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The Vision : or, Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise, of Dante Alighieri online

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as tlie C()iif;h of Giiievi'a's fenuile servant t^ave lioi- mi.sti'css.assurancc to
admit tlie freedoms of Lancelot. See Hell, Uanto V. 124.

V. 2'A. The fold.] Florence, of which John the Baptist was the patrou

V. 31. From the daij.'] From tlie Incarnation to the birth of Caccia-
giiida, the planet Mars had returned five hundred and fifty-three times
to the constellation of Leo, with which it is supposed to have a conjjenial
influence. His birth may, therefore, lie placed about HOG.

V. 38. TliG last.'] The city was divided into four comi)artments. The
Elisei, tlie ancestors of Daiite, resided near the entrance of that named
from the Porta S. Piero, which was the last reached by the competitor in
the annual race at Florence. See G. Villaui, 1. iv. c. 10.

V. 44. From Mars.] " Both in the times of heathenism and of Christi-
anity." Hell, Canto XIIL 144.

v."48. Campi and Certaldo and Fighine.] Country places near Flor-

V. 50. Tliat these people.] "That the inhabitants of the above-men-
tioned places had not been mixed with the citizens: nor the limits of
Florence extended beyond Galhizzo and Trespiano."

V. 54. Ar;}(f/Uone's hind and Signals.] Baldo of Aguglione, and Boni-
fazio of Signa

V. 50. Had not the people.] If Rome had continued in her allegiance to
the emperor, and the Guelpli and Ghibelline factions had thus been pre-
vented, Florence would not have been polluted by a race of upstarts, nor
lost the most respectable of her ancient families.

V. 61. Simifonte.] A castle dismantled by the Florentines. G. Villani,
L V. c. 30. The individual here alluded to is no longer known.

V. 69. The blind bull.] So Chaucer, Troilus and Cresseide b. 2.

For swifter conrse cometh thing that is of wight
When it desceudeth than done things light.

Compare Aristotle, Ethic. Nic. 1. vi. c. 13. " crtufian io-x^'P". ''• t- ^•

V. 72. Liini, Urbisaglia.] Cities formerly of importance, but then fallen
to decay.

V. 74. Chiusi and Sinigaf/lia.] The same.

V. 80. As the moon.] " The fortune of us, that are the moon's men,
doth ebb and flow like the sea." Shaksi^eare, 1 Henry IV. a. 1. s. 2.

V. 86. The Uf/hi.] Whoever is curious to know the habitations of these
and the other ancient Florentines, may consult G. Villani, 1. iv.

V. 91. At the poop.] Many editions read porta. "gate."^The same
metaphor is found in ^Eschylus, Sui)p. 356, and is there also scarce un-
derstood by the critics.

AtSov (TV TTpvixvav ttoAco? w5' ecTTefiix^t^rjv.

Respect these wreaths, tliat crown your city's poop.

V. 99. Tlie gilded hilt and pommel.] The symbols of knighthood.

V. 100. The colu7nn cloth'd v:ith rerrei/.] The arms of the Pigli.

V. 103. With them.] Either the Ghiaramontesi, or the Tosinghi, one of
I which had committed a fraud in measuring out the wheat from the pub-
ij lie granary. See Purgatory, Canto XII. 99.

\ V. 109. The bullets of bhght gold.] The arms of the Abbati, as it ia

\ conjectured.

V. 110. The sires of those.] " Of the Visdomini, the Tosinghi, and the
Cortigiani, who, being sprung from the founders of the bishopric of Flor-

440 NOTKS.

eiipo, .arc the curators of its rovrnuos, wliicli tlioy do not sparp, wlioiv |

ever it ijocuiiiois vacant."

V. li:>. 77/' (•'(■rirrctiiiii/ hi'DMl] Tlic Arliiiiari. 'i'liis family \\as so little
esteemed, that llhertiiio Poiiato, who bad manied a daiij;liter of lU'llin-
cion IJerti, himself indeed derived from tiie same stock (sec; Note to Hell,
Canto XVI. 38.) was olTended with his father-in-law, U>v giving another
of his daughters in mariiage to one of them.

V. r_'l. The i/dtcirai/.] Landino refers this to the smallncss of the city:
Vellutcllo, witli less iirobability, to the simplicity of the people in naming
one of the gates after a private family.

V. 127. T/ic t/nat baron.] The Marchese Ugo, who resided at Florence
as lieutenant (if tlie I'Jnperor Otlio III., gave many of the chief fandlies
licence to bear his arms. See (}. Villani, 1. iv. c. 2., wliere the vision is
related, in consequence of which he sold all his possessions in Germany,
and founded seven abbeys, in one whereof his memory was celebrated
at Flm-ence on St. Thomas's day.

V. l.'U). One] Giano della Bella, belonging to one of the families thus
distinguished, who no longer retained his i)lace among the noliility, and
had y<^t added to his anas a bordure or. See Macchiavelli, 1st. Fior. 1. il.
p. 8(J. Kdiz. Giolito.

V. 132. Gnaltprotti dwelt

And ImiwrLuni.]

Two families in the compartment of the city called Borgo.

V. 135. The house.] Of Amidei. See Notes to Canto XXVIII. of Hell,
V. 102.

V. 112. To Ema.] "It had been well for the city, if thy ancestor had
been drowned in the Ema, when he crossed that stream on his way
from Montebuono to Florence.''

V. 144. On thai maim'd .^tone.] See Hell, Canto XIII. 144. Near the
remains of the statue of iMars, Buondolmonti was slain, as if he had been
a victim to the god; and Florence had not since Icnown the blessing of

V. 150. The lily.] " The arms of Florence had never hung reversed on
the spear of her enemies, in token of lier defeat; nor beeji changed from
argent to gules;" as they afterwards were, when the Guelfi gained the
predominance. |



V. 1. The yonth.] Phaeton, who came to his mother Clymene, to in-
quire of lier'if he were indeed the son of Apollo. See Ovid, Met. 1. i. ad

V. 0. Tliat saintly lamp.] Cacciaguida. j

V. 12. Toovnilhy thirst?] "That thou mayst obtain from others a ;

solution of any doubt that may occur to thee." '■_

V. 15. Thou see.'it as clear.] " Thou beholdest future events, with the
same cle.irness of evidence, that we discern the simplest mathematical ;


V. 19. The point.] The divine nature. ;

V. 27. The an-oio?] m

Nam prsevisa minus Isedere tela solent.



Che l>i.\£Tfi antivednta aspai men «1no]e.

J'ctrarc(i,Trio)ifo del Tempo

T. 38. Contingeney.'] "The evidejioe witli vJiit-li we sec tlie future
pourtrayed in tiie source of all truth, no more necessitates that future,
than does the inia';e, reflected in the sight by a ship sailing down a
btreani, necessitate the motion of the vessel."

V. 43. Fro7n thence.] " From the eternal sight; the view of the Deity

V. 49. There.] At Rome, where the eximlsionof Dante's party from
Florence was then plotting, in 1300.

V. 65. nieirs.] " They shall be ashamed of the part they }iave takeu
against thee."

V. 69. The r/reat Lombard.] Either Alberto della Scala, or Eartolom-
meo his eldest son. Their coat of arms was a ladder and an eagle.

V. 75. Thai mortal.] Can Grande della Scala, born under the inlluence
of Mars, but at this time only nine years old.

V. 80. The Gii.von.] Pope Clcnieiit V.

V. 80. Great Harry.] The Emperor Henry VII.

V. 127. The cry tfiou raisest.] "Thou shalt stigmatize tlie faults of
those who are most eminent and powerful."


V. 3. Temp'i'inrj the siceet icith bitter.]

Chewing the cud of sweet and bitter fancy.

Shakspeare, As you Like it, a. 3. s. 3.

V. 25. On this fifth lodgment of the tree.] Mars, the fifth of tlie
heavens. '

V.37. The great Maecabee.] Judas Maccabeus.

V. 39. Chaiiemagne.] L. Pulci commends Dante for placing Charle-
magne and Orlando here :

Jo mi confido ancor molto qui a Dante, |

Che non sanza cagion nel ciel su misse '

Carlo ed Orlando in quelle croci sante, i

Che come diligente intese e scrisse. j

Morg. Magg. c. 28. I

V. 43. William and Fenard.] Probably, not, as the commentators have ,?
Imagined, AVilliam II. of Orange, and his kinsman Kaimband, two f)f
the crusaders under Godfiey of Bouillon, (Maimbourg, Hist, des Croisa-
dcs, ed. Par. 1682. 12mo. t. i. p. 9().) but rather the two more cclebrati'd
heroes in the age of Charlemagne. The former, "William I. of Oiange,
su])i)osed to have been the founder of the present illustrious family of
that name, died about 808, according to Josejih de la Piser Tableau de I

I'Hist. des Princes et Principaute d'Orange. Our countryman, Ordericus ■

Yitalis, professes to give his true life, which had beeji misrejiresentcd in ;

the songs of the itinerant baids. " Vulgo canitur a jocnlatoribus de illo i

cantilena; sed jure pra/ferenda est relatio authentica. " Eccl. Hist, in I

Duchesne, Hist. Norniann. Scrijt. p. 508. The latter is better known by
having been celebrated by Ariosto, under the name of Rinaldo.

V. 43. J>iihe dddfrci/.] Goilfiev of lU)uillon.

V. 44. Eoberl Guist'ard.] See Hell, Canto XXYIII. v. 12.

442 NOTES.

V. 81. Tfif chnrnotrm.'] Diligitn jnstitirim qui jiifliontis torram.
" l.()vo lijiliteonsuesH, ye that he judfjes of the eaitli." Wis(h)ui of Solo-
mon, f. i. 1.

V. 11(1. Thai (mcc more. ^ "That lie may a^aiu drive out those who
biiv and sell in the teini)le. "

V. 124. Tii.ki>iii Ihr hrcmi (diun/.] " Exconiuiuuication, or tlic interdic-
tion of the cuiliarist, is now employed as a \veai)on of warfare."

V. 12() T/iat hu-ilcM hut to etoir'cl.] " And thou, Pope Boniface, who
writest tliy ecclesiastical censures for no other puriiose than to be paid
for re\ okini; them."

V. loO. 7'o him.] Tl)e coin of Florence was stamped with the impres-
eiou of John the Baptist.


V. 38. TT7io turn'd his compass.] Compare Proverbs, c. viii. 27. and
Milton, P. L. b. vii. 224.

V. 42. The Word.] " The divine nature still remained incom])rehen-
Bible. Of this Lucifer was a i)roof; for had lie thoro uglily comprehended
it, lie would not have fallen."

V. 108. 77ie Ethiop.] ftlatt. c. xii. 41.

V. 112. Tliat volume.] Rev. c. xx. 12.

V. 114. Albert.] Purgatory, Canto VI. v. 98.

V. IIG. Prague.] The eagle predicts the devastation of Bohemia by
Albert, which happened soon after this time, when that Emjieror ob-
tained tlie kingdom for his eldest son Rodolph. See Coxe's House of
Austria, 4to. ed. v. i. part 1. p. 87.

v. 117. H<\] Philip IV. of France, after the battle of Courtrai, 1302, in
which the French were defeated by the Flemings, raised the nominal
value of the coin. This king died in consequence of his horse being
thrown to the ground by a wild boar, in 1314.

v. 121. The English and Scot.] He adverts to the disjuites between
John Baliol and Edward I., the latter of whom is commended in the Pur-
gatory, Canto VII. v. 1.30.

V. 122. The Spaniard's luxury.] The commentators refer this to Alonzo
X. of Si)aiu. It seems probable that the allusion is to Ferdinand IV.
■who came to the crown in 12115, and died in 1312, at the age of twenty-
four, in consequence, as it was supposed, of his extreme intemperance.
See Mariana, Hist. 1. xv. c. 11.

V. 123. The Bohemian.] Wiuceslaus II. Purgatory, Canto VII. v.

V. 125. The halter of Jerusalem.] Charles II. of Naples and Jerusalem,
who was lame. See note to Purgatory, Canto VII. v. 122, and XX. v. 78.

v. 127. He.] Frederick of Sicily, son of Peter III. of Arragon. Pur-
gatory, Canto VII. v. 117. The isle of fire is Sicily, where was the tomb
of Auchises.

V. 133. His uncle.] James, king of Majorca and Minorca, brother to
Peter III.

V. 133. His brother.] James II. of Arragon, who died in 1327. See
Purgatory, Canto VII. v. 117.

V. 135. 0/ Portugal.] In the time of Dante, Dionysius was king of
Portugal. He died in 1328, after a reign of near forty-six years, and does
not seem to have deserved the stigma here fastened on him. See Mari-

rARADTRii;, 443

aiifi, 1. XV. c. IS. Pprliaps tho roliollious son of Dionvsiiis niny ho allndod

V. loG. Noi'i'xn/.] Hiiquiii, liiiit^ of Norw.iy. is jn'obiilily meant: who,
having given refuge to the umrderer.s of Eric VII. liing of Deninarlc. A n.
1288, commenced a war again.':t liis successor, EricVlil., " wliich con-
tinued for nine years, almost to the utter ruiii and destruction of both
kingdoms." Modern Univ. Hist. v. xxxii. p. 215.

V. 13(). Him

One of the dynasty of tlie house of Nemagna, whicli ruled the kingdom
of Rassia, or Ratza, in Sclavonia, from 1161 to 1371, and whose history
may be found in Mauro Orbiiio, Regno degli Slavi, Ediz. Pesaro. 1601.
Uladislaus appears to have been the sovereign in Dante's time; but the
disgraceful forgery adverted to iu the text, is not I'ecorded by the his-

v. 138. Hungary.'] The kingdom of Hungary was about this time dis-
puted by Carobert, son of Charles Martel, and Winceslaus, prince of
Bohemia, son of Winceslaus H. See Coxe's House of Austria, vol. i. p.
1. p. 86. 4to edit.

V. 140. Navarre.'] Navarre was now under the yoke of France. It
Boon after (in 1328) followed the advice of Dante and had a mouarch of
its own. Mariana, 1. xv. c. 19.

V. 141. Mountainovs girdle.] The Pyrenees.

V. 143. Famagosta's streets

And Nicosia's,]
Cities hi the kingdom of Cyprus, at that time ruled by Henry TT. a pusil-
lanimous prince, Vertot. Hist, des Chev. de Malte, 1. iii. iv. Tlie mean-
ing appears to be, that the complaints made by those cities of their weak
and worthless governor, may be regarded as au earnest of his coudemna-
tiou at the last doom.


V. 6. 'WJierein one shines.] The light of the sun, whence he supposes
the other celestial bodies to derive their light.

V. 8. The great sign.] The eagle, the Imperial ensign.

V. 34. Who.] David.

V. 39. He.] Trajan. See Purgatory, Canto X. 68.

V. 44. He 7iext.] Hezekiah.

V. 50. 'FJie other folloiv in g.] Constantiue. There is no passage in which
Dante's opinion of the evil, that had arisen from the mixture of the civil
with the ecclesiastical }>ower, is more unequivocally declared.

V. 57. William.] William II. king of Sicily, at the latter part of the
twelfth century. He was of the Norman line of so\ereigns, and obtained
the appellation of "the Good;" and, as tlie poet says, his loss was as
much the subject of regret in his dominions, as the presence of Charles
II. of Anjou, and Frederick of Arragon, was of sorrow and complaint.

V. 62. Trojan Riphevs.]

Ripheus, justissimus uiius
Qui fuit in Teuciis, at servantissimus jequi.

'Firg. yEn. I. ii. 427,

▼. 97. This.] Ripheus.


444 NOTKR.

V. Its. T/ifit.] Trajan.

V. 10.!. 77ic i>raf/<rs.\ Tim i)rnyoi's of 8t. Grofjory.
V. 1]<I. 77/r t/iirc ■iitpDjihs.] Faitli, Il(ii»e, and Cliarity. Purgatory,
Canto XXIX. 11(1.
V. 138. The pair.'] Itiiiheus and Trajan.


V. 12. Tlte .trrmth f^plonlovr.] Tlie jilanet Saturn.

V. i;5. The hitrviiifi lion's breast.] The constellation Leo.

V. 21. In eqnalhfildvcc] " ]\Iy i)leasure was as great in complying
with lier will, as in l)eliolding licr countenance."

V. 24. Of tliatlov\l momireli.] Saturn. Compare Hell, Canto XIV.

V. 56. What forbade the smile.] "Because it would have overcome

V. 61. Tliere aloft.] Where the other souls were.

V. 97. A stony ridc/e.] The Apennine.

V. 112. Pietro Damiano.] " S. Pietro Damiano obtained a great and
well-merited reputation, by the pains he took to coi'rcct the abuses
among the clergy. Ravenna is supjiosed to have been the place of his
birth, about 1007. He was em])loyed in several important missions, and
rewarded by Stephen IX. with the dignity of cardinal, and the bisliopric
of Cstia, to which, however, he j)rel'erred his former retreat in the mon- j
astery of Fonte Avellana, and prevailed on Alexander II. to ])crmit him =

to retire thither. Yet he did not long continue in this seclusion, before ;
he was sent on other embassies. He died at Faenza in 1072. His letters ;.
throw much light on the obscure history of these times. Besides them, '!

he has left several treatises on sacred and ecclesiastical subjects. His >
eloquence is worthy of a better age." Tiraboschi, Storia dclla Lett. Ital. '
t. iii. 1. iv. c. 2.

V. 114. Be.nde the Adriatic] At Rnvenna. Some editions have fii, :
instead oifni; according to wliich reading, Pietro distinguishes himself
from another Pietro, who was termed "Peccator," the sinner.

V. 117. The hnt.] The cardinal's hat. ;

V. lis. Cephas.] St. Peter. i

\.1V.l The Holy Spirit's vessel. St. Paul. See Hell, Canto IL 30. 5

V. 130. Round this.] Round the spirit of Pietro Damiano. f


V. 14. The vengeance.] Beatrice, it is supposed, intimates the ap-
proaching fate of Boniface VIH. See Purgatory, Canto XX. 86.

V. 'Ml Cassino.] A castle in tlie Terra di Lavoro.

V. 38. I it icas.] "A new order of monks, which in a manner ab-
gorbed all the others that were established in the west, was instituted
A. D. 529, by Benedict of Nursia, a man of piety and reputation lor the
age he lived in." Maclaiue's Mosheim, Eccles. Hist. v. ii. cent. vi. p. 2.
cii. 2. § 6.

V. 48. 3faea7'ins.] There are two of this name enumerated by ^losheim
among the Greek theologians of the fourth century, v. i. cent. iv. y. 11.
c. 2. § 9. In the following chapter, § 10. it is said, " Macarius, an I'.g.v]*-


tian monlc, uiidonlitcdly deserves tlie first rank among the practical
writers of tliis time, as liis works displayed, some few tilings excepted,
the liriglitest and m(«t lovely portraiture of sanctity and virtue "

V. 48. liomoaldo.l S- Romoaldo, a native of Ravenna, and the foun-
der of the order of Camaldoli, died in 1027. lie was the author of a coiu-
luentary on the Psalms.
V. 70. The patriarch Jacob.'] So Milton, P. L. b. iii. 510 :
The stairs were such, as whereon Jacob saw
Angels ascending and descending, bauds
Of guardians bright.
V. 107. Tliesign.'] The constellation of Gemini.
V. 130. This globe.] So Chaucer, Troilus and Cresseide, b. v.

And down from thence fast he gan avise
This little spot of earth, that with the sea
Embraced is, and full^' gau despise
This wretched world .

Compare Cicero, Somn. Scip. " Jam ipsa terra ita niihi parva visa est,"
&c. Lucan, Phars. 1. ix. 11; and Tasso, G. L. c. xiv. st. 9, 10, 11.
V. 140. Muiaand Dione.] The planets Mercury and Venus.


V. 11. Tlh it region.] Towards the south, where the course of the suu
appears lesr« rapid, than when he is in the east or tlie west.

V. 25. Tricia.] A name of Diana.

V, 26. Til' etniial mimphs.] The stars.

V. 3(). Tlic Might.] 'Our Saviour.

V. 71. Tlie rose.] The Virgin Mary.

V. 73. The lilies.] The apostles.

V. 84. Thou didst exalt thy glory.] The divine light retired upwards,
to render the eyes of Dante more capable of enduring the spectacle which
now presented itself.

V. 85. Tlie name

Of thai fa ir flower. ]
The name of the Virgin.

V. 92. A cresset.] The angel Gabriel.

V. 98. That lyre.] By synecdoche, the lyre is put for the angel.

V. 99. The goodliest sapphire.] The Virgin.

V. 12(5. Those rich-laden cogens.] Those spirits, who, having sown the
eeed of good works on earth, now contain the fruit of their pious endea-

V. 129. In the Babylonian exile.] During their abode in this world.

V. 133. He.] St. Peter, with the other holy men of the Old and New


V. 28. Sneh folds.] Pindar has the same bold image:

VIJ.VMV TTTUX'ai?. O. 1. 170.

On which Heyuc strangely remarks; "Ad ambitus stropharum videtur

446 NOTES. I

V. 05. Faith.] Hebrews, c. xi. 1. So Mariuo, in one of liia sonnets, !
which he calls Divozioni:

Fcclc e siist;ui7.a di sperate cose, j

E dellc lion visibili argoniento. t

V. 82. Cw-rait.] "The an.'^wcr tliou hast made is right: hut let nie

know if thy inward i)crsuasi<>ii is confoniiahle to thy protcssion.'' j

V. '.)!. T/ic (inci( lit bond aixl new.] The Old and Kew Testaincnt. I

V. 114. That Worthy.] Quel Baron. \

In the next Canto, St. Jaiue.s i.s called " Baroiie." So in Boccaccio, G.

vi. N. 10, we find " Baron ISIesser Santo Antonio." ^

V. 124. Ai< to outstrip.] Venturi insists that tlie Poet lias here " made '

n slip; " for that John came liivst to the se])ulchre, thougli Peter was the !

first to enter it. But let Dante liave leave to exjjlain his own lueaniiiL;,

in a passage from his third book De Monarchia : " Dicit ctiani Joliaiuu^s >

ipsum (scilicet Petrum) iutroiisse subito, cum venit in monuiuentuui, ;

videns alium discipulum cuuctautem ad ostium." Opere di Dante, Yen. •

1793.t.ii.p.l46. ;



V. 6. TJie fair sheep-fold.] Florence, whence he was banished. '

V. 13. For its sake.] For the sake of that faith . i

V. 20. Galicia throng' d luith visitants.] See Mariana, Hist. 1. xi. c. 1.3. I

"En el tiem])o," &c. "At the time that the sepulchre of the a]H).><tie j

St. James was discovered, the devotion for that place extended itself not I

only over all Spain, but even round about to foreign nations. Multi- I

tudes from all jiarts of the world came to visit it. Many others were d&- I

terred by the difficulty of the journey, by the roughness and barrenness
of those jiarts, and by the incursions of the Moors, who made captives j

many of the pilgrims. The canons of St. Eloy afterwards (the precise time 1

is not known), with a desire of remedying these evils, built, in many
places, along tlie whole road, which reached as far as to France, hospitals
for the reception of the pilgrims." i

v. 31. Who.] Tlie Epistle of St. James is here attributed to the elder •

apostle of that name, whose shrine was at Compostella, in Galicia.
Which of the two was the author of it, is yet doubtful. The learned and
candid Michaelis contends very forcibly for its having been written by
James the Elder. Lardner rejects that opinion as absurd: while Ben.son
argues against it, but is well answered by Michaelis, who, after all, is
obliged to leave the question undecided. See his Introduction to the
New Testament, translated by Dr. Marsh, ed. Cambridge, 1T'J3. v. iv. c.
2t3. § 1, 2, 3.

V. 35. As Jesiis.] In the transfiguration on Mount Tabor.

V. 39. The second flame.] St. James.

y. iO. I lifted lip.] "I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills, from
whence cometh my help." Ps. cxxi. 1.

V. 59. From Er/ypt to Jcrtisalem.] From the lower world to heaven.

V. 67. Hope.] This is from the Sentences of Petrus Lombardus. " Est
antem spes virtus, qua spiritualia et a'terna bona sperantur, id est, cum
fidacia cxpectantui-. Est eiiiin spes certa expectatio futur.'e beatitudinis,
veniens ex Dei gratia et ex ineritis prrecedeiitibtis vel ipsarn speiii, quam
n.ntura pra-it charitas ut rem speratam, id est, beatitudineiii a'ternain.
Sine ineritis eiiiiii aliquid sperare noii spes, sed pi;csuiiiptio, dici potest."
Pet. Lomb. Sent. 1. iii. dist. 2(J. ed. Bas. 14a6. fol.


V 74. His anihcm.'] Psalm ix. 10.

V. 90. 7.sr/(V/.s.] Chap. Ixi. 10.

V. 94. Thy brother.] St. Juliii in tlie Rc\ elation, c. vii. 9.

V. 101. Wiiilcr's 7nonth.] "If a hnuinaiy, like that wliicli now ap-
peared, were to sliiue throughout the month following the \^ inter solstice,
during which the constellatiou Cancer appears in the east at the setting
of the sun, there would be no interruption to the light, but the whole
month would be as a single day."

V. 1112. This.] St. John, who reclined on the bosom of our Saviour,
and to whose cliarge Jesus recommended his mother.

V. 121. jSo I.] He looked so earnestly, to descry whether St. John
were present there in body, or in spirit only ; having had his doubts
raised by that saying of our Saviour's: "If I will, that lie tarry till I
come, what is that to thee? "

V. 127. 17ie tii'o.] Christ and Mary, whom he has described, iu the
last Canto but one, as rising above his sight.


V. 2. The beccnnj flame.] St. John.

V. 13. Ananias' hand.] Who, by putting his hand on St. Paul, restored
his sight. Acts, c. ix. 17.

V. 36. From him.] Some suppose that Plato is here meant, who, in his
Banquet, makes Pha'driis say: " Love is confessedly amongst the eldest
of beings; and, being the eldest, is the cause to us of the greatest goods."
Plat. Op. t. X. p. 177. Bip. ed. Others have understood it of Aristotle,
and others, of the writer who goes by the name of Dionysius the Areo-
pagite, referred to iji the twenty-eighth Canto.

y. 40. I vn'll make.] Exodus, c. xxxiii. 19.

V. 42. At the otitset.] John, c. i. 1. &c.

V. 51. The eaf/le of our Lord.] St. John.

T. 62. The leaves.] Created beings.

V. 82. Theflrst livinr/ sonl.] Adam.

V. 107. Parhelion.] Who enlightens and comin-ehends all things; but
is himself enligliteued and comprehended by ncjne.

v. 117. Whejice.] Tliat is, from Limbo. See Hell, Canto II. 53. Adam
pays that 5232 years elapsed from his creation to the time of his deliver-
ance, which followed the death of Christ.

V. 133. El.] Some read Vn, " One," instead of El : but the latter of
these readings is confirmed by a passage from Dante's Treatise De Yulg.
Eloq. 1. i. cap. 4. " Quod prius vox primi loqueutis souaverit, viro san;i'

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