given its present name and in 1906 was incorporated. More than
6,000 acres of citrus trees grow in the vicinity, many of the groves
more than 45 years old, and there are nine citrus packing plants in the
city. Poultry and rabbit raising, production of honey, and tanning
are added to local income.
Euclid Avenue, a boulevard of exceptional beauty, extends from
the San Gabriel foothills southward 15 miles toward the Chino Hills.
It is a wide double-lane road shaded by large pepper and grevillea
trees. North of Foothill Boulevard the well-kept center parkway has
a bridle path, that leads to the residential section of San Antonio
Heights. At the turn of the century a horsecar line ran up the park-
way to a terminus in the foothills north of Upland. On return trips
the rickety car coasted down grade with the horses riding on the rear
At the intersection of Euclid Ave. and US 66 stands THE MA-
DOXNA OF THE TRAILS MONUMENT, a heroic figure of an idealized
pioneer woman and children framed by feathery pepper trees. The
model of the monument, which is duplicated in many places throughout
the country, was selected by popular vote in a contest conducted by
E. Marland, Oklahoma oil millionaire. This monument, erected by
the Daughters of the American Revolution, commemorates the visit
to this region of the first Americans entering California by overland
trails Jedediah Strong Smith and a party of 16 trappers in 1826.
SAN ANTONIO PARK, near the foothills to the north, is a popular
family picnic grounds named for Mount San Antonio Old Baldy.
CUCAMONGA (R), 39.1 m. (1,220 alt., 4,747 pop.), like all
cities dotting this route, is a trade center of ranches. It was named for
Cucamonga Peak (8,911 alt.), directly north. Some say that the name
means "place of many springs," others "lewd woman." The second
translation comes from a legend that an Indian chief sent his wayward
daughter to live alone on the peak.
The CUCAMONGA WINERY, 39.3 m., built in 1839 according to a
sign on the building, is the oldest winery in California. Within the
thick walls are 14 old wine storage tanks. Two 5OO-gallon vats, no
longer used, were brought around Cape Horn. The grape crusher,
first operated by hydraulic power, was replaced in 1883 by electrically
powered equipment. The annual output of dry and sweet wines, about
150,000 gallons, comes from grapes grown on the 800 acres of land
nearby (see Tour 2).
In 1839 Governor Alvarado granted to Tiburcio Tapia, a wealthy
Los Angeles merchant, some 20 square miles of land here for grazing
purposes. The grant included all of what was then called the Cuca-
monga Territory, inhabited by Cucamonga, a Shoshone tribe. One of
the stipulations of the grant, that Tapia build upon the property imme-
diately, was satisfied by erection of this winery. He also planted 12
rows of grapevines, 12 vines to a row, from San Gabriel Mission stock.
The last of these vines were removed in the late I92o's.
286 LOS ANGELES
In 1858, the property was sold to John Raines, who set out 125,000
more vines. The property eventually fell under control of the Cuca-
monga Water Company, which established the town.
East of Cucamonga the highway for several miles is bordered on
both sides by the vast vineyards of the Italian Vineyard Company
(see Tour 2).
FONTANA, 47.9 m. (1,242 alt., 3,194 pop.), lies amid 5,000 acres
of citrus orchards, 3,000 acres of walnuts, and extensive vineyards.
Here, too, are large poultry and duck ranches, and a large hog farm.
Near the foothills (L) is the UNITED STATES RABBIT EXPERIMENTAL
RIALTO, 51.5 m. (1,203 alt., 1,770 pop.), has seven citrus pack-
ing houses, a large cement pipe factory, and a ladder manufacturing
SAN BERNARDINO, 56 m. (1,073 alt., 43,646 pop.), a cosmo-
politan city that retains an atmosphere of early times missing in most
parts of southern California, lies in the flat southwestern corner of
sprawling San Bernardino County, of which it is the seat. It is com-
pact and symmetrically-platted, and its residential streets are well
shaded. Many of its dwellings and commercial buildings date from
the last century. The main business section is east and west along
Third Street, and north and south along E Street. It is the chief
trading center of a large mining and agricultural district, but the
majority of its working population is employed in the extensive shops,
yards, and offices of the Santa Fe Railway.
The region around San Bernardino was early known to the padres
of San Gabriel Mission (see Tour 3) for its fertility. Because of the
large Indian population of the region, Father Dumetz established an
asistencia (chapel) and supply station for the mission in 1810 at the
Indian village of Guachama, which was near the present-day city, and
named it in honor of St. Bernard of Sienna, patron saint of mountain
passes, because of its proximity to Cajon Pass (see Tour 7). In 1812
the Indians destroyed the outpost, blaming the numerous earthquakes
of that year on the presence of the missionaries. In 1820, however,
the station was rebuilt; a large adobe house was constructed for the
major-domo and visiting padres, and part of it used as a granary. The
chapel was merely an enramada (shed). The Indians were enrolled to
build the zanja (ditch) from Mill Creek Canyon to the station the
first irrigation ditch in the valley. In 1831 the Piute tribes from the
desert attacked the station and its Indians. By 1833, when the Mexi-
can Government secularized the church lands (see Pueblo to Metrop-
olis}, the station had again been rebuilt. In 1834 tne Piutes again
destroyed it, and the padres left it permanently.
In 1842 a land grant, Rancho de San Bernardino, was presented
by the Mexican Government to Diego Sepulveda and the three sons
of Antonio Lugo, all of Los Angeles. This grant of 37,000 acres was
one of the largest made in California.
In 1851, Captain Jefferson Hunt led 500 Mormons, with their
TOUR I 287
cattle, horses, and other necessities, from Salt Lake City to this area
and a year later the Mormons bought the rancho. Almost imme-
diately they b'uilt an elaborate stockade 300 feet wide and 700 feet
long for protection against the Indians, where the courthouse now
stands. They established a school in 1851 near the foot of Cajon
Pass and in the following year another in a tent within the stockade.
In 1853, about 24,000 square miles of land were detached from the
eastern part of Los Angeles County and named San Bernardino County ;
in the following year the town of San Bernardino was incorporated as
All the town's early structures were of adobe. The Council House,
the first public building, was constructed in 1853 inside the stockade.
The first postmaster, who worked without pay, distributed the mail
brought in by stages and on horseback from his hat in front of the fort
once a month. Mail service was very irregular until 1858, when a mail
stage line between the city and Los Angeles was established.
In 1857 Brigham Young recalled the faithful of all the nation to
Salt Lake City and a majority of the Mormons left; enough remained,
however, to give the city a present-day Mormon population of about
The coming of the railroads through Cajon Pass in 1883 gave the
settlement its first real opportunity to grow.
The SAX BERNARDINO COUNTY COURTHOUSE (1926), Arrowhead
Ave. between 3rd and 4th Sts., on the site of the Mormon fort, has
eight monumental columns on its facade. The County Jail is on the
In PIONEER PARK, 6th St. between E and F Sts., are the MEMO-
RIAL AUDITORIUM, honoring local World War dead and veterans, a
SAILORS' AND SOLDIERS' MONUMENT dedicated to the heroes of the
Mexican, Civil and Spanish-American Wars, a PIONEER CABIN con-
taining relics, some from Mormon days, including a cart used by the'
Mormons in hauling logs from the mountains.
PERRIS HILL PARK, in the northeastern section of the city, has
tennis courts, a swimming pool, a baseball and football park, and an
outdoor concert bowl used for community sings and concerts.
The NATIONAL ORANGE SHOW BUILDING (annual show daily for
II days in March , 10 a.m.-n.-jo p.m., adm. $0$, children 25$), Mill
and E Sts., is an immense frame structure painted white with blue
The Orange Show has been held every year since 1910, when San
Bernardino businessmen inaugurated it. The city goes into carnival
attire for the occasion, decorating its streets, store fronts, shop-windows,
streetcars and busses with orange-colored banners and other ornaments.
A local "queen" leads a parade through the streets on the opening day,
and the show grounds are thick with floats, citrus exhibits, Ferris-
wheels, and other amusement concessions. Daily programs are pre-
sented, with movie and radio stars, acrobats, dancers, orchestras, and
288 LOS ANGELES
The main building is filled with lighted castles, fans, ships, and
diverse other figures made entirely of oranges, grapefruit, and lemons.
These exhibits, and those in the industrial section which show meth-
ods and equipment used in the culture and handling of citrus fruits, the
manufacture and use of citrus byproducts, and various related matters
are prepared by cities, towns, and counties, growers' organizations, indi-
vidual orchardists, and sundry organizations.
The citrus industry ranks next to dairying as an income-producer
in California. Oranges are the largest single fruit crop; the fruit crops
head all others in agriculture, and agriculture ranks second to manu-
facturing among the state's industries. The annual orange crop is
twice as valuable as the gold produced in the state, nearly twice as
valuable as the lumber, and nearly five times as valuable as the fish
catch. In the production of oranges, California ranks first in the
United States, and the United States ranks first in the world.
In California citrus-fruit growing is probably the most highly de-
veloped of all crop-cultures, though it is relatively very young. The
first orange grove was planted not earlier than 1805, and it was not
until the late i88o's that oranges were produced in commercial quanti-
ties. The orange is a fruit thriving only under tropical or sub-tropical
conditions, and even in southern California great care and skill must
be exercised to combat its many natural enemies heat and dryness
in summer, wind and frost in winter, and a plethora of diseases and
insect pests. The complicated and scientific nature of the processes
involved in producing these fruits in commercially valuable quantities
explains the necessity of establishing such an institution as the Citrus
Experiment Station of the University of California, at Riverside (see
Today all trees in the important groves of the state are of pedi-
greed stock ; a careful record of each tree's performance is kept from sea-
son to season, and when a tree, or even a single limb of a tree, is found
to produce fruit of inferior quality or of less than minimum quantity
for two or three consecutive seasons, the tree or limb is removed or
cut back and re-budded with grafts from selected parent trees that is,
trees known to produce high quality fruit in quantity. Only the best
strains of each variety of tree are propagated; great care is taken to
prevent the development of abnormal or subnormal strains and also to
prevent cross pollenization of the established strains.
The first step in producing a citrus tree is the planting of seed for
the root-stock, seed of a strong-rooted, disease-resisting variety of citrus
tree of sour orange for orange trees, of sweet orange for lemon trees.
The root-stock tree is removed from the lathhouse beds after a year or
more of growth, when it is about 12 inches high, and replanted in an
outdoor nursery, where it grows a year or two longer. The next step
is grafting. In this operation a twig bearing a healthy bud is cut from
a carefully selected parent tree and inserted in a slit in the bark of
the young root-stock tree. The little tree's own top is cut off when the
graft has developed into a branch, and the branch is then trained to
TOUR I 289
form a new top. After another year, this tree is transplanted to the
orchard. It does not begin to bear commercially for another three
years, when it is six years old, and will not be in full bearing until
about its tenth year. After this, if well cared for, it continues to in-
crease in size and yield for fifty or more years.
In their early years the trees are carefully shaped by pruning of
the branches. Citrus trees have a rather dense, brittle, dark-green
foliage. Orange trees are commonly trimmed to one of two forms
vase-shaped, with tall up-growing main limbs having framework
strength; or bowl-shaped, with the upright limbs cut back and the
lateral main limbs encouraged to form a low, round, open-topped tree
convenient for picking and spraying.
The war against citrus pests is costly and difficult, and the amount
of tree medicines needed varies according to soil, tree, and climatic
conditions. Scale insects and citrus red spider, most destructive and
hardest to control, are the commonest pests. About once a year the
trees are covered with a canvas tarpaulin and fumigated to kill scale.
Insecticides of various types are sprayed upon the trees at intervals to
eliminate other destructive creatures.
In winter the orchardist keeps a vigil for frost warnings broadcast
over the radio and every cold night holds himself ready to light his
orchard heaters. Oranges can withstand a low temperature of between
26 and 29.5 and lemons between 27 and 30.5. The temperature
is usually lowest an hour before sunrise. When the mercury is drop-
ping toward the danger point, the waiting crews hurry through the
groves lighting the heaters one to a tree with long-spouted gasoline
torches. Each lighter is followed by a man who regulates the heaters,
which are of various types. Those most commonly used are oil-burning
stack-pots, slightly smaller than the usual washtub, with a stack two
or three feet high. In some districts, however, smudge-pot heating is
still widely used; these pots produce a thick blanket of black smoke
that hangs low in the air not only over miles of orchards but also over
During the rainless summers the orchards must have irrigation for
48 hours at intervals of three to five weeks according to the climate and
soil. Orchard lysimeters are used frequently during irrigation in order
to measure the percolation of the water, for the crop is ruined by too
much water as well as by too little. Irrigation water is carried to the
edge of the orchard by an underground iron or concrete conduit, and
brought to the surface by a concrete pipe that empties it into the
Fertilization is another problem throughly studied by citrus experts.
A cover crop, such as vetch or clover, is planted between rows of trees
and plowed under in spring to add nitrogen to the soil. Stable manure
and various other organic fertilizers are also used. Inorganic fertilizers
are used on some soils to counteract acidity. As in combating insect
pests, both soil and climate must be studied and correctly diagnosed and
2QO LOS ANGELES
the proper materials, quantities, and methods prescribed and used if a
crop of commercial value is to be produced.
Orchards in windy areas must be protected by tall windbreaks of
evergreens; the eucalyptus, Monterey cypress, and the tamarisk are
most commonly used.
As fruit matures, a few average oranges from the orchards are
tested for their sugar content, which determines the time of picking.
Nearly all California citrus orchardites belong to a growers' co-opera-
tive most of them to the giant California Fruit Growers' Exchange.
The fruit of the member growers is harvested by trained picking-crews
sent out from the association's nearest packing house. Great care is
used in handling the crop. The rind of the orange, though a perfect
seal for the fruit, is easily harmed by scratches or bruises, causing blue-
mold to appear even before the fruit is packed; therefore the picker
who does not pick, but clips the stem close enough to the fruit that no
sharp end is left to scratch other oranges wears soft gloves and places
the fruit in a sack with a buttoned flap at the bottom. When full, the
sack is placed in a box, the flap is released, and the fruit falls gently
into the box. In gathering lemons, the picker cuts only fruit too large
to pass through a ring he carries. The lemon orchard is gone over each
month, harvesting being determined by size, though the fruit is still
dark green in color.
For a day or two after harvest, oranges stand in the packing house
until some of the moisture in the rind evaporates, since a drier skin is
not so easily injured by handling. The fruit is then washed in warm
soapy water, passed through rows of revolving brushes, into cold water,
and finally over more brushes under a drying blast of air. The oranges
roll on canvas belts to the grading tables where trained workers, usu-
ally women, sort according to standards of appearance. Many packing
houses now employ a fluoroscope to detect frostbite, granulation, and
other internal imperfections of oranges. The size and condition of
the skin of an orange has no influence on its quality.
The finest oranges of medium-large size and without blemishes are
stamped with the packing house's trademark for best quality. Each
association has its own brand-names to designate the various grades.
Fruit two or three grades below the best is ripe, has good flavor and
perfect inner texture, but differs from the top grade chiefly in ap-
After it is stamped the fruit is wrapped in tissue paper and packed
in a symmetrical pattern, a certain number of a certain size being
packed in each box. Oranges are packed in ten principle sizes, ranging
from 100 to a box to 344. The boxes are loaded onto freight cars, iced
in summer and warmed in the coldest seasons. Fruit trains, especially
those carrying citrus fruits, run on express schedule.
The growers' co-operatives have contributed greatly to the reduction
of the high cost of orange growing in California by facilitating picking,
hauling, packing, and marketing, and by providing these services at
cost. The fruit of the grower-members is sold in a pool and the pro-
TOUR I 291
ceeds are divided among the orchardists on the basis of the quality and
quantity of fruit each has contributed. The larger organizations have
established research laboratories in which methods of putting the citrus
fruits to new uses are studied ; cull fruits, or those below salable grade,
are used in the manufacture of juice concentrates, orange and lemon
oils and acids, citrate of lime, citrus pectin, and canned juice.
The chief disadvantages of the co-operatives are their tendency
toward monopoly and price fixing. With the development of citrus
growing along highly scientific and industrialized lines, and with the
large investment (more than $250 an acre) needed to produce an
orange crop, only large concerns can operate profitably. Thus the
industry is dominated by a comparatively few growers who tend to
control markets and prices through the co-operatives. Market reports
received regularly from important consumption areas dictate supply.
Surplus fruit is sometimes destroyed to maintain prices, although this
practice is diminishing since the Surplus Commodity Corporation began
Most California oranges are of two varieties. The navel, ripening
in winter, is grown in the warmer inland regions; it is seedless, of
high color, and distinguished from other varieties by the formation of
the rind at the blossom-end. The Valencia, ripening in summer, is
grown in the cooler coastal regions. It is the Valencia that is usually
shown in photographs and paintings as a tinted yellow ball hanging on
the tree among new blossoms with a snow-capped peak in the back-
Unlike other oranges the Valencia may be held on the tree for
several months after it has attained full color; presently the rind
begins to turn green, starting at the stem end. The process does not
affect the fruit's flavor; actually it is at complete maturity at this time,
though it is commonly mistaken for immature fruit by novices. The
ripening seasons of the two varieties overlap, keeping the orange market
steady the year round.
The orange, which was introduced into Spain from China by the
Portuguese, was brought into this country from Lower California by
the Franciscan missionaries. The first orchard was planted at San
Gabriel Mission (see Tour 3) about 1805. The navel variety was
introduced to the United States when two of several small orange trees
were sent to Washington from Brazil, where they were developed
from sport buds growing on a variety of Portuguese orange tree. In
1873 two of these were received by Mrs. Eliza C. Tibbets of Riverside
from a friend in the Department of Agriculture. Mrs. Tibbets sold
cuttings, and by the time the first Valencia seedlings arrived from
London by way of Spain in 1876 navel orange growing was actually
established in California.
Of the other citrus fruits, only two, the lemon and the grapefruit,
are produced in important commercial quantities in California. Some
tangerines are grown for market, but limes, citrons, and kumquats in
only a few places.
292 LOS ANGELES
In the United States, California alone produces lemons on a large
scale, and is third in the production of grapefruit. San Bernardino
County leads in lemon growing, Imperial County in grapefruit.
In San Bernardino is the junction with State 18 (Sierra Way),
which becomes the main route; L. on this route.
A boundary of SAN BERNARDINO NATIONAL FOREST is
at 61 m. This reserve of four-fifths of a million acres adjoins Angeles
National Forest, of which until 1925 it was a part. The chief purpose
of the reserve is water conservation. Most of its timber is too remote
for profitable logging but several streams in the area furnish hydro-
At 62.3 m. is the junction with a private, hard-surfaced road.
Right on this road to ARROWHEAD HOT SPRINGS, 1 m. (2,000 alt.),
on the slope of Arrowhead Peak. The hotel here was constructed in 1939
to replace one destroyed during a forest fire in 1938. There are four main
springs three hot; one used for mud baths. In near-by Waterman Canyon
are many natural steam baths caves heated by more than 100 hot springs;
their temperature is frequently as high as 160. This mile-long hot belt is
on the main San Andreas fault (see Natural Setting], which is largely re-
sponsible for the emergence of the hot springs at this point.
The ARROWHEAD, above the hotel on the southeast side of ARROWHEAD PARK
(4,216 alt.), is a natural fissure 1,376 feet long and 449 feet wide. Various
Indian tribes who roamed the San Bernardino Mountains before the coming
of the white man considered the Arrowhead a sign from the Great Spirit
designating a good hunting ground. In this afea the Indians hunted Tukuchu,
the puma; Tukut, the wildcat; Wahilyam, the coyote; Wanats, the wolf, and
Widukut, the buzzard. Coyotes and buzzards are still abundant and the dis-
trict below the Arrowhead is now a United States game refuge.
Brigham Young, the Mormon leader, is said to have had a dream in which
a heavenly spirit instructed him to send some of his followers toward the
Pacific where they would see a strange sign on a mountain. Here, the story
goes, Young was ordered to have his followers settle. Whether or not on
heavenly instruction, a Mormon caravan came southeast from the Great Salt
Lake country, saw the arrowhead, and laid out San Bernardino in 1851.
ARROWHEAD SUMMIT (gas, cafe), 74.1 m. (5,174 alt.), is merely
a wide spot on the highway.
Right from Arrowhead Summit on Crestline Road to CRESTLINE VIL-
LAGE (ski jumps, toboggan slide], 4.4 m. (4,850 alt., summer pop. 700, winter
100.) This resort town has a compact little business district, with stores,
post office, a free county library, an elementary school, and a two-story, many-
gabled, rustic lodge.
Large CRESTLINE BOWL is used for pageants and theatrical productions.
The BAYLIS OAK, at the southern end of the village, with a circumference of
more than 46 feet, was named for Dr. J. N. Baylis, who promoted the develop-
ment of the recreational use of the region.
At 4.5 m. is the junction of Crestline Road and a remaining stretch of the
Mormon Road, a i6-mile stretch built in 1852 by the settlers of San Ber-
nardino in 1,000 days. The cobblestone WAGON WHEEL MONUMENT (L) marks
the old road summit. Close by are a pair of cart wheels and a six-foot stone