1860 United States. Census Office. 8th Census.

Manufactures of the United States in 1860; compiled from the original returns of the eighth census, under the direction of the secretary of the interior online

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of soft water. Wool is carded at a stated price per pound. The fulling of cloth is commenced by*
scouring the fabric in water, holding in suspension an aluminous clay called /w/Ze?-'* earth, or other
detergent, to absorb the grease. It is then washed and beaten by heavy wooden mallets in a trough,
soap and hot water being copiously used in the operation, whereby the cloth acquires body and thick^
ness by a shrinking or condensing of the web nearly one-third in its length and one-half in its width.
This milling or felting which cloth undergoes in the falling stocks renders the web close and com-
pact, and increases its beauty and firmness, and is due to the peculiar imbricated or serrated structure
of the filaments of wool, which become thereby closely and inextricably united, as is more perfectly
seen in hat bodies and the felted cloths now made without spinning or weaving. After fulling cloth
undergoes a process of teasling for the purpose of raising the nap. This is done by scratching the web
alternately in its linear and transverse dimensions by means of teasles, which are thn seed balls of a
species of thistle, called from that use Dipsacus fuUonum, and are cultivated for that purpose in Europe,



INTRODUCTION. xlvH

and to some extent in the United States. The teasles are either applied by hand or arranged on a
revolving cyhnder in a machine called the gig mill. The next operation is that of shearing the raised
nap, which, hke teasling, is either done by hand or by a machine having knives of peculiar shape
revolving in contact with other knives. In the manufacture of fine cloth the two operations of teasling
and shearing are repeated alternately until a close, thick, short nap is obtained. The cloth is then
dyed, if necessary, and stretched upon tenters, and, after being brushed and dried, is folded and
submitted to a screw or hydraulic press between glazed paper boards and metaUic plates heated by
steam. It is then packed and sent to market.

Fifty years ago gig mills were used to a very limited extent in this country, although upwards of
thirty patents had been taken out here for shearing machines, and eight or nine for the napping of cloth.
One or more powerful presses had also been patented before Mr. Gilmour, in 1814, introduced here
the hydrostatic press of Bramah.

The improvements of the last fifty years in domestic and foreign manufactures, and in the facilities
for travel and transportation, have so increased the supply and cheapened the cost of cloth, and at the
same time brought the agriculturist in such immediate contact with the manufacturer, that he can now
readily exchange his wool for the varied products of the loom of home or foreign make. Cotton has
also been so extensively substituted for wool as to render wool-carding and fulling mills relatively less
numerous and important than they were a century since. From our older manufacturing States they
have nearly disappeared. They chiefly abound in those States and localities where manufacturing
establishments are few, and family manufactures predominate. Hence we find that the western and
southern States, in which there are comparatively few regular factories, and where the possession of
raw material invites to a larger production of household fabrics, return the greatest number. The
small amount that is still done in the fulling and finishing of homespun cloths is embraced in the values
with that of wool-carding, which is still required to prepare wool for spinning hosiery, yarns, and other
undressed household products.

The first fulling mill of which we have any account in America was built at Rowley, Massachusetts,
which was settled in 1638 by a company of non-conformists from Yorkshire, England. It was built
about the year 1643, by John Pearson, at the head of tide-water on Mill river, and was still running in
1809, when one of the cedar tenter-posts, brought from England by our first cloth makers, remained
perfectly sound. A second mill was built at Watertownin 1662, by Thomas Leveran, a cloth worker
from Dedham in Essex. Another fulling mill was erected in that town previous to 1686. In 1681 Messrs.
Draper & Fairbanks built a fulling mill at Dedham, Massachusetts, on the first artificial canal built in
this country. At New London, Connecticut, the first fulling mill was built in 1693, by Peter Heckley,
and land was the same year set apart for one at Waterbury. Two others were set up in New
London within a few years. There was one at Newport, Rhode Island, before 1745. In 1703 twenty
acres of land were granted for the erection of a fulling mill in east New Jersey, which State in 1784
contained forty -one. Others were built near the same time on the Darby and Wissahickon creeks, near
Philadelphia, by the Quaker emigrants from Yorkshire and other cloth districts, among whom, in 1698,
were enumerated dyers and fullers, comb and card makers, spinners, weavers, &g. Wool combers and
carders received twelve cents per pound for their work. Within the present corporate limits of that
city there were twelve fulling mills in 1760, and they were numerous in other towns. Although first
settled, we have no account of any fulling mills being erected in Virginia until about 1692.

A very complete wool dyeing and fulling mill was put up at Jamaica, Long Island, in 1764, by
Tunis Popham, and six years later the first one was built in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, which was the
first place that engaged in the manufacture of fine cloth, for which it has become so noted. This,
which was a type of the old-fashioned clothiers' establishments, was a double-action crank mill, driven
by an open-bucket three-foot water wheel, and could seldom run in dry weather. It was furnished
with hand shears, and the proprietor received forty to fifty cents a yard for fuUing and finishing homespun
cloth. An improved mill was erected in the town in 1776. In 1801 Authur Schofield, an Englishman,



xlviii INTRODUCTION.

put in operation in that place probably the first wool-carding machine in the country. It was built,
without models or drawings, from men^ory alone, as Slater, his co-emigrant, built his cotton machinery ;
although the former was compelled to revisit England during its construction, to revive his recollection
of the parts, so jealously did that country guard the exportation of machinery and drawings. He carded
wool for 12^' cents per pound, including the picking and greasing. With his nephew, Mr. Schofield
now commenced the manufacture of wool-carding machines, for sale at Pittsfield. His first machines
sold for about $1,300 each, but in 1806 he advertised double carding machines for $400 with the cards,
and $253 without, and picking machines at $80. Many others in that and neighboring towns obtained
the machines and set up carding, the price of which was soon reduced to eight cents per pound for
white and ten cents for mixed.

As wool-carding up to this time had been done altogether by hand-cards, or had been combed and
spun for worsted hosiery and cloth, for which much of it was used in that day, the manufacture of
cards and combs and the erection of fulling mills became objects of encouragement for several years
preceding the Revolution, and large bounties were ofiered in several of the provinces. Hand cards
were made in Boston and one or two other places before the war. About 1779 Oliver Evans, of
Delaware, who was engaged in making card teeth by hand, devised a machine to cut 3,000 teeth per
minute. He soon after invented other mechanism which would prick the leathers, and cut, bend, and
set the teeth at one operation. A Mr. Chittenden, of New Haven, Connecticut, also about 1788 contrived
a machine to make 36,000 card teeth in an hour. With these or other automatic machinery of great
ingenuity, a manufactory of cotton and wool cards was established in Boston in 1788, by Giles Richard,
Amos Whittemore, and others, who the next year employed 900 persons, and made yearly 63,000 hand
cards. The mechanism was patented by Mr. Whittemore, the reputed inventor, in 1797, previous to
which three large and as many smaller factories had been set up in Boston, employing 2,000 children
and 60 men, making annually 12,000 dozens of cards, which were sent to other States, particularly
the southern, and were even smuggled to England. There were two card factories in Worcester county,
and some in other parts of the State, and one also in Providence, Rhode Island, from which cotton cards
were sent to England before 1789, and sold at a profit. This card-making machinery effected a revolution
in the manufacture, being equally adapted to sheet cards for cotton and wool, hatters and clothiers,
cards and jacks. The manufacture of card clothing by machinery was first begun by Pliny Earle, of
Worcester, who took out a patent in 1803 for pricking the cards. It was introduced into England, and
patented in 1811, by Joseph C. Dyer, an American. Carding machines now became appendages of
fulling and dyeing establishments. Towards the close of the last and during the first quarter of this
century such small mills were numerous for carding the wool and dressing the cloth of farmers and
of the small woollen factories which sprung up about that time.

Robert Pierpont, of Hartford, Connecticut, in the seven months following September, 1789, finished
at one press 8,134 yards of cloth, of which 5,282 yards were fulled. A small factory at Stockbridge,
Massachusetts, about the same time, produced five or six thousand yards of fulled cloth. Middlesex
county, in that State, had 20 fulling mills in 1796, and Worcester county between 30 and 40 in 1793,
chiefly employed on homespuns. Deep blue and scarlet were the favorite dyes at that day. Fulling mills
were numerous in Pennsylvania, where the fulling of hosiery was practiced on the Germantown stockings.
There were ten in the vicinity of Reading. A fulling and dressing mill was at work on Fishing creek,
near the Catawba, in South Carolina. In Pendleton district there had been one previously erected.

In 1810, according to the third census, there were in the United States 1,776 carding machines,
which carded 7,417,261 pounds of wool, cotton, &c., valued at $1,837,508. The number of fulling
mills was set down at 1,682, and the quantity of cloth fulled 5,452,960 yards, valued at $4,117,308, the
whole quantity of woollen goods made in families being 9,528,266 yards.

In 1840 the number of fulling mills returned was 2,585, which probably included all regular
factories, amounting to 1,420 in the woollen manufacture. In 1850 the wool-carding establishments,
outside of regular woollen factories, were 680; their capital, $739,925; cost of material, $1,251,550;
hands employed, 1,092 ; annual wages paid, $225,972; and total product, $1,739,476.



INTRODUCTION. xlix

The aggregate number of fulling and carding establishments in 1860 was 712. Their capital
amounted, collectively, to $1,080,985, an average of $1,517 each; the quantity of wool carded,*'
5,230,651 pounds, valued at $1,759,125. The number of persons employed was 1,276, whose annual
wages cost $286,267. The quantity of rolls made was 5,091,196 pounds, the value of which, including
the fulling and finishing done, was $2,403,512. The average weight of rolls made in each establishment
was 7,150 pounds ; and the average product, $3,375. These mills were distributed as follows, viz : in
New England, 64 ; the middle States, 99 ; the southern States, 217; the western States, 328 ; and in
the Pacific States, 4.

The New England establishments employed a capital of $85,500, or an average of $1,336 each,
the product of their business being $179,999, or $2,812 each. They employed 85 males and 67 females,
whose annual wages cost $23,484, and carded 343,291 pounds of wool, valued at $137,151. The weight
of rolls made was 318,659, an average of 4,979 to the mill. Maine had the largest number of mills,
numbering 37, and New Hampshire 17 ; Vermont and Massachusetts 5 each.

In the middle States, exclusive of New Jersey, which returned none, the capital invested in carding
and fulling was $155,655 ; the weight of wool carded, 482,345 pounds, and its value $207,004. The
cost of wages for 159 males and 8 females employed was $38,664. The quantity of rolls made was
471,525 pounds, and the total value of carding and fulling was $286,143. The average capital ©reach
mill was $1,572 ; product in rolls, 4,763 pounds ; and the annual value, $2,890. Of the whole number,
55 mills were returned in New York, and 39 in Pennsylvania. The product of the former State was
280,000 pounds of rolls, and of the latter 176,225 pounds; and the value in New York $188,900, and
in Pennsylvania $87,543.

The southern States employed in this business a capital of $266,900, and 317 persons, whose
annual wages was $55,624. The material used w^as 1,403,155 pounds of wool, worth $459,751, which
produced 1,366,635 pounds of rolls, the total value of the business being $617,428. This was an average
to each mill of $1,236 in capital, and $2,845 in product, the weight of rolls made being 6,298 pounds
each. The largest number of mills was in Tennessee, which had 69, with a total capital of $82,300,
and 100 hands. They carded 460,665 pounds of wool, worth $160,033, and made 460,000 pounds of
rolls, valued — with the fulling and finishing done — at $219,772,or upward of one-third of the total business
in those States, and only exceeded by three States in the Union. Virginia had 63 mills, being 6 less than
Tennessee, which considerably exceeded those of Virginia in the amount of capital and value of product.

The capital invested in carding and fulling establishments in the western States was $564,160, an
average of $1,720 to each mill. The quantity of wool used was 2,963,060 pounds, valued at $939,739,
andproduced 2,899,586 pounds of rolls. The total product of the business, which employed 631 persons
was $1,298,319, an average of $3,958, and of 8,867 pounds of rolls made by each mill. The States of
Missouri and Kentucky returned the largest number of establishments of any in the Union, the former
having 86 and the latter 81. Ohio, with 48 mills, was second in the amount of capital invested.
Kentucky, with a capital of $104,095, and 164 hands, made 761,950 pounds of rolls, and returned a
product of $319,535. Missouri had invested $142,335, and produced 719,200 pounds of rolls, the
business being set down at $315,619 ; and Ohio, with a capital of $124,510, made 406,350 weight of
rolls, valued, with fulling, at $225,856.

Of four mills in the Pacific States, Utah returned three and Oregon one. The three in Utah had
a capital of $5,400, and that in Oregon of $1,500. The former carded 23,800 pounds of wool, worth
$14,280, and the latter 15,000 pounds, worth $1,200. The product of Utah, in rolls, was 20,791 pounds,
and of Oregon 14,000 pounds, the business in the former being set down at $19,623, and in the latter
at $2,000.

The average value of the wool carded, calculated on the aggregate of the whole Union, was 32 J
cents a pound. Its average value in New England was 39.6 cents ; in the middle States, 43.1 cents;
in the southern States, 33 cents ; in the western States, 31.4 cents ; and in the Pacific States, 39.8
cents per pound,

7



1



INTRODUCTION".



The loss in the process of converting wool into rolls appears to have been, on the aggregate amount
* carded, 2.6 per cent. In Nevp^ England it amounted to 7.1 per cent.; in the middle section to 2.2 ; in
the south to 2.4; in the west to 2.1 ; and in the Pacific States to 10.5 per cent, of the quantity used.

Statistics of Wool Carding in the United States during the year ending June 1, 1860.



STATES.


No.ofestab
lishments.


Capital in-
vested.


Pounds of
wool used.


Cost of raw
material.


NO. OF HANDS
EMPLOYED.


Annual cost
- of labor.


Annual valuf
of product.


i Pounds of
rolls.




Male.


Female.




37

17

5

5


152,200

20,550

3,550

9,200


205,591
73, 800
45, 500
18,400


187,906

24, 020

19, 175

6,050


54

20

6

5


67


$16, 176

4,728

1,656

924


$118, 131
31,657
22,511

7,700


192, 111
69,700
39,548
17,300


New Hampsliixe




Massachusetts




Total in New England States- ,


64


85,500


343,291 1 137,151


85


67


23, 484


179, 999


318,659


New York .. ..


55

39

2

3


95,555

56, 100

1,000

3,000


285,880

180,965

7,500

8,000


140,297

61,707

3,000

2,000


84

66

3

6


3

5


21, 828

15,216

324

1,296


188, 900

87,543

3,600

6,100


280, 000
176, 225

7,500
7,800




Delaware


Maryland .




Total in Middle States


99


1.55, 655


482,345 1 207,004


159


8


38, 664


286, 143


471, 525


Ohio


48
41
15
29
11
1
16
86
81


124,510

62, 100

31,450

55,750

17,700

740

25,480

142, 335

104,095


412,000
393,696
145, 600
252, 300
91,000
600
152,000
750, 314
765,550


170,655

105,737

54,785

82, 540

29, 406

250

42,463

223, 870

230, 033


105

70

28

53

18

1

25

133

164


23
3
5
1

2


33, 972
20,964

7,527
14,592

4,524
60

7,056
35,448
41,172


225,856
151, 850

72, 000
114,516

42, 070
500

56, 373
315,619
319,535


406, 350
389, 686
136,000
252, 300
89, 000
600
144, 500
719, 200
761,950


Indiana


Michigan .. .


Illinois




Minnesota -


Iowa


Missouri


Kentucky




Total in Western States


328


564, 160


2,963,060


939,739


897


34


165, 315


1,298,319


2,899,586


Virginia


63

21

9

19

10

8

6

1

11
69


59,970
19,900
10,800
20, 900
■ai,500
13,600
15, 000
1,800
33, 000
82, 300


345, 520
89, 890
53, 800
79, 930
84, 200
89,250
58, 400
16, 000
125,500
460,665


106, 990
29, 636
13, 920
26,292
34,780
24,250
23,610
4,000
36,240

160, 033


76
24
13
25
14
15
13
4
22
92


2

1

3

5

8


7,108
4,644
2,040
5,244
3,480
4,440
3,108
960
5,340
19,260


141,919
40, 133
17, 962
35, 841
43, 475
37, 000
29,850
6,000
45, 476

219, 772


329, 210
82, 000


North Carolina


South Carolina


Georgia


49, 175


Alabama . .,


79, 000


Texas


84, 000




86, 250


Louisiana


58, 000


Arkansas ..


14, 000


Tennessee


125, 000




460, 000


Total in Southern States


217


268, 770


1,403,155


459,751


298


19


55,624


617, 428


1,366,635


Oregon


1
3


1,500
5,400


15, 000
23,800


1,200
14,280


1
6


2


600
2,580


2,000
19,623


-


Utah


14,000




20,791


Total in Pacific States


4


6,900


38, 800


15, 480


7


2


3,180


21,623


34,791


Total in United States


712


1,080,985


5,230,651


1,759,125


1,146


130


286,267


2,403,512


5,091,196



INTRODUCTION,



CABPE TINGS.



The returns on this interest embrace the operations of 213 establishments in five New England
four middle, and two western States. These, in the aggregate, employed a capital of $4,721,768, and
3,910 male and 2,771 female hands, the annual cost of whose wages was $1,545,692 ; they consumed
8,843,691 pounds of wool, in addition to considerable quantities of cotton and flax, the total value of
which was $4,417,148. The quantity of carpeting made was 13,285,921 yards, valued at $7,857,636,
an average value of fifty-nine cents per yard, which was exclusive of the quantity and value of carpet-
ings made in families.

In 1850 the whole number of carpet factories in nine States was 116, with an aggregate capital of
$3,852,981, employing 3,881 male and 2,305 female operatives, whose labor cost $1,246,560. The cost
of raw material was $3,075,592, and the value of the product $5,402,634, showing an increase in ten
years of 97 establishments of 43.6 per cent, in the value of material consumed, and of 45.4 per cent, in
the annual product. The total increase of hands was only 495, or 8 per cent., and of male hands only
29, ' The average number employed by each establishment in 1850 was 53, and in 1860 only 31 ; but
the average annual earnings of each hand in the latter year was $231 against $201 in the former, or
nearly 15 per cent, increase.

Of the whole number of concerns, nineteen were in New England, (eleven of them in Massachu-
setts,) and were among the largest in the country, having an aggregate capital of $2,716,900, and 2,169
hands, whose labor cost annually $542,024. They consumed 6,882,477 pounds of wool and 395,000
pounds of cotton, valued at $2,214,636, and produced 4,807,487 yards of carpetings, worth $3,352,938^
an increase of 14.8 per cent, upon the production of 1850, when it was $2,919,783.

The middle section of the Union contained 182 establishments, (of which 137 were in Pennsylvania,)
representing a capital of $1,998,918, and giving employment to 4,482 persons, whose wages amounted
to $996,214. They consumed 2,859,714 pounds of wool, and in Pennsylvania 800,000 pounds of flax,
at a total cost of $2,194,242. Their aggregate production of carpetings was 8,424,254 yards, valued at
$4,479,419, -H'hich was an increase of 80.9 per cent, over their manufacture in 1850, when it reached
the sum of $2,919,783.

The two western States — Ohio and Illinois — returned eleven establishments, with a total capital of
$5,750, and 28 hands, whose annual wages cost $7,284. The consumption of wool in Illinois amounted
to 3,500 pounds, and its value in both States to $8,396. The quantity of carpeting made in both was
51,580 yards, worth $24,291, of which $18,516 was the product of Ohio, being an increase of 208 per
cent, over the product of that State in 1850, which amounted to $6,000.

The several States individually augmented their production in the following ratios, viz: Maine, 47.3
per cent.; New Hampshire, 14.1; Massachusetts, 44.8; New York, 32.9; Pennsylvania, 138; and Ohio,
208 per cent. Rhode Island, Maryland, and Illinois, made no returns in 1850 ; and Delaware, which
reported one small factory in that year, made no return in 1860. In Connecticut the product of carpet-
ing declined from the value of $1,079,292 in 1850, to $893,100, or, in the ratio of 17.2 per cent.; and
in New Jersey it fell off from $115,099, to $112,590, or more than two per cent.

The average value per yard of the carpeting made was, in New England, 69| cents ; in the middle
States, 53 cents; and in the western States, 47 cents. In the several States the average price per yard,
in cents, was respectively as follows, viz: Maine, 63; New Hampshire, 91; Massachusetts, 72; Rhode
Island, 83; Connecticut, 62; New York, 71; Pennsylvania, 45 J; New Jersey, 80; Maryland, 48; Ohio,
42; Illinois, 72 cents.

The carpet manufacturers of Connecticut — three in number — were, relatively, the largest in the
Union, having an average capital of $233,166, and 233 operatives, with an average product of 480,000
yards, worth $297,600 each. They consumed an aggregate of 1,950,000 pounds of wool and 260,000,
pounds of cotton, valued together at $614,510.

Massachusetts was the only other State that reported a consumption of cotton in this business.



lii INTEODUCTION.

which amounted to 135,000 pounds, in addition to 4,774,275 pounds of wool. The average amount of
capital employed by its eleven factories was $180,118, the number of hands 123, and the product was
294,141 yards per factory, valued at $214,338.

In the State of New York there were 28 estabhshments, having an aggregate capital of $1,017,868,
and 1,903 hands, or an average of $37,691 in capital, and 70 hands. They consumed, altogether,
1,082,494 pounds of wool, and 800,000 pounds of flax, and manufactured 2,293,544 yards of carpet,
worth $1,627,960, an average of 81,912 yards.

Pennsylvania had much the largest number of estabhshments, (137,) most of which were in Phila-
delphia and vicinity, and were small hand-loom factories. The aggregate capital employed^ in this
business in the State was $872,200; the hands employed, 2,396— an average of $6,366 in capital, and
17 hands to each factory. The consumption of wool was 574,720 pounds, which, in addition to yarn
.used, were of the value of $1,247,059. The quantity of carpeting made was 5,931,460 yards, worth
$2,710,092, an average of 43,295 yards, and nearly $20,000 in value to each establishment. Of the
foregoing, 120 establishments, representing a capital of $864,875, and 2,370 operatives, were in the city,
and their consumption of material was 548,520 pounds of wool, worth $1,233,277. They produced
5,884,680 yards of carpetings, the value of which was $2,685,712, an average of more than 49,000 yards,
and value of $22,380, to each factory. The number of looms in Pennsylvania was ascertained to be



Online Library1860 United States. Census Office. 8th CensusManufactures of the United States in 1860; compiled from the original returns of the eighth census, under the direction of the secretary of the interior → online text (page 9 of 136)