1860 United States. Census Office. 8th Census.

Manufactures of the United States in 1860; compiled from the original returns of the eighth census, under the direction of the secretary of the interior online

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Online Library1860 United States. Census Office. 8th CensusManufactures of the United States in 1860; compiled from the original returns of the eighth census, under the direction of the secretary of the interior → online text (page 22 of 136)
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about 3,800,000 yards. In North Alabama and Tennessee, 80 hand-looms made an average of 15,000
yards each, or 1,200,000 yards annually; and 50 hand-looms in Missouri produced 750,000 yards,
making a total manufacture of about 15,750,000 yards produced in the West in that year. At an aver-
age of 6 yards to each bale of cotton, that quantity was sufficient to bale 2,625,000 bales of cotton, and
was in excess of the actual demand. The consumption of hemp was estimated at 1^ pound to the
yard, or a total of 23,625,000 pounds, and the consumption for bale-rope at about as much more, being
a total of 21,000 tons, which was 5,500 tons more than Kentucky produced in 1842. One factory at
Cincinnati, the Fulton Bagging Company, made about 800,000 yards in the previous year, when the
total productioji of the western States was computed at 10,200,000 yards, at an average cost of about
11 cents a yard.

The price showed a decline of about one-half from the selling price of domestic bagging in
1823-24, when Kentucky bagging was quoted in New Orleans at 20 to 22 cents, and Scotch bagging,
which formed the chief supply, at 22 to 26 cents a yard. Previous to that date, and for many years
after, Scotch bagging was annually imported into southern ports to a heavy amount, and often sold at a
price exceeding 50 cents a yard, at which it was quoted in New Orleans in March, 1822. Imported
bagging was then subject to a duty of 15 per cent, ad valorem. In 1824, when the value of cotton
bagging imported amounted to only $18,491, an effort was made in Congress to raise the duty to
6 cents per square yard, but 4^ cents was all that could be obtained. In May of the same year it
was reduced to 3f cents, and in 1832 to 3J cents the square yard.

In 1825 the value of the imports of this article amounted to $637,023, and during the 20 years
iiom 1824 to 1843, inclusive, the value of cotton bagging imported was $7,561,390, an average of
$378,069 per annum. The quantity imported on an average of the years 1832 and 1833 was
1,112,000 yards. The cotton crop at that time required annually for 1,100,000 bales, at an average of
6 yards per bale, about 4,400,000 yards more than was imported, and at 20 cents a yard the value of
that quantity made in this country would have been $880,000.

On a revision of the tariff in 1842 a duty of 5 cents a pound on this article- was proposed, and
resisted by the cotton-growers as being equivalent to an annual tax of $1,422,222 on the cotton inter-
ests of the south. The duty was consequently fixed at 4 cents the square yard. A large increase of
the domestic manufacture ensued, and in 1846, when the duty was changed to an ad valorem rate of
25 per cent., a Georgia senator stated that good bagging was made in Kentucky more than 5 cents a
yard less than it cost in Dundee in 1842, and for 3 or 4 cents a yard less than the price in Scotland
in 1846. The price of cotton bagging in 1838 was from 18 to 20 cents per yard, in 1841 from 25 to
27 cents, and in 1846 from 8J to 9^ cents. Bale-rope in the first of those years cost from 7 to 8 cents
a pound, in 1841 from 11 to 12 cents, and in 1846 from 3 to 4 cents. In 1852 the quantity imported
was 497,301 yards, valued at $49,347, an average of nearly 10 cents a yard custom-house valuation.
In 1857 the duty was reduced to 15 per cent., and in 1862 was laid at 2^ and 3 cents a pound, accord-
ing as it cost over or under 10 cents a pound. The number of running yards imported in the fiscal
year preceding the late war was only 97,615, valued at $12,258. T-he amount of cotton exported in
that year would have required, at an average of 6 yards to each bale, 22,374,070 yards, or more than
double the quantity returned by the marshals. The amount reported was probably less than the actual
manufacture, and a portion was probably included with other linens and cordage, from which it cannot
always be accurately separated. For many years 'past, however, large quantities of gunny bags have
been annually imported direct, and some through British ports, from the British East Indies and Aus-
tralia, which is chiefly used at the south for baling cotton. The value of gunny bags imported in 1858
was $420,966, and of gunny cloth $1,016,800. In 1860 the value of the former article imported was
$287,387, and of the latter $1,795,256 ; and in 1862 the weight of the two articles imported was



9,780,876 pounds, valued at $230,404. It was subject, under the act of 1857, to a duty of 15 per cent.
ad valorem, which was increased in 1862 to 25 per cent. Some bagging is also made, it is probable,
from cotton and the waste of cotton mills both in the manufacturing and cotton-growing States.

Statistics of hemp bagging produced during the ymr ending June 1, 1860.
























Wisconsin* .-•■■


$2, 700

170, 000

323, 050



$12, 800

314, 000

465, 500










$1, 392

43, 272

93, 372



$19, 600

371, 578

699, 450







3, 680, 000

5, 750, 000

70, 000

40, 000


Total in United States







141, 636

1, 109, 628

9, 540, 000

'< More properly classified as "bags."


The total number of paper-mills in the United States in 1850 was 443. They employed an
aggregate capital of $7,260,864, and 6,285 hands, of whom 2,950 were females. The annual cost of
labor was $1,497,792, and of raw materials $5,553,929, and the value of the product was-$10,187,177.

On the 1st of June, 1860, the number of paper manufactories in 24 States was 555. The total
amount of their investments was $14,052,683, and the number of hands was of males 6,519, females
4,392— total, 10,911. The annual expenditure for labor was $2,767,2 12, and for materials $11,602,266.
The total value of product was $21,216,802, which included the values of 131,608,000 pounds of printing
paper, 22,268,000 pounds of writing paper, 33,379 tons of wrapping paper, 8,150 tons of straw board,
besides 1,944,000 pounds of colored paper, 91,960 pounds of bank-note paper, and 3,097 tons of wall
paper — a total weight of 253,778,240 pounds. The average. value per pound of the whole quantity was
upwards of 8| cents (8,36 ) The increase in the value of the product over that of 1850 was 108.2 per
cent. The quantity was in the proportion of 8.07 pounds to each person in the Union.

In the New England States the paper-mills numbered 204, which produced nearly one-half of the
total value of paper made. Their aggregate capital was $6,533,460, the number of hands 5,420, (one-
half females,) and the cost of wages was $1,375,790, and of materials $5,907,365 annually. The pro-
duct was 56,105,300 pounds of printing, 17,298,000 pounds of writing, and 11,600 tons of wrapping
paper, 1,568 tons of straw pasteboard, 1,720,000 pounds of colored papers, 67,000 pounds bank-note
and 2,147 tons of wall paper, valued altogether at $10,502,069, an increase of upward of 109 per cent.
in ten years. Considerably more than one-half the capital and product was reported by 99 manufac-
tories in Massachusetts, employing 3,339 persons, of whom 1,845 were females, and making paper
valued at $6,170,127, the increase being upward of 137 per cent. It was the value of 27,747,000
pounds of printing paper, 15,598,000 pounds of writing, 6,443 tons of wrapping paper, and 815 tons of
straw board, beside colored and wall papers.

In Connecticut there were 55 mills, producing paper of the value of $2,453,258. The manufac-
tures consisted largely of printing paper, of which 14,581,500 pounds were made, 1,500,000 pounds of
writing paper, 2,848 tons of wrapping, 1,000,000 pounds colored, 375 tons of wall paper, and all the
bank-note paper made in New England, namely, 67,000 pounds. The principal factories were at Hart-
ford, where there were 21, and at Norwich. The Pacific mills at Windsor Locks, near Hartford, and
those of the Chelsea Manufacturing Company, at Norwich, are among the largest establishments of the
kind in the world.



In the other New England States the value fell below one million dollars in each. In Maine,
which had 14 mills, it amounted to $990,000, and the manufacture in that State showed the largest
rate of increase of all the New England States, viz : 420 per centum. In New Hampshire there were
24 mills and in Vermont 12, and from Rhode Island none were reported.

The middle States contained 273 paper-making establishments, whose aggregate investments in the
business amounted to $5,499,770. The labor was performed by 3,971 persons, including 1,188 females,
whose annual wages cost $950,444, the cost of material being $4,292,358, and the value of the manu-
factures $7,908,437, an increase of 102 per cent, on the product of 1850. The quantity of paper made
in these States was 50,604,500 pounds of printing, 4,923,000 pounds of writing, 17,446 tons of wrap-
ping, and 6,582 tons of straw boards, beside miscellaneous articles.

The largest product was returned by 126 mills in New York, containing 1,857 hands, and having
a capital of $2,039,000. They manufactured 17,304,300 pounds of printing paper, 1,772,000 pounds
of writing paper, 14,340 tons of wrapping paper, and 2,154 tons of straw board, beside 950 tons of wall
paper, valued in all at $3,059,776, an increase of 87 per cent. Pennsylvania contained 84 paper-mills,
having $1,917,970 in capital and 1,082 hands, who made 18,198,000 pounds of printing, 400,000 pounds
of writing paper, 1,503 tons of wrapping, 1,500 tons of straw board, and 24,960 pounds of bank-note paper,
the total value of which articles was $2,367,268, which was an increase of 128 per cent, since 1850.
New Jersey had 36 paper manufactories, with an aggregate capital of $990,000, 715 hands, and produced
paper of the value of $1,582,703, the increase being over 78 per cent. These mills made 8,198,000 tons
of printing paper, 2,750,000 tons of writing paper, 668 tons of wrapping, and 2,928 tons of straw board,
beside 224,000 pounds of colored papers. They turned out more writing paper and straw board than
were made in any other State in the Union. The principal mills are at Trenton, Paterson, and Newark,
the Ivanhoe mills, at Paterson, being one of the most complete in the United States. Twenty-five mills
in Maryland made paper of the value of $513,690, and two in Delaware made $385,000 worth of printing
and wrapping papers, the increment in both considerably exceeding 100 per cent.

In the western States there were 53 mills, of which 29 were in Ohio. The total capital employed
in paper-making in those States was $1,386,603, the number of hands was 1,109, of which 362 were
females; the annual cost of labor was $299,436, and of materials $1,074,178. The product amounted
to $2,041,793, an increase of 104 per cent. It embraced 18,408,000 pounds of printing paper, 48,000
pounds of Writing paper, and 3,381 tons of wrapping paper. The writing paper was all made in Ohio,
which also produced 12,590,000 pounds of printing paper and 2,500 tons of wrapping, valued alto-
gether at $1,382,141, the rate of increase being upward of 197 per cent. The 29 mills in Ohio
employed a capital of $875,600 and 724 hands. In Indiana there were 10 mills, in Michigan and
Wisconsin five each, in Illinois two, and in Iowa and Kentucky each one mill. In each of the three
first named and in Kentucky between one and two million pounds of printing paper, beside wrapping
paper, was made, Wisconsin producing the largest amount, or 1,724,000 pounds, and showing also the
largest rates of increase in the value. In Kentucky the value of paper made showed a falling off from
the product in 1850, and in Iowa, where no paper was made in that year, 170,000 pounds, worth
$17,400, was produced.

The southern States numbered, in 1860, 24 paper-mills, whose aggregate investments were reported
at $572,850. They employed 397 persons, (131 of them females,) the cost of whose labor was $1 37,042
per annum, and of material the cost was $320,365. They manufactured 6,120,200 pounds of prioting
paper and 952 tons of wrapping paper, valued in all at $724,503, showing an increase since 1850 in
the ratio of 176.5 per cent. In Virginia nine mills made 1,940,000 pounds of printing paper, worth
$270,000. Six mills in North Carolina made 1,495,200 pounds, valued at $165,703, and four in Georgia
produced nearly the same quantity and value. Three mills in South Carolina made 1,085,000 pounds
of printing paper, worth $96,500, and two in Tennessee made 200,000 pounds, worth $28,000, which
was a decrease. From Alabama, which returned a value of $18,000 in 1850, no return was made.
The increase in Georgia and the Carolinas was very large.



A paper-mill in California, (the Pioneer mill, at Taylorsville, in Marin county,) with a capital of

000 and 14 male hands, made 360,000 pounds of printing paper, valued at S40,000. The cost
of material was $8,000, and of labor $4,800.

The annual production of paper in the United States is greater than that either of Great Britain
or France, and the annual consumption is estimated to exceed that of both countries together. The
consumption of rags for paper by 380 paper-mills in Great Britain, in 1854, was about 201,000,000
pounds, (an increase in 20 years of upwards of 100 per cent.,) from which were made 177,800,000
pounds of paper, whereof 161,700,000 pounds were consumed and 16,112,000 exported. In France
about 235,200,000 pounds of rags were made into 156,300,000 pounds of paper, (assuming 1^ pound
of rags to make one pound of paper,) making in the two countries a total weight of 436,200,000 pounds
of rags consumed and of 334,600,000 pounds of paper made, the latter being at the rate of 4.55 pounds
per capita for both populations. The consumption of rags in the United States at the same time was
assumed to be 405,000,000 pounds annually, and the weight of paper made 270,000,000 pounds, an
average of 10.80 pounds of paper per capita.

Although the weight of rags consumed in 1860, calculated at the rate above mentioned, was only
380,667,360 pounds, and the weight of paper made only 253,778,240, or a little over 8 pounds per capita,
showing the foregoing estimate for the United States to have been probably too large, there is little
doubt that when the actual production, the exportation, and importations of each country are compared,
the United States will be found to exceed either in the amount of its annual production, and both in
the consumption per capita and in the aggregate. The decrease of paper-mills in England was in
consequence of improvements in machinery and the use of steam-power, which in that country and in
this has rendered the establishments much more extensive than formerly.

Some of the largest mills in the United States have turned out paper at the rate of seven tons per
diem. The materials used are not only cotton and linen rags, the waste of cotton, flax, and hemp mills,
and of rope and cordage factories, coir and jute, hemp and other fibres, either crude, fibrilized, or in the
shape of worn-out bagging, cable rope, &c., but also straw, hay, and stable refuse, various, kinds of wood,
particularly bass or white wood, hemlock, &c., corn-husks, mulberry leaves and bark, canes and
reeds, &c., &c.


The first paper-mill erected within the present limits of the United States was built at Rox-
borough, near Germantown, Pennsylvania, as early as 1693. This was fifty years after the first intro-
duction of printing in the British colonies, but not more than five or six years after a proclamation was
issued by government to establish the first manufactory of white paper in England.

The mill was built and owned by an ancestor of David Rittenbouse, whose family had been long
engaged in the manufacture of paper in Holland, and by Wilham Bradford, the first printer in the
middle colonies. Printing, writing, and wrapping paper was made there until the mill was carried
away by a freshet. In 1728 Mr. Bradford, while a government printer in New York, owned a paper
mill at Elizabethtown, New Jersey, which was probably the second one built in the colonies. About
the same time, or earlier, a paper-mill was erected on Chester creek, Delaware county, Pennsylvania,
by Thomas Wilcox, which afterward supplied the press of Benjamin "Franklin with printing paper, and
during the Revolution, in addition to writing and printing paper, clothiers' paste-boards, &c., made the
bank-note jjaper used in the old continental paper currency. This was made by the old hand process,
which his son Mark continued and improved upon at the Ivy mill until 1827. The mill, after having
beien in operation a hundred years, gave place in 1829 to another, in which hand-made and bank-note
paper has continued to be made to the present time. A paper-mill was early erected at Ephrata, in
Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, for the use of a German printing press at that place, and was in oper-
ation at the Revolution. The paper manufacture in Pennsylvania and the adjoining provinces was
greatly promoted by the enterprise of the Philadelphia printers and booksellers, and particularly by
Dr. Franklin. The three provinces of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware, in 1769, contained


40 paper-mills, of which 6 were within the present limits of Philadelphia. The value of their man-
ufactures was estimated at SlOO,000 annually. After the war, in 1787, Dr. Franklin stated that he
had been interested in the establishment of 18 paper-mills, and the number in the States named was
then 63, of which 48 were in Pennsylvania. They made yearly about $250,000 worth of paper.
Among these was one at Wilmington, Delaware, owned by Messrs. Gilpin & Fisher, which produced
a fine quality of paper. John Games, jr., of Delaware, in April, 1793, took out the first American
patent for paper-making, which was for an improvement in the moulds. The second was issued in
March, 1794, to John Biddis, of Pennsylvania.

During the year 1728 Daniel Henchman, a large bookseller and publisher of Boston, Benjamin
Fanueil, Thomas Hancock, and others, obtained permission to erect the first paper-mill in Massachu-
setts. They were required by the terms of their license to make during the first 15 months 140
reams of brown and 60 reams of printing paper, and at least 500 reams, including 25 reams of writing
paper, during each succeeding year thereafter. Samples of their manufacture were furnished the
assembly in 1731, and in the following year this first New England mill was the subject of complaint
by the paper merchants to the British Board of Trade, who ascertained that it made paper to the value
of £200 sterling annually. It was built on the Neponsett river, at Milton, 7 miles from Boston, and,
with some interruptions from lack of experienced workmen, continued in operation until the Revolution,
or later. In 1796 there were three paper-mills in that town, where the business is still carried on.
There were but three mills in the province at the date of the Revolution, and after the peace
Andover, "Worcester, Sutton, Springfield, and many other places contained paper mills. In 1792 the
value of paper made in Massachusetts was estimated at £200,000 annually, and 4 years later the num-
ber of mills in the State was 20, of which 7 were on the Charles river and 6 on the Neponsett.

These mills had usually 2 vats each, and employed 10 men and as many boys and girls. Their
annual product was about 70,000 reams of wrapping, printing and writing paper, the latter being all
laid paper, made by the hand process, no machines, except for grinding the pulp, being then in use.
Each mill required a capital of about $10,000, and was capable of making from two to three thousand
reams annually of different kinds of paper. The price of printing paper was from $3 to $3 50 per
ream at that time. Some of the mills in Pennsylvania were larger, and had 3 or 4 vats each.

In 1765 a large and complete paper-mill was put in operation at Olneysville, near Providence,
Rhode Island; and in 1768 the first one in Connecticut was erected at Norwich, by Christopher Lcf-
fingwell, who, two years after, was paid by the assembly a bounty of Id. a quire on 4,020 quires of
writing paper, and 1 cent each on 10,600 quires of printing paper. A mill was in operation in 1776
at East Hartford, owned by Watson & Ledyard, who, in addition to printing paper for a weekly edition
of 8,000 papers by the Hartford press, supplied nearly all the writing paper used in Connecticut and
by the continental army.

A paper-mill was erected at Hempstead, Long Island, about 1768, by Henry Onderdonk and
Hugh Gaine, a printer of New York, and the business is still carried on at that place. But in 1781
paper was so scarce in the State that the journal of the assembly was not printed. A paper-mill was
built at Troy in 1793, by Webster, Ensign & Seymour, who made 5 to 10 reams of paper daily.
Previous to that much of the peper used at Albany and .vicinity was obtained from a paper-mill at
Bennington, Vermont, erected during the Revolution, from which the paper was carried on horseback
through the forests. In 1794 Colonel Matthew Lyon put up a paper-mill at Fair Haven, Vermont,
for making paper from the bark of the bass-wood, both for wrapping and to supply a printing press
owned by him.

One of the earliest paper-mills erected in the south was built at Salem, North Carolina, by the
Moravians, who settled there in 1766. During the war the manufacture of pappr in that and other
States was encouraged by local bounties and other means, and on the return of peace by a loan from
the State.

The report of Secretary Hamilton to Congress on the subject of domestic manufacture, in 1791,



classed the manufacture of paper among the branches which had arrived at the greatest maturity, and
was most adequate to a national supply.

In 1796 the first paper-mill west of the AUeghanies was put in operation near Redstone Old Fort,
(Brownsville,) in Fayette county, Pennsylvania. It was built by Samuel Jackson and Jonathan Sharp-
less, two Friends, from Delaware, and was long known as the Redstone paper-mill. A paper-mill
appears to have been soon after built at Pittsburg, for which the proprietor, Mr. Cramer, in 1800, was
able to collect only 260 pounds of rags, but in 1813 collected 70,000 pounds. The business in that
town, in 1815, employed 50 hands and produced paper to the value of $40,000. In the following year
the first steam paper-mill in the United States is said to have gone into operation at Pittsburg, with a
steam-engine of 16 horse-power and 40 hands, and turned out $30,000 worth of paper. The first
paper-mill within the limits of Ohio was the Ohio paper-mill, built about the year 1805, on Little Beaver
creek, in Columbiana county, by John Bowman and others. In 1816 there was a steam paper-mill at
Steubenville, producing paper of superior quality, more than sufficient to supply the neighboring coun-
ties, and in 1836 was considered the largest in the west. A paper-mill with two vats, at Mount
Pleasant, in the same county, was in operation at the former date.

In 1802 the first paper-mill in Berkshire county, Massachusetts, which has ever since been the
seat of an extensive paper manufacture, went into operation at Dalton. It has been long known as the
" Old Berkshire" mill, and was built by Messrs. Wiswell, Crane & Willard, who during the next five
years made about 20 tons of paper annually. Since 1810 it has been owned by David Carson and his
sons, who greatly enlarged it in 1855, and made yearly 180 tons of paper,, worth 20 cents a pound. The
first mill in South Lee, which now makes more paper than any other town in the United States, was
begun in 1806, by Samuel Church, on the site of Owen & Hurlbut's mill. About the same date a
paper-mill was erected on the north side of the Chicopee, which, about 1825, became the property of
David Ames, who introduced improved machinery and became the largest manufacturer of paper in the
United States. It was run by his sons, who introduced many improvements in paper-making, until
1853, when it passed into the hands of the Lenox Chicopee Company.

In 1810 the marshals returned 179 paper-mills in 17 States, including one in the District of Co-
lumbia, but exclusive of Massachusetts, the number in which was not complete. They reported a

Online Library1860 United States. Census Office. 8th CensusManufactures of the United States in 1860; compiled from the original returns of the eighth census, under the direction of the secretary of the interior → online text (page 22 of 136)