1847; A tour to the river Saguenay...Philadelphia A summer in the wilderness...New York and Philadel.

A hand-book of Anglo-Saxon orthography. In two parts online

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Online Library1847; A tour to the river Saguenay...Philadelphia A summer in the wilderness...New York and PhiladelA hand-book of Anglo-Saxon orthography. In two parts → online text (page 1 of 9)
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£ntered according to Act of Congress, in tlie year 1863,

ISS Satnrs Scott an)i Jfof;n !L, (ITfiapman,


In the Clerk's Office of the Diairict Court of the United Stotee for the Soulbern District
of New-York.


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The Literary Assodation, astieipatliig the inquiries whicli this work mmst awaken, intro-
duce themselves at once to the reader. The following statement, it Ss hoped, will meet all
such inquiries. '

The Association was called into existence by the Increased interest in education which haa
marked the history of our nation for tlie last ten years. They were placed at once in drcum
stances in which they had to examine t)ie school literature of the United States.

At the close of this investigation, which extended through yeak^ the Association, fhongh
profoundly impressed by the activity of the American mind in this department of letters,
could not avoid the conviction that the school-booJEs had not been prepared with suffldent
reference to the laws of the human mind.

With this impression, the Association entered upon a new field of labor. They proceeded
to interrogate the human mind, and ascertain its general laws. They freely discussed such
questions as these : '* Does the mind grow ? Is its growth the unfolding oi native energies ?
How does it grow ? By what laws ? By what methods? For instance, How does ike kuntan
mind acquire lanffuage t

In answering the last question, it was ascertained that the mind first acquires the names
of things, or mtuns ; next, the names of qualities, or adjectives ; and tlien, the names of
actions, or verbs ; and that this seems to be a law of the human mind.

The Hand- Book of Anglo-Saxon Orthography grew out of the discovery of this and oth^
laws of the human mind. In executing it, the Assodation proceeded to a carefid analysis
of the English language.

They ascertained it to be a composite language, and like the great American nation, Unum
e Plunbus. They determined the relation of its various elements. They found the Anglo-
Saxon to be the stock ; the Celtic, Gothic, French, Latin, and Greek elements, to be engraft-
ures. In this ord^, they resolved to present them in the study of the Orthography of the
English language.

The next care of the Association was to determine the principles of the growth of words,
as seen in their composition and derivation. (See pp. 23, 24 ) Composition^ they considered
a form «/ growth^ which tikes place by the union of whole words; derivation^ a form of
grovatk that takes place by the addition of parts of words, which are known as terminations,
guifixcs, and prefixes. (See p. 25.)


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The terminations were determined and classified under the heads of nnmber, gender, case,
comparison, person, and tense. There are only nine of Anglo-Saxon origin. (See p. 35, at
the bottom.)

The sniQxes were also ascertained and arranged. They are twenty-five in number. (See p.
30. Thuir meaning and use are exhibited fh>m pp. 30 to 40.)

The prefixes were next examined, and their nature and number settled. They are eighteen
in number. Their meaning and use are set forth from pp. 41 to 45.

The terminations, suffixes, and prefixesi, thus determined, are presented at one view on page
50. They form the whole materials of the growth of Anglo-Saxon words.

All these things the Association concluded to bring together in the First Part of the
Hand-Boolc, under the head of Instructions. They are tilings to be known.

But how shall these instructions be studied ? The Association, after due deliberation, pro-
pose three ways, any one of which may be adopted, according to the circumstances and
wants of the child. They may be studied by written or oral analysis. They may also be
studied topically, or as subjects. The child may take up the topic of the Instruction, study '
and recite it in the order in which it is presented, attending to the name, origin, definition,
the thing for which the word stands, and show the correctness of his knowledge by giving
INSTANCES. Thus he may recite the first Instruction :—

The word, orthography^ is derived from two Greek words, and means correct writing. This
study is not a new one. It was commenced when the first word was spelled or written. The
field of orthography is the written word. It teaches us to represent words by letters. If I
spell or write the word, hooky for instance, it is an exercise in orthography.

The Association proceeded to apply the materials of the first part of the Hand-Book and
form a second part, which should consist of Studies instead of Instructions.

The law of mind, according to which the child acquires, first, nouns, next adjectives, and
then verbs, was made the basis of the classification of words, and the words of Anglo-Saxon
origin arranged accordingly in thtise three groups. In carrying out this classification in
its details, radical nouns are presented, and in connection with them, their tenninations,
sufBxes, and prefixes. In this way, the child is led forth from home, and passes over all the
objects that lie between it and heaven, gathering up their names Next adjectives are taken
up, and then verbs. They are presented and studied in the same way as the noun. (For the
entire classification, see page 8, of the Contents ; also pages STt, 102, 115)

In addition to this, the Association added instances, giving the use of words. This is ex-
plained in the plan of study, on page 54. Attention is constantly directed to it in the first
word of every Study, which should serve as a model for all the other words, radical and

An extract from Dr. Wisdom's address on the Anglo-Saxon part of the English language
iiBLlntroduced at the beginning of the volume, which should be carefully read, as giving a
dear, succinct, and condensed view of it.

The Association believe that a child capable of reading the Hand-Book of Anglo-Saxon
Orthography, may, in two quarters, study this book, and be in possession of some five thovr
tand of the choicest Anglo-Saxon words, and their meaning. He will then be ready for the
Hand-Book of the Gothic, Celtic, French, and Classic elements of the English language,
which should be Immediately taken up.


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Instrdotion L— -Okthogbafht Defined as the Study of WrittenWords.

Inst. II. — Lan6uag(b iv General.

Inst. III.— The English Language not Native to England.

Inst. IV,-t-The Origin of the English Language, and its Mixed Natuhlk.

Inst. V.— The Anglo-Saxon Part of it.

Inst. VI. — Words.

Inst. VIL — Words are the Beginning of Language.

Inst. V III.— -The Knowledge of Words stated.

Inst. IX.— Letters and Sounds as the Elements of Words.

Inst. X. — Syllables as the Natural Parts of Words.

Inst. XI. — Quantity as the Time of Speech.

Inst. XII. — Accent as Change of Power in Speech.

Inst. XIII. — Orthoepy and Orthography — the Spoken and Writtbn Word.

Inst. XIV. — Etymology, or the tkub Account of Words.

Inst. XV.— Radical and Derivative Words.

Inst. XVI. — Composition of Words.

Inst. XVII. — Derivation of Words.

Inst. XVIIL — Manner of Derivation by Terminations, Suffixes and Peh

Inst. XIX. to XXV.— Terminations.

of Number.

of Case.

OF Sex.

OF Comparison.

OF Person of Verbs.

OF Tense of Verbs.
Inst. XXVI. to XLIII. — Suffixes : grouped according to thxib senbx.
Inst. XLIV. to LIV.— Prefixes: grouped according to theiR'SBnsb.
IN^T. LV.— Classification of WoRoa . ; -

Inst. LVI. — Plan of Study laid down.
Inst. LVIL — Materials of Anglo-Saxon Orthography.

Chap: 1.— Studies Explained.
Chap. IL — The Plan Explained and Applied.


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Obap. IIL — Home.

Btudiea : Home, Homes, Outhouses, Kinds of Hoases, Groups of
Houses, Parts of a House, Household-Stuff, House*
bold, Husband aud Wife, father and Motlier,
Childreu, Servants, Food, Clothiug.
Chap. IV.— Maw.

Studies : Man, Body of Man, the Head, the Chest, the Upper
Limbs, the Lower Limbe, the Frame and Clotbiog
of the Body, States of the Body, Properties of the
Body, Diseases, Senses, Soul, States of the Soul,
Properties of the Soid.
Chap. V. — ^BuaiwMs.

Studies: Hunting and Fishing, Farming, Building, Smithing,
Warring, Trading, Offices.
Chap. VL— Tools and Works of Man.

Studies : Tools and Works of the Hunter and Fisher, of the
Farmer, of the Hou8ewrJght, of the Wheelwright,
of the Shipwright, of the Millwright^ of the Smith,
of the Weaver, of the Housewife, of the Soldier, of
the Learned Callings, of Different Kinds of Business,
Weights and Measures.
Chap. VIL — Wobks op the Creator.

Studies : the Earth, Bodies of Land, Bodies of Water, Mine-
ral Bodies, Plants, Animals, Bodies in the Heavens.
Chap. VIIL— God.

Studies : God, Attributes, Belation of God to Man, the Abode
of God.
Chap. IX — Place and Time.

Studies: Places on the Earth and in the Heayens, Relative
Places, Large Divisions of Time, Small Divisions of
Time, Relative Divisions of Time.
Chap. X — Qualities.

Studies : Qualities of Home, of a House, Outhouses, Household-
Stuff, Household, Food, Clothing, Man. Bodv of Man,
Parts of the Body of Man, of the Soul, of the
Hunter and Hunting, of the Fisher, Farmer, War,
Mechanics, Manufacturers, Traders, Sailors, Learned
Callings, OflScers, Works of Man, Works of God,
Miners, Plants, Animals, Light, God.
Chap. XL — Actions.

Studies : Actions of Man, Body of Man, Senses, of the Soul, of
the Household, Householder, Housekeeper, of the
Hunter, of the Fisher, of the Farmer, of the Me-
chanic, of Manufacturer, of Trader, of War, Lawyer,
of the Doctor, of the Teacher, of the Artist, of
Miners, of Plants, of Domestic Animals, of Wild
Animals, of the Earth, of the Heavens, of God.
Ohap. XII.—- Etiniv.

Studies : Events of the Household, of the Occupations of Man,
of the Earth, of the Heavens, of God.


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The address of Dr. Wisdom on English Grammar was soon followed by one
of equal interest on the Saxon part of our language. Profes^^or Cadmus, in a
late communication to the Association, has kindly furnished an outline of
it. Dr. Wisdom, he says, was induced to prepare and deliver the address
by two facts, observed in his investigations in English Grammar : first, that
the structure and idiom of our language are Anglo-Saxon ; second, that its
few inflections are derived from the same source. These facts led him to enforce
the impartance of paying greater attention to this part of our native tongue


Gentlemen, said Dr. Wisdom, it is a proud thing to have the English
language for our native speech. Its structure is simple and massive, and its
basis strong in all the elements of enduring power. Its history, to which I
lately directed your attention, has taught you these things.

Recall its outlines, gentlemen. From the present, look back on the past
The English language now reigns over a vast territory — United States, British
Isles, Canada, Quiana, Jamaica, Guernsey, Jersey, Gibraltar, Liberia, Cape of
Goftd Flope, Malta, India, and Australia. Once, it was known only on the isle
of Thanet, Its home was Hanover and Westphalia, on the Continent Its
wanderings were by the stormy Baltic, Caucasus, and distant Indus.

It covers this territory, gentlemen, as a mixed language. It is found on
the Continent, and in those wanderings, as the Saxon tongue, a branch of the
great Teutonic family. As such, it was introduced into England in A. D. 450.
Six successive settlements established it on the island. It became a national
language in A. D. 886. The Celtic speech, the original language of the British
Isles, existed only in a few districts. New changes awaited our mother-tongue.


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The Dane and Norwegian came in A. D. 827, altered its form, and brought in
the Gothic element The Norman-French conquered the Saxons in A. D. 1066,
and engrafted the French element upon the native stock. Other changes fol-
lowed. Latin and Greek words were freely introduced bj the learned. Modem
English arose in the time of Elizabeth — ^arose with the Anglo-Saxon element
as the basis. To this element of our native speech, allow me to direct your

Gentlemen, said Dr. Wisdom, the love of our mother-tongue should be
strong as death. It is the speech of home and the heart, and contains treasures
of sacred memory. Who can forget, or neglect it, and not wound the dearest
interests of his nature I

The Anglo Saxon is our mother-tongue. The French portion of our lan-
guage is associated with wrong and oppression. A few memories of taste
relieve this picture of it The Latin part belongs to ails, sciences and abstrac-
tions. The other elements, which enter into its composition, are puny exotics.
It is otherwise with the Anglo-Saxon. It forms the root, life, and beauty of
the English language.

Gentlemen, continued the Doctor, I wish you would weigh this matter, and
render a just verdict for our mother-tongue. The verdict, which I ask, is a
paEFSRENGB to the Latin and French portions of the English language in the
education of our children. The grounds on which I ask this verdict are weighty
and just

1. The early words of home are Anglo-Saxon. It furnishes us with the
names of husband and wife, father and mother, son and daughter and child,
brother and sister, friends and kindred, and home itself.

2. The words of the heart are Anglo-Saxon. Such are love, hope,
sorrow, fear, tear, smile, blush, laughter, weeping, and sighing.

3. The words of earlt life are Anglo-Saxon. And who can overrate
their power? The foundations of the mind are laid amidst the objects for
which they stand, and their associations.

4. The words which stand for sensible things are mainly Anglo-Saxon :
such, for instance, as the sun, moon, stars, water, earth, spring, summer, wi titer,
day, night, heat, cold ; and nearly all our bodily actions. These are the words
adapted to childhood.

5. The words of practical life are Anglo-Saxon. The farmer, the mer-
chant, the laborer and salesman use this part of our language. The names of
their instruments are mainly Anglo-Saxon.

6. The words that mark special varieties of objects, qualities, and
ACTIONS, ARE AngloSaxon, Rud givc pcculiar weight and point to our language.

7. The grammar of the English language is Anglo-Saxon. Its atruc-
hire, idionif and injlecliona are derived from this soiu-ce.


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On these grounds I rest my daim for a preference of our mother-tongue aa
the basis of education in the English language. It is admirably adapted to
childhood, and capable of producbg results, affecting happily the i;nind, heart,
and life of our children.

Dr. Wisdom continued: Counting on a verdict agreeable to these views,
allow me now to make some suggestions on the study of ortiiography.

The speaking and spelling of our language are widely different This is
apparent to every reflecting mind. Indeed, the difference is so great that it
IS almost useless to give any rules. What is to be done 9 Shall we write as
we spell ? Shall we lop off every letter that does not enter into the pronun-
ciation of the word $ By no means. I would not tear away old associations, and
efface the early records of the history of English mind, as seen in the form ot
our words. I would learn the spoken language by the eae, and the written
language by t^e eve. This is a simple remedy for the evil, and the only cer-
tain way of acquiring oral and written speech.

I would teach the orowth of our language also, said Dr. Wisdom. The
common practice is otherwise. Analysis is preferred to synthesis. I would
reverse this order. I would begin with the radical wordy show the process ot
derivation and compoiition, and point out the exchanges of one part of speech
for another. In this way, the child would be introduced to the formation ot
his language. Indeed, he would form the language himself; and it would be to
him as a living thing, because it would be the expression of his own mind. To
make this mode of studying our language complete, I would always link the
words with the things for which they stand, and reduce them to practice at once,
by giving instances. I would also arrange them in families, or groups, under
the leading TOFrcs of thought, and thus link them for ever to the objects to
whidi they relate.

It remains, added Dr. Wisdom, to define the place of the study of
English orth(^aphy. There is danger of introducing it too early into the
course of education. It should receive attention from the beginning ; but its
study, as such, should be commenced after the elements of English gi'ammar
have been mastered. And why ? The study of orthography should embrace
definition and the ufe3 of words in sentences. Instances should complete every
exercise. Now, these things cannot be attended to without some knowledge of
grammar. The nomi muat be defined by the noun, and the verb by the verb.

Such, gentlemen, u our mother-tongue in outline. We are proud of it. If
other languages are lii^e the scimeter of Saladin, bright and keen, the Anglo-
Saxon is like the mape of Richard, a thing of power. It is well used only by
one man on this continent.

But, gentlemen, the Anglo-Saxon is not all the English language. The
Gothic, Celtic, French, Latin, and Greek elements are invested with much


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interest^ and muBt be called up to your atteDtioa at no distant day. I am am-
biiious. I wish to hasten the dawn of a new era in education. The time is
at hand, when the professor of the English language shall ait aide by side with
the doctors of Latin and Greek ; but he shall do so on the condition of placiog
the old Anglo-Saxon above the classics, and making Alfred and Caedmon and
Bede more honorable than Virgil and Humer. Gentlemen, our old mother-
tongue has endured two captivities : one under the Norman-French, the other
under the Latin and Greek. From the former, it was delivered under the reign
of a king : from the latter, it is about to return under a president.


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The word, orihography^ is of foreign origin. It is derived
from two Greek words, and means correct writing. If I spell,
or write the word rocA, for instance, the exercise is one in

The study of orthography is not a new one. lU was com-
menced when the^r^^ word was spelled, or written, and has
been pursued in some way or other ever since. Even while
reading, it receives attention. The eye fixes the forms of
words upon the mind, as it fixes the shapes of sensible

The field or extent of this study is easily defined. It is
WRITTEN WORDS. Orthography teaches us to write or rep-
resent the words of spoken language by certain marks, called
letters. As such, it is a part of the study of language.


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Language is a familiar thing. It is known in the daily
intercourse of life. The child uses it to tell his wants and
hopes : the sage uses it to declare his opinions.

The word, language^ is of Latin origin. It comes from the
name of the tongtie, because this organ is chiefly used in form-
ing it. It is now the name of that system of sounds, or
marks, by which we make known our thoughts. If I speak
or write my thoughts about ft rose or a book, the exercise is
one in language.

The study of language is one of great interest. As far as
we are able to judge, language, in the first instance, came
from God. There was only one language in Eden. There
are now about three thousand varieties of it upon the earth.
Some of these are only spoken : others are both spoken and
written. Some of the languages are written in pictures,
others in symbob, and others still in letters. Among these,
we find our own — ^the English language.


This is our native tongue. It is spoken by the English

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Online Library1847; A tour to the river Saguenay...Philadelphia A summer in the wilderness...New York and PhiladelA hand-book of Anglo-Saxon orthography. In two parts → online text (page 1 of 9)