citrus groves, vineyards, and truck farms cut by rock- and gravel-strewn
washes and containing many attractive little towns. When this valley
was owned by Mission San Gabriel Arcangel (see Tour 5), mission-
trained Indians tended great herds of sheep, cattle and horses; tilled
cornfields, and tended orchards here. When the power of the missions
was curtailed (see Pueblo to Metropolis}, San Gabriel Valley was
broken into Ranchos El Rincon de San Pascual, Santa Anita, and
others. After California had come under American rule, Yankees,
some of them marrying into native families, acquired much of the land
and began developing the country. Most of their heirs dissipated their
wealth, and the great ranchos were divided among small holders.
North of the valley the twisting but well-paved road rapidly ascends
the San Bernardino Mountains, reaching an elevation of more than a
mile and a quarter. High in the pine-and fir-clothed San Bernardino
National Forest are three popular recreational resorts luxurious
Arrowhead, popular-priced Big Bear, and undeveloped Baldwin.
From the CITY HALL, m., the route runs north on Main Street
to Macy Street; R. on Macy to Mission Road; L. on Mission Road
to Huntington Drive North; L. on Huntington Drive North.
In SOUTH PASADENA, 7 m. (600 alt., 14,356 pop.) (see Tour
1A), is a junction with Fair Oaks Ave. (see Tour 1A).
SAN MARINO, 9.7 m. (557 alt., 8,175 pop.), a residential com-
munity with carefully enforced development restrictions, has many
costly mansions and fine bungalows spread over the flat plain of San
278 LOS ANGELES
Gabriel Valley and along the rolling San Gabriel foothills. Factories
are banned here, as are multiple-unit dwellings; municipal supervision
extends even to the cost and design of proposed structures.
San Marino, once part of the lands owned by Mission San Gabriel,
was included in the I5,ooo-acre Rancho San Pascual (see Pasadena)
granted in 1835 by Governor Figueroa to Juan Marine, a retired
officer who had served Spain as a lieutenant of artillery in the Depart-
ment of Mexico. From him it passed through several hands, and in
the i86o's was acquired by James DeBarth Shorb as a wedding gift.
In 1903 Henry E. Huntington bought the property, razed the old Shorb
home, later built the mansion that is now an art gallery, and named
the tract for the European Republic of San Marino.
SAN MARINO CITY PARK, between Old Mill and Monterey Rds.
and Virginia Ave., west of the middle of town, is a recreational center
with a large garden containing several hundred varieties of roses.
HUNTINGTON LIBRARY AND ART GALLERY (open daily except
Mon. 1:15-4:30 p.m., closed in Oct.; free; adm. by card only, obtained
by written application stating preferred date of admission, enclosing
stamped, addressed envelope; Pacific Electric streetcar service from Los
Angeles), Stratford and Oxford Rds., contains an important collection
of rare books and manuscripts, paintings, sculptures, porcelains, tapes-
tries, bronzes, miniatures, and fine old furniture. The library building,
a French Renaissance adaptation, is E-shaped; it is of white stone and
has a red tile roof. The front is windowless, and the entrances flank a
colonnade. In the building are approximately 200,000 books, 4,000
manuscripts, nearly 1,000,000 letters and other holographs, and large
numbers of first and early editions and English and American literary
manuscripts. These are in Exhibition Hall (R) near the main en-
trance; among the treasures are the manuscript of Benjamin Franklin's
autobiography, a genealogy in the handwriting of George Washington,
letters from President Lincoln to General Grant, a rare Gutenberg
Bible, the Ellesmere Chaucer, a Shakespeare first folio, a volume of
Massachusetts laws of 1648, and other important items. In four rooms
of the west wing is the Arabella D. Huntington Memorial Art Collec-
tion of Italian and Flemish paintings of the I5th and i6th-centuries,
and sculptures, bronzes, porcelains, fine furniture, and other art objects,
chiefly from 18th-century France.
The Art Gallery, designed in the Georgian manner and built in
1910 by Henry E. Huntington as his home, faces a lawn-covered court
with a trim evergreen hedge, royal palms, and a marble fountain. This
building contains an unusually fine collection of 18th-century English
portraits, a number of landscapes of the period, and tapestries, minia-
tures, and French and English furniture. In one room are six Gains-
boroughs, including The Blue Boy; five paintings by Reynolds, among
them his portrait of the English tragedienne, Sarah Siddons, as The
Tragic Muse; Lawrence's Pinkie; a Hoppner; a Raeburn; and a Con-
stable. The favorite room of visitors is the library of the gallery.
Here is the tapestry La Noble Pastorale, designed by Francois Boucher
TOUR I 279
and woven on the royal looms at Beauvais during the reign of Louis
XV. Boucher also designed the chairs and fire screen.
The Botanical Gardens has 50 acres of plants and flowers, many
of them rare. Notable is a large cactus garden containing an unusually
comprehensive collection of desert flora.
Henry E. Huntington (1850-1927), founder of the estate, owned
large interests in the Los Angeles street railways and the Pacific Elec-
tric interurban system. He was a nephew and heir of Collis P. Hunt-
ington (see The Historical Background), one of the founders of the
Central Pacific Railroad. At the age of 60, Henry Huntington, with
the advice of experts, began his art collection. At his death in 1927, he
gave his estate and treasures to the public by deed of trust and provided
maintenance funds under supervision of a self-perpetuating board of
trustees. Huntington and his wife are buried on the grounds in a
circular white marble mausoleum with a low, column-supported dome.
In SANTA ANITA PARK (season varies; adm. $1.10, parking
, 13.2 m., which covers more than 200 acres is held the climactic
event of the southern California winter horse races; this is the annual
$100,000 Santa Anita Handicap a mile-and-a-quarter for three-year-
olds and up, usually run last week of meet. The light-green concrete
grandstand, seating 20,000, with six betting rings and a score of private
boxes, faces the one-mile oval track from the southwest. On the roof
at the eastern end is the press box, the camera booth where race fin-
ishes are recorded on film and a radio broadcasting booth.
In the clubhouse, a modern concrete building reached from the
grandstand by a footbridge, are a restaurant, lounge, telegraph offices,
four betting rings, private-boxes, and a private terraced grandstand with
easy chairs. In the grassy infield, reached from the grandstand by a
tunnel, are large, carefully-tended flower beds. Fifteen hundred horses
can be cared for in the stables.
The track, opened Christmas Day 1934, under the management of
the Los Angeles Turf Club, Incorporated, is under the supervision of
the State Horse-Racing Board. The average seasonal attendance is
800,000, and during the first four years more than $25,000,000 was
wagered through the pari-mutuel betting machines.
The sprawling old frame buildings (R) of the LYON PONY EX-
PRESS MUSEUM (open 8-6 daily; adm. adults 25$, children 10^), 14
m. } contain a collection of early-day western relics, including a bullet-
scarred pioneer barroom and an office equipped with Wells-Fargo Ex-
press Company furniture, safes, records and other equipment.
In the barroom is what the owner asserts is the largest known gold
scale, "so delicate that it will weigh a pencil mark." In the Indian
Room are human scalps, many arrowheads, tomahawks, and other
artifacts. Among other relics are a San Francisco vigilante bell that
tolled the death of nearly 50 bandits, a shotgun 12 feet long; waxed
figures of notable characters of the old West; stagecoaches, including
five old Concords; five hand-drawn fire engines; hundreds of revolvers
and rifles ; an old Spanish cannon ; an early printing office with a Wash-
280 LOS ANGELES
ington hand press; an extensive collection of early Western photo-
graphs; and a '49 gambling set-up with roulette wheels, lottery, faro
tables, loaded dice, and marked cards.
The museum, founded in Pasadena in 1922 by W. Parker Lyon,
quondam mayor of Fresno, California, was moved to this place in 1935.
At 14 77z. is the junction with US 66 (Colorado Place), which
unites eastward with Huntington Drive North.
Left on Colorado Place 1.5 m. to Old Ranch Road; L. here to the center of
the remnant of RANCHO SANTA ANITA, 2 m. f where the fabulous E. J. (Lucky)
Baldwin held forth between the years 1875-1909, when he died at the age of
8 1 in comparative poverty. Among fine old palms, eucalyptuses, oaks, pepper
trees, and locust trees are the barn, where Baldwin kept his many thorough-
bred horses, the coach house topped with Victorian pseudo belfries, the log
cabin Baldwin brought here from his father's Hamilton, Ohio farm in the
i88o's, the cottage of Queen Anne design that was once the Baldwin guest
house and art gallery, and the HUGO REID ADOBE built by the Rancho Santa
Anita owner of 1839.
When first granted, the Rancho Santa Anita of more than 13,000 acres,
extended from the oak-covered San Gabriel foothills across most of the valley
floor, encompassing the sites of the modern cities of Sierra Madre, Arcadia,
and Monrovia. Like the rest of the valley, it had belonged to Mission San
Gabriel, but in 1841 Governor Alvarado granted it to Hugo Reid, an English-
man who married an Indian woman. Six years later Reid sold it for $4,000.
The property was transferred several times subsequently in 1854 for $33,000
and in 1872 for $85,000; the latter sale was to Harris Newmark, a Los Angeles
merchant. In 1875 "Lucky" Baldwin offered Newmark $150,000 cash for this
holding. Newmark wanted $175,000; Baldwin hedged. By the time he decided
to pay Newmark's price it was $200,000. And for $200,000 "Lucky" took title
to the ranch, reduced by that time to 8,000 acres. The mining king imme-
diately invested $100,000 in Kentucky thoroughbreds, built stables, and im-
proved the irrigation system. Until 1883, when he subdivided a large section
of the land, Baldwin continued to acquire adjoining property, in time holding
some 50,000 acres; he planted walnut, almond, peach, pear, apricot, Japanese
persimmon, olive, camphor, and pepper trees, experimented with the growing
of coffee and tea plants and maintained a large vineyard and winery. At the
height of its prosperity, the ranch was valued at $10,000,000.
Elias Jackson Baldwin was born in Ohio in 1828. At 16 he was already
known as a shrewd horse trader, at 18 he was married, and at 20 he owned
a general store and three boats transporting grain from Chicago to St. Louis.
He arrived in California in 1853; by 1875 he had already amassed between
five and eight million dollars, beginning with hotel and livery stable invest-
ments, later branching into mining. He was nicknamed "Lucky" because of
his fabulous mining success.
But the squire of Santa Anita was even more famed for his love affairs
than for his mining luck. Four and possibly five times married, he was
also the protector of numerous other young women from time to time. In
1883 one f them shot him in the arm, later sued him for the maintenance
of her child, and finally went insane. In 1884 shortly after one of his
marriages, a i6-year-old inamorata appeared, announced herself a prior
fiancee, and won a judgment of $75,000. In 1888 he was again sued by a
woman who introduced a child as evidence. Himself 60, Baldwin observed:
"The woman is old and homely. Anyone who has seen her would not credit
her charge against me." The woman was 31. In court, toward the end
of the trail, a sister of the complainant fired a pistol at "Lucky," barely missing
his head. "Baldwin's own reputation," said the court, "if not national, was
certainly more than local. . . . Wherefore we indulge the not unreasonable
hope that this case will prove the last of a malodorous brood."
TOUR I 28l
ARCADIA, 14.4 m. (495 alt., 9,122 pop.), a business center for
owners of orchards and vegetable farms, is on virtually level valley
floor, below occasional large estates, orchards, and vineyards of the foot-
hills. It was founded during a general real-estate boom in 1903 by
Lucky Baldwin, on his Rancho Santa Anita.
The SANTA ANITA PLAYGROUND, on the western outskirts of town,
contains a large swimming pool, an i8-hole golf course, large shady pic-
nic grounds, eight tennis courts, sand boxes, six horseshoe quoits courts,
a baseball field with a concrete grandstand, and other recreational
The SANTA ANITA STATION of the Santa Fe Railway, built in 1882
on what is now the outskirts of Arcadia, still uses an iron-bellied wood-
stove, and, as in the past, contains a post office. Although passengers
seldom entrain here now, all trains except the Chief and the Super
Chief can be flagged to a stop; this privilege harks back to the days
when Baldwin, learning that a certain train had not stopped at Santa
Anita, ordered 200 men to tear up the Santa Fe tracks through his
ranch. Trains stopped at Santa Anita thereafter.
Left from Arcadia on Santa Anita Avenue to the junction with Foothill
Boluevard, 0.8 m.; L. on Foothill Boulevard to the junction with Baldwin
Avenue, 1.9 m.; R. on Baldwin Avenue to SIERRA MADRE (mother range),
2.8 m. (835 alt., 3,550 pop.), on a slope of the San Gabriel Mountains, also
once part of the extensive Rancho Santa Anita. Sierra Madre was subdivided
in 1882 by Nathaniel C. Carter, a New Englander who had gone into business
in Los Angeles, but it was not incorporated until 1907. Although partly sur-
rounded by estates, the town is largely supported by the business of growers
of oranges, lemons, grapefruit, guavas, avocados, persimmons, and figs.
The WISTERIA VINE (open 9-4. daily; adm. 10$), on the Fennel estate,
Carter St. and Hermosa Ave., almost engulfs the house of its owner, running
over arbors and into trees. The vine, which usually blooms during the last
two weeks of March, was planted in 1893. The Wisteria Fete held annually
at Blossoming time attracts thousands.
MONROVIA, 15.9 m. (560 alt., 12,807 pop.), close to the pro-
tecting San Gabriel Mountains, is a modern town with wide, shaded
streets, well-kept lawns, flower gardens, and semitropical trees. It has
a Carnegie Library, a symphony orchestra, and three municipal parks;
it manufactures water heaters, pipe, soap and cemetery monuments.
The town was named for W. N. Monroe, a Civil War veteran who
was one of three men who established it in 1886 after buying a hundred
acres from Lucky Baldwin for $29,855, and another hundred acres
from the owner of Rancho Azusa de Duarte (see below}.
On Gold Hill, at the northern end of Alta Vista Street, is the
A. E. CRONENWETT TROPICAL PLANTATION, in which is an orchard
with a dozen varieties of papaya trees and experimental plantings of
other tropical fruit trees. The papayas were grown from seeds, im-
ported from the Hawaiian and Philippine Islands, Guatemala, Costa
Rica, Panama, Nicaragua, southern Mexico, Ceylon, Tahiti, India,
and the Malay Peninsula. Carica papaya, like the palm, is branchless,
its trunk culminating in a crest of palmately lobed leaves about two feet
282 LOS ANGELES
wide. The fruit, which grows in clusters among the stalks of the
leaves, attaining a length of eight to ten inches, is shaped like a musk-
melon. It matures and blossoms at all seasons, green fruit and ripe
are frequently on the tree at the same time. The papaya is used as a
breakfast fruit, and is made into marmalade, jelly, pickles, and other
DUARTE, 18.4 m. (540 alt.. 2,197 pop.), is the business center
of a district producing citrus fruits and avocados. The town lies on
part of the Rancho Azusa de Duarte, a Mexican grant made in 1841
to Andreas Duarte by Governor Alvarado in reward for military ser-
vices. In 1864-65, after a mortgage on it was foreclosed, it was sub-
East of Duarte the highway crosses the San Gabriel River, 19.4 m.,
dry in summer, often a torrent in winter. Gravel and rock for railroad
and highway construction are taken from the river-bed in great quan-
In AZUSA, 21.2 m. (611 alt., 5,209 pop.), at the mouth of San
Gabriel Canyon (see Tour IB), are three packing houses that ship
approximately 2,000 cars of Valencia oranges a year. Lemons, grape-
fruit, tangerines, avocados, and walnuts are also shipped, as well as
poultry, dairy products, and honey. The town also manufactures
chemicals, pipe, and fertilizer.
The origin of the word Azusa is vague. It was the name given to
this district by the Spanish settlers, and was doubtless their inaccurate
pronunciation of its original Indian name, which was Asuksagua
(lodge) according to one source, and Asuksagna (place of skunks) ac-
cording to another.
Like Duarte, Azusa is on part of the former Rancho Azusa de
Duarte. In 1844 Henry Dalton, merchant, shipowner, and importer,
bought this ranch from its Mexican owner for $7,000. He fought
such a long battle in the courts to evict squatters that he exhausted
his capital and had to borrow money from J. S. Slauson, a Los Angeles
banker, to carry on. Eventually he lost the property through fore-
closure and Slauson and associates founded the town on it in 1898.
Six-acre AZUSA CITY PARK, along Foothill Boulevard, surrounds
the Civic BUILDING, which houses not only the city offices but also
the public library, Chamber of Commerce, and the Civic Auditorium.
Azusa is at the junction with State 39 (see Tour IB).
GLENDORA (L), 23.9 m. (776 alt., 2,822 pop.), also near the
San Gabriel foothills, calls itself "the Citrus City." It is entirely
surrounded by citrus groves and has six large citrus packing plants.
The town, founded in 1887 by George Whitcomb, a Chicago manu-
facturer, was incorporated in 1911.
At 27.1 m. is a junction with San Dimas Avenue.
Right on San Dimas Avenue to SAN DIMAS, 1.5 m. (955 alt., 3,588 pop.),
close to the San Jose Hills on the southern side of San Gabriel Valley. Citrus
packing is the chief industry but berries, vegetables, and small fruits are also
grown in the environs. There are a number of nurseries here growing orna-
TOUR I 283
mental and deciduous trees and tropical and semitropical flowers. Many of
the houses have verandas covered with honeysuckle and the lavender-blossom-
The town is named for a canyon in the San Gabriel Mountains where
Ignacio Palomares (see below} is said to have pastured his herds. Because
thieving Indians raided his cattle there, so the story goes, Palomares named
the canyon for the repentant thief, Dimas, who was crucified with Christ.
Right from San Dimas on San Dimas Ave. 3.5 m. to the junction with
Mountain Meadows Rd. ; L. on Mountain Meadows Rd., to PUDDING-
STONE DAM (R), 4.5 m., chief of three in the Puddingstone Creek-Covina
Wash flood control project. The main dam, of the earth-fill, concrete-core
type, is more than 1,000 feet long and 147 feet high. Two lesser gaps in
the hills are closed by the smaller dams. The three dams create Puddingstone
Reservoir, with a surface area of nearly 500 acres; it is stocked with black
bass, blue-gill perch and catfish (black bass fishing Dec. I to May 29).
At 27.6 m. on US 66 is the junction with San Dimas Canyon Rd.
Left here to SAN DIMAS CANYON PARK (picnicking facilities; free),
0.3 m., more than a hundred acres of natural woodland maintained by Los
LA VERNE, 29.4 m. (1,050 alt., 3,092 pop.), has four citrus
packing plants. The metal-corniced red-brick buildings along San
Dimas Avenue, the main business street, date from 1891.
La Verne was founded as Lordsburg, during the boom days of 1888
(see The Historical Background) ; when the boom burst, a three-story
$75,000 hotel, stark and empty, remained as a monument. In 1890 the
Santa Fe Railway, which had built a station near the settlement, of-
fered: "A free ride from anywhere east of the Rocky Mountains to
Lordsburg, California. Anyone purchasing $500 worth of lots in
Lordsburg will have his fare paid, and for $750, the fare of two
persons." Members of the Church of the German Baptist Brethren
Church, sometimes called Dunkers, responded to the offer and by 1895
constituted the majority of the 2,500 population. The present name
was adopted in 1917.
LA VERNE COLLEGE, between 1st and 3rd, College and B Sts.,
now occupies four buildings. FOUNDER'S HALL, deep in the grounds,
is a modern white concrete building containing classrooms, an audi-
torium, and the administration offices. There is one instructor for every
10 students of the 160-170 enrolled annually. The school, founded in
1891 by the Dunkers in the boom-time hotel, was first named Lords-
burg College, and opened with nearly as many students as it has todav.
Room, board, and tuition cost only $137.50 a year. During the lean
nineties the school was closed for two years, but in 1903 W. C. Hana-
walt, a Philadelphia Dunker, reopened it and enabled the students to
earn part of their subsistence; they grew vegetables and raised cattle,
milked the cows, churned the butter, and canned food for the winter.
CLAREMONT, 32 m. (1,175 alt., 3,057 pop.), surrounded by
citrus orchards, is the home of the first California citrus association,
formed in 1893. The first oranges shipped from this section about
2,000 boxes were packed on the Santa Fe Railway station platform.
284 LOS ANGELES
Today there are five large packing houses that ship approximately
750,000 boxes annually. Claremont factories produce marmalade, rugs,
tree sprayers, and air cleaners for automotive machinery.
In the early days an almost perpetual mire, for some obscure reason
called Gospel Swamp, covered much of the district. It was infested
with coyotes, wildcats, and rattlesnakes and only a few wagon trails,
winding crazily to avoid the morasses, connected Claremont with the
rest of southern California.
The town's three colleges, known collectively as Claremont Col-
leges, Inc., were planned to retain the advantages of small colleges
while providing the facilities of a university. The colleges have a com-
mon library, laboratories, and equipment, while preserving their indi-
vidual identities and traditions.
POMONA COLLEGE on a beautiful campus bounded by ist and 8th
Sts., Mills and Harvard Aves., occupies 14 buildings and has approxi-
mately 800 students. It was opened by the First District Congrega-
tional Association in a small white frame house at 5th and White Aves.
in Pomona in 1887. After the real estate boom of the i88o's was over,
it was moved to this place and housed in the unfinished and abandoned
Claremont Hotel. SUMNER HALL, called Old Sumner, is the re-
modeled hotel. Other units, some ivy-covered, some ultra-modern,
include Holmes containing the chapel, Pearson Hall of Science, the
Library, Crookshank Hall of Zoology, Frary Hall the dining quar-
ters, the new Memorial Training Building, Harwood Hall of Botany,
and Mason Hall of Chemistry.
SCRIPPS COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, bounded by Foothill Blvd., Co-
lumbia Ave., Qth St., and Amherst Ave., in 1927 became a part of
Claremont Colleges, Inc., through a gift of Miss Ellen Scripps, of the
Scripps newspaper-owning family. Rigid scholastic standards keep the
enrollment at approximately two hundred.
The seven main buildings, of modified Spanish design, stand among
gardens on a lawn shaded by wide-spreading pepper and oak trees and
CLAREMONT COLLEGE, adjoining the other two colleges, has five
main buildings and gives graduate work for about 2OO students.
At 32.7 m. is a junction with Baldy Road.
Left on Baldy Road to Palmer Canyon Road, 2.8 m.; L. here to the PADUA
HILLS THEATRE (performances Wed., Thurs., Fri., Sat., 8:30 p.m., Wed., Sat.,
2:30 p.m.; adm. $l), 3 m., the home of the Mexican Players, who have an
extensive repertoire of light comedy and drama in Spanish vernacular. The
theatre, seating about 300, is open all the year, with productions running from
two to four weeks. The buildings, of modified Spanish design, are on a gentle
slope. Adjoining are curio shops, studios, and a restaurant sheltered by a
very old olive orchard.
The Padua Hills Theatre, founded in 1930, is a non-profit organization
affiliated with the Claremont Colleges, Inc. All student-players and profes-
sionals are native Californians.
UPLAND, 35.9 m. (1,210 alt., 6,316 pop.), founded in 1882 as a
part of Ontario (see Tour #), was first called Magnolia Tract, or
TOUR I 285
Magnolia Villa. Later it became North Ontario. In 1902 it was