1860 United States. Census Office. 8th Census.

Manufactures of the United States in 1860; compiled from the original returns of the eighth census, under the direction of the secretary of the interior online

. (page 29 of 136)
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ing the manufacture of hats and hat bodies, which was still in a great measure effected by manual
labor, although a committee of hat manufacturers reported to the New York convention in 1842 that
hats were then sold from 25 to 50 per cent cheaper than they were ten years before, fur hats of fair
quality affording a profit at $1 50 each, which formerly sold for $2 to $2 50 each, and the first quality,
which ten years before ranged from $6 15 to $10 each, being sold for $5.

Among the early patented inventions by Americans, the first was granted to James Long, of Mary-
land, in 1799, for a method of napping hats; and one patented by Roswell Pitkin, of East Hartford,
Connecticut, in 1808, for forming hats, cloths, &c., from the fleece without bowing, which was at that
time the universal practice. In 1812 Messrs. Holladay & Griffin, of Lyme, in that State, received a
patent for a machine for bowing wool, &c., for hats; and Mr. Griffin received another for the same pur-
pose in 1815. A mould for forming wool and rorum hats was patented in 1813 by John Warely, ot
Albany, New York. A machine for making bats or frames for wool hats was patented by Richard
Gookins, of New Hampshire, in 1806; and in 1819 Silas Mason, of Norfolk, Massachusetts, recorded
a patent for manufacturing hats by the help of a carding machine, which produced the hat m a conical
form at a single operation. At that date bowing machines were in operation in two hat factories m
Lyme, Connecticut, the patents for which were held by the proprietors, probably the individuals before
mentioned. There was another establishment at East Hartford, in which the principal labor ot nat-
making was said to be done by machinery, (probably Pitkins's,) patented by the proprietor.



clx INTRODUCTION.

In April, 1825, and again in 1827, Joseph Grant, of Providence, Rhode Island, obtained letters
patent for improvements in the mode of making hat bodies, by aid of a machine for winding and
setting up the bodies. In November of that year a machine for the same purpose, said to be of
foreign invention and ingeniously contrived, was patented in England by Mr. Borrowdaile. A steam
factory for making hat bodies, under Grant's patent, was in operation in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, in
1837. It was adapted, we believe, for forming wool hat bodies by winding the fleece from a carding
machine upon two cones united at the base.

Steam was applied to the making and hardening of hats by Jonathan Sizer, of New London, Con-
necticut, in 1811, and by N. Wildman, of Danbury, in 1824. And in 1829 a machine for scalding and
napping hats by steam was the subject of a patent by Daniel Baldwin, of Ithaca, New York. Four
years later machinery for napping hats by steam was in successful operation in Philadelphia. Water-
proof stiffening was the subject of a patent by WiUiam Buckles, of Baltimore, in 1817; and in 1835 a
machine for stiffening hat bodies by immersing them in solutions of different strengths and afterward
pressing them between rollers — a process still in use — was patented by Henry Blynn, of Newark, New
Jersey. It was said to enable one man to do as much work in one hour as five could do by the old
process. Water-proof stiffening has effected much saving in the material of fur hats, and at the same
time rendered them more light and elastic. It has been the subject of some valuable improvements
in England.

Hardening hats upon a cone was covered by a patent granted to Stephen Hurlbut, of Glaston-
bury, Connecticut, in 1831.

For machinery for forming hat bodies several patents were taken out by different persons in 1829.
But the germ of the present improved mode of giving to the materials the primary fitting and of
forming the bats for fur hats, by what is known as the pneumatic process, was introduced by the late
'J'homas Biancbard, of New York city, and was contained in machinery patented by him in June, 1837.
It consisted in forming a thin web or fleece of fur by means of a rapidly rotating picker brush to dis-
integrate the materials and throw them upon an endless apron or band of fine wire cloth, passing over
lollers; upon which wiie cloth the fur was deposited by a current of air, produced by an exhausting
fan beneath the apron. The thin, narrow, ribbon or web thus J^fifijed was wound upon a double cone
ot a size to form two hat bodies. The machine was not sucestin^^'^^'^ practice, but H. A. Wells, one
of the proprietors, early conceived the idea of depositing the fur directly upon a pervious cone con-
nected with an exhausting fan beneath, which would produce a cuiTent of air through the cone from
all sides.

On visiting England soon after to introduce the Blanchard machinery and other improvements in
hat-making, patented by H A. Wells and R. W. Peck in 1837, Mr. Wells found Thos. R. Williams,
an American, engaged with machinery for bowing, breaking up, and felting wools for hats by means of
a cardmg engine for preparing the fibres, and of pervious cones and exhausting fans for forming the
web which was afterward agglutinated by dipping in a sizing liquid. His process was patented in Eng-
land; and in 1840 he took out in the United States a patent for so much of the mechanism as related
to the making of felt cloths without spinning or weaving abandoning that relating to hats which did
not come into successful use. Mr. Wells by experiment reduced his idea to successful practice, and
took out his first patent in April, 1846, which he assigned to Henry A. Burr and others in New York,
by whom it was resigned, and to whom, in September and October, 1856, it was reissued in two sepa-
rate patents, the one for forming the bats, and the other for hardening and removing them from the
cone. These have since been extended and reissued, and are still owned by Mr. Burr and partners,
who have added other improvements, and purchased the patent rights of several other inventors.

Under an upright perforated cone of sheet copper, revolving slowly on its axis, a vacuum is created
by an exhausting fan which rotates 4,000 times in a minute, and by means of the current of air through
the holes the fur, previously prepared by blowing and other machinery, which separates the long hairs
from the short, is deposited on the outside in quantity suflficient to form one hat body at a time. A



INTRODUCTION



c.lxi



wet cloth is then thrown over the cone, and the whole is removed to a vat of hot water, and the subse-
quent felting and sizing is done either by the hat-finisher or in separate establishments, by hand, though
some have employed a sizing machine of French invention for fulling up the bodies previously made hi
the "forming machine."

By this " former," two men and a boy, with a third person to roll the bodies, can complete in a day
400 to 460 hat bodies, all alike in weight, shape, and thickness, and better made than they were by the
old process, by which one man could make only four or five in a day. The cost of labor for forraiog
and sizing hat bodies has been reduced in proportion, from 56 cents to 6 or 10 cents. Nearly aU the
hat bodies are now made by this mode, either by Messrs. Burr & Co., in New York, or by their agents
and licensees throughout the country, the manufacturers generally furnishing the materials, which are
made into hat bodies of such weight and quality as may be ordered

From January 1, 1846, when this machinery went into operation, to December 31, 1859, the num-
ber of hat bodies made under this patent by Messrs. Burr & Co., and by others, at Milburn and Newark,
New Jersey, was 41,431,693. The patentees, in 1856, manufactured three miUion hat bodies, and
other authorized producers had a capacity for making about as many more.

In 1860 the former returned a manufacture of two million of hat bodies, of an average value of
60 cents each. An improvement in machinery for making hat bodies was patented during that year,
by Seth Boyden, of Newark, New Jersey, which, we believe, is used in one or more of the large estab-
hshments in that place.

The following approximate estimate of the annual importations of hatters' materials was given by
a writer in 1853, viz: 560,000 yards of silk plush, (French,) at an average cost of $2 per yard, $1,120,000,
which will make 1,120,000 hats, worth, at retail, $4,408,000 ; 90,000 yards of silk plush, (German,) at an
average of $1 38 per yard, $121,000, which will make 180,000 hats, worth, at retail, $540,000; 800,000
yards of Angola cotton plush, (French and Grerman,) at $1 per yard, $800,000, from which can be man-
ufactured 2,400,000 hats, worth, at retail, $1 25 each, $3,000,000 ; coney and hares' furs, imported from
Fiance and German}-, $1,000,000. These materials are used for the bodies of hats and the making
of California and soft hats. About 4,000,000 of these latter are made, annually, in this country, at an
average of $1, which will make $4,000,000. Amount of other goods used by hatters, such as trimmings,
bindings, bands, &c., the greater part of which are imported, $2,100,000.

J n the year ending June 30, 1860, the importations of hatters' furs, dressed and undressed, amounted
to the value of $1,222,811 ; of hatters' pkish, of cotton and silk, to $68,965 ; and of hats, caps, and bon-
nets, of silk, (chiefly from England.) $95 529. During the same year we exported, chiefly to Canada
and the British provinces, Hayti, and the Sandwich Islands, hats of fur and silk to the value of $118,77-0
In the corresponding year 1862 the value of hatters' furs imported was $929,534; of cotton and
silk or wool plush, $14,110; and of hats of hair, whalebone, and like materials, $38,553. The value of
wool or silk hats exported in the latter year was $77,281.

The duty on hats and caps of wool, fur, &c., was laid in 1816 at 30 per cent ad valorem. In
1842 wool hats and hat felts or bodies were charged with a duty of 18 cents each; cotton hat bodies,
30 per cent.; fur hats and caps, 35 per cent; fur hat bodies or felts and hatters' furs, 25 per cent.; and
all other hats, 35 per cent. In 1846 wool hats and felts were made subject to a duty of 20 per cent,
and other kinds, 30 per cent, hatters' furs paying 10 per cent. These duties were changed in 1857 to
15 per cent, on wool hats and hat bodies, and 24 per cent, on all other kinds, and on hatters' furs to
8 per cent., from which rates the duties were raised in 1862 to 30 per cent, on wool hats; 25 per cent,
on wool felts; 35 per cent on cotton hat bodies, fur hats and caps, and fur felts ; and 20 per cent, on
hatters' furs dressed, not on the skin.

21



clxii



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INTRODUCTION

clxm

COAI. MIIVSNG.

The mining of anthracite and bituminous coals in the United States, in 1850, employed 510 estab-
lishments, w. h an aggregate captal of $8,317,501. They employed 15.118 persons, including 6 females
whose annual wages cost $4,0 9,1 88, the cost of raw materials being $246,414. The prodaft of all he
mines, distributed throughout 12 States, was valued at $7,173,750, of which sum $5,268,351, or upward
ot 73 per cent., was the value of anthracite mined in Pennsylvania.

The statistics of this business in 1860 embraced returns from 16 States and Territories, and from
622 establishments, of which the aggregate capital amounted to $29,428,670. The number of persons
employed was 36,469 males and 17 females, to whom were paid, in annual wages, $9 650 264 or $264
each. The cost of raw material was $2,752,972. The product was 6,218,080 tons o^ 155 452 000
bushels of bituminous, and 8,115,842 tons of anthracite coals, valued together at $20 243 637 This
showed an increase in the value of fossil fuel raised of no less than $13,069,887, or 182 per cent over
the returns of 1850. Capital was attracted to this branch of industry during those ten years in the
ratio of 253 per centum, the increment alone amounting to the sum of $21,111,169 The increased
expenditure for raw materials, such as fuel, oil, &c., was at the rate of 1,017 per centum in the same
time. Missouri alone showed a falling off both in capital and product. The whole quantity of soft
and hard coals raised was 14,333,922 tons, and the average price Si 41 per ton; the average of bitumi-
nous coal being $1 34, and of anthracite $ 1 46 per ton. On an average of the whole quantity, the mining
cost, for labor and materials alone, $1 15 per ton.

The State of Pennsylvania is by far the largest producer of both anthracite and bituminous coals ;
all but 1,000 tons of the total quantity of the former having been raised in that State. The coal
mining establishments of Pennsylvania in 1850 numbered 246, and in 1860 had increased to 310.
The capital employed in the business augmented in the same time from $5,313,721 to $17,602,030,
and the product from $5,268,531 to $14,746,153, showing in the capital an increment in ten years of
$12,288,309, or 331 per cent., and in the value of coal mined of $9,477,622, at the rate of 179.9 per
cent. The number of hands employed in 1860 was 29,777, and their annual labor cost $7,213,496, an
average of $269 to each hand. The cost of raw materials was $2,105,284.

The mining operations of that State yielded, according to the returns, 2,690,786 tons, or 67,269,650
bushels of bituminous and 8,114,842 tons of anthracite coal, valued, as already stated, at $14,746,153,
which was about 72 per cent, of the total value of coal mined in all the States. If to this be added
6,093,150 bushels of bituminous coal, (worth at the mines $335,692,) unofficially reported as the pro-
duct of that year, and not included in the returns of the marshals, it will make the total product of
bituminous fuel in Pennsylvania 73,362,800 bushels, or 2,934,512 tons, of the value of $3,212,271, and
in the United States 161,545,150 bushels, or 6,461,806 tons, valued at $8,704,755. The yield of Penn-
sylvania in both kinds of coal thus becomes 11,049,354 tons, and the value $15,081,845, and the pro-
duct of the whole country is raised to 14,577,648 tons, worth $20,579,329.

Agreeably to instructions, the returns of the value of coal gave the value at the mines, exclusive
of the cost of transportation. In most manufactured articles, the cost of moving them to market is a
very small percentage on the value at the place of manufacture, but in 1860 the cost of transporting
coal to tide-water was 50 to 100 per centum of its cost at the mouth of the pit. At an average cost
for transportation of only 50 per cent, on its cost at the mines, the total quantity of coal mined in the
United States would be worth, on reaching a market, at least $30,868,993, and that of Pennsylvania
$22,627,767.

Of the aggregate business in Pennsylvania, the Anthracite trade employed 176 establishments,
having a total capital of $1 3,880,250, working 25,126 hands, at an annual cost for labor of $5,503,124, and
for raw material of $1,637,898. The value of the anthracite raised (8,114,842 tons) was $11,869,574
at the mines. It was produced in the counties of Schuylkill, Luzerne, Carbon, Northumberland, Dau-



dxiv INTRODUCTION.

phin, and Culumbia, wLich, in their relative amount of trade, ranked in the order named. The first
named county had 95 mining establishments and 15,053 hands, and produced 4,134,687 tons of anthra-
cite, valued at 87,217,210, its business constituting more than one-half the whole anthracite trade of the
State. In Luzerne county there were 50 establishments, employing 6,048 persons, and producing
2,547,500 tons of coal, worth $2,812,000, or about one-fourth of the whole yield of the State. Carbon
county, with 11 establishments and 1,706 hands, mined 731,000 tons of anthracite, worth $955,000.
Dauphin had only two concerns, but the amount of capital, number of hands, and product indicate that
they were relatively the largest operators in the State. The average capital of all the establishments
was $78,808, and the average product was $67,440, while the two in Dauphin county had, together, a
capital of $650,000, and shipped coal to the value of $265,000.

The only State besides Pennsylvania in which anthracite is rained is that of Rhode Island, which
had one operator, employing a capital of $5,000 and 12 hands. The quantity of coal raised was only
1,000 tons, valued at $5,000.

The Bituminous coal trade of the United States employed 445 mining establishments, with an
aggregate capital of $15,543,420. They expended for raw materials $1,114,074, and gave employ-
ment to 11,331 men and 17 women, whose labor cost annually $4,143,540, an average of $365 each,
or SlOl per annum more than was paid to miners of anthracite. The aggregate product of this
species of fuel has already been stated to be 161,545,150 bushels, worth $8,704,755, or about 5.38
cents per bushel. It included that omitted by the marshals in Pennsylvania, which was the largest
producer, and contained 134 establishments, with a capital of $3,721,780 and 4,651 hands.

Next to Pennsylvania, the largest retiirn of bituminous coal was made from Ohio, which had 69



Online Library1860 United States. Census Office. 8th CensusManufactures of the United States in 1860; compiled from the original returns of the eighth census, under the direction of the secretary of the interior → online text (page 29 of 136)