
The casa is furnished in the manner of the early homes. In the bano