1867-1869 Republican Congressional Committee.

The public debt a Democratic legacy. The first rebellion a rally for slavery. What it cost the nation. A second civil war threatened online

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THE PUBLIC DEBT A DEMOCRATIC LEGACY,



.R395 The First Rebellion a Rally for Slavery.

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WHAT IT COST THE NATION.



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PUBLISHED BY THE UNION REPUBLICAN CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEE, WASHINGTON, D. C.



WHO BEGUN THE RERELLION.

"/tcitV tell you another fact, which is enough for this time, that as the late war was prodcced

BY THE DEFBATED DEMOCRATIC PARTY IN 1800, SO wc shall never have peace till it is restored to povxrr

in 1868."

Kx-Unitfd states and ex- Confederate Stales Senator Toombs' speech at Atlanta, Oa., July 8, 1868.



WHAT THEY BEGUN IT FOR.

"l^hc new (Confederate) Constitution ha^ put at rest forever all the agitating questions relating
to cur peculiar institutions — African Slavevg — as it exists amongst us, the proper status of the negro
in our form of civilization. This was the immediate cause of the late ruptdre and present
RF.VOLUTION. » » * Qur new Government is founded up)on exactly the opposite idea — (ihe
idea of Mr. JefiFerson that 'the enslavement of the African was in violation of the laws of nature,
and wrong in principle, socially, morally, and politically.') Its foundations are laid — its corner
stone rests upon the great truth « * * that slavery subordination to the superior race is
HIS {the negro's) natural and normal condition !"

Confederate Vice-President A. IT. Stephens' speech at Savannah, Ga., March 21, ISGU



In 1856, James Buchanan, "a northern man with southern principles," was
elected President of the United States. At this time, and during th(i whole of his
administration, until after the triumph of the Republican party in 18G0, the country
was at peace with all the world, the Government was respected abroad, and the
people were prosperous and happy. The annual resources of the national Treasury
far exceeded its expenditures ; taxations for the support of the Government had no
existence, and the national debt was merely nominal.

Upon the elevation of Mr. Buchanan to the Presidency, he surrounded himself
with some of the worst men in the nation, and selected to constitute a majority of
his cabinet, either avotced secessiojii'sts, like Cobb, Floyd, and Thompson, or the
still more infamous Toucey, all of whom were life-long Democrats, and gave their
whole personal and official influence to the work of organizing the rebellion while
constituting a portion of the Government.

For years, the South had been threating a dissolution of the Union, encouraged
by the leaders of the Democratic party north.

PREPARATIONS FOR THE REBELLION.

Very soon after the inauguration of Buchanan, the slave-holding democracy com-
menced, more actively than ever, preparations for their long-threatened rebellion.
Everywhere throughout' the South the people were organized into military bands and
subject to military discipline.

In this active preparation for civil war, they were op6nly and efBciently aided by
Mr. Buchanan's cabinet. Floyd stole arms from the arsenals North and sent thcpi



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to the Southern States to be used in arming the conspirators. He also sent the whole
army into Texas to be surrendered to the rebels the moment the first blow should be
struck against the Goverment, while Toucey ordered the navy to distant foreign ports,
and Cobb was successfully employed in exhausting the public Treasury and destroying
the national credit.

By these means tfie Democratic party South, actively assisted hy a Democratic
Administration, and openly encouraged by the democratic leaders North,
believed they had rendered the Government powerless and put the success of their
rebellion beyond all contingency.

FEEMONT'S ELECTION TO BE A SIGNAL FOR EEVOLT.

Previous to the elections of 1856, it had been arranged that the election of Free-
mont should be the signal for secession from the Union then, though they were not
fully prepared for the fatal plunge. His defeat enabled them to postpone the blow
till the next election, and gave them time to complete their treasonable arrangements.

The election of Mr. Douglass, or any other Northern democrat not pledged to the
purposes of the secessionists, no less than Mr. Lincoln's, would have been seized upon
as the pretext for revolt, just as Mr. Lincoln's was.

THE FIRST ACT OF WAR.

Immediately upon the success of the Kepublican party being known, though it
was not denied that Mr. Lincoln was elected in strict accordance with every legal and
constitutional requirement, one Southern State after another seceded from the Union
and open war was commenced ; first, by seizing Forts, Arsenals, Ncmy Yards, Mints,
Custom Houses, Post Offices; stealing the public money, appropriating all the public
property within the limits of the Southern States to their treasonable purposes; then
by organizing a?i independent government, and finally by firing upon the Star of
THE West, sent on the humane and peaceful mission of relieving the starving, besieged
garrison of Port Sumter.

Thus the Democratic party South, loith the open and poicerful assistance of a
Democratic Administration, and the leaders of the Democratic party North, com-
menced A four years civil war — the wickedest, the crudest, the bloodiest the world
ever saw, and all to establish a government " lohose corner-stone was to be slavery."

NO JUSTIFICATIOK FOR TREASON.

At the time the slave-holding and slavery-defending democrary began this terrible
civil war, the government of the country was practically in their hands, as it had
been for sixty years, with very brief intervals. Though a republican president had
been elected, the Supreme Court and both branches of Congress were against him,
and the Republican party was, therefore, absolutely powerless. Both the Legislative
and Judicial departments of the Government were democratic, for the republicans had
not a majority in the House, while the other branch of Congress was overwhelming
against them. Mr. Lincoln could not even have secured a cabinet unless with the
"consent" of his political opponents. Slavery was as safe as it had been any ti)ne
in sixty years. Not a law on that, nor indeed on any other subject, could the Republi-
can party have passed if the Democratic senators and members had all stood at their post.

But they had been threatening secession for nearly thirty years, had been vigor-
ously organizing for civil war for four years, and were all ready to raise the bloody
flag of rebellion as soon as the result of the election of 1860 should be declared.
They at once plunged madly into the contest for disunion, sovereignty , and slavery.

WHAT THIS DEMOCRATIC REBELLION COST. ^ ' '' -

And now let us count the cost of this Democratic civil war — a war inaugurated
under a democratic administration, encouraged by a democratic president, actively
aided by democratic members of his cabinet, begun by the democratic leaders, and
carried on by the Democratic party, a war in which every' man who fought against
tJie old flag was a democrat, every man v:ho encouraged the rebellion was a democrat,
and a war in which every RepidAican in the Union was on the side of the Government.

To begin, then, this democratic rebellion cost the nation a four years' war,



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mare unjust, and cruel, and unnecessary than any in the history of the world, and
'Z^m •which a more brutal, revengeful., and barbarian spirit was exhibited by its authors
^v than by any other people, either savage or civilized.

^,. This four years' democratic war cost us the lives of three hundred thousand as

'-.brave, patriotic, noble hearted, intelligent "men as ever died in defence of their

^ jcountry.

•^ This four years' democratic war has also made three hundred thousand equally

V\ brave, patriotic, noble hearted men cripples, and many of them pensioners for life.

This four years' democratic war has made teii hundred thousand widows

and orpJians, depriving them of their natural protectors and rendering them dependent

upon the liberality of the people through the bounty of the Government.

This four years' democratic war has cost the people three thousand millions
OF DOLLARS, every cent rendered absolutely necessary to save the nation against this
mighty democratic conspiracy, and every cent of which, except what fell into the
hands of disloyal democratic speculators, was expended in enabling GcTieral Grant to
overthrow this democratic rebellion.

This four years' democratic war has left upon the people a national debt of
TWENTY-FIVE HUNDRED MILLIONS OF DOLLARS. J^ot one cent of this debt would have
existed had not the Democratic party, under a Democratic Administration, headed
by Democratic members of the Government, begun the rebellion without any cause,
and for no other purpose than to establish a sLAVE-iiOLDiNa confederacy.

This four years' democratic war has caused, and is now causing, a yearly tax
of two hundred millions of dollars upon the people to pay the interest on this democratic
naiiorud debt, the pensions to disabled soldiers, and to the widows and orphans of
those who died in defence of their country.

This four years' democratic war, in causing an enormous national debt, and
in substituting a paper for a specie currency, has so inflated prices, that the people
can now buy no more with two dollars than they could with one before the Demo-
cratic party brought upon us this enormous democratic debt.

This four years' democratic war has fastened a burden of taxation upon the
people, that fur forty years loill eat up, directly and indirectly, a tenth part of
every man\ earnings. And this tax is the inevitable result of a war begun by the
Democratic party without the slightest justification — begun deliberately and wickedly,
after counting all the cost and four years' careful, zealous, and systematic preparations.

ITS EFFECTS UPON THE SOUTH.

But the terrible consequences of this four years' democratic war have not been
confined to the loyal States. It has caused the most unutterable woe to the poor
people of the South. As many of them xoere sacrificed in this rear for slavery, as
many maimed hi battle, and as many widmcs and orphans made as at the North,
lohile infinitely more property icas destroyed by the ravages of war. And yet the
mass of the southern people had nothing to gain and nothing to hope, even from
the success of the rebellion. The war was begun and carried on by the Demo-
cratic party for the benefit of the privileged class of slave-holders, against
the interest of the vast majority of the people.

This four years' democratic war begun and carried on, as the vice jyresident
of the rebel government officially declafed, to perpetuate and extend slavery,
could have no other result than still further to degrade the poor white man and make
him still more dependent upon a slave-holding aristocracy . Tnis was its secondary
0B.1ECT. The census of 1860 shows slave property then to be worth /o!/r thousand
millions of dollars, and the land, &c. , held by the slave owners to have been worth
as much more. Besides owning all the material property of the South, the slave-
holding oligarchy possessed absolutely the whole political power of the old slave
States, and for sixty years had substantially controlled the enti-re policy of the general
government, partly through the extra members of Congress their slaves gave them,
but mainly through the base subserviency of the Northern Democracy to their interest.



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In 1860 the slave States contaiueil about twelve millions of people, of whom
four millions were slaves, and eight millious whites, only tuukk iiundked and iifty
'iiiovsx'SD uf ichom were slave-hoUIers, o\yiii'Sii all tue puopekty, exercisikg all
TUE POWEK, AND CONTKOLUNG TUE DUSTINIES of the white people as ahsulutdij and
tijrannicaUy as they did the negroes. iLwas for the sole bcwjit »f this privll'-ged class
that three hundred thousand lives of Southern white men \7ere sacrificed, a7id a
inillion of widows and orjjhans created. And this oligarchy of slave-holders ifas hut
one twentij- fourth part of the Southern white pjopulation, and less than a seventieth
part of the white p>opulation of the whole nation.

WAGED TO ENSLAVE THE POOR.

In TUis DEMOCRATIC WAR, waged to perpetuate, the privileges and power of this
mean and cruel oligarchy, to degrade still further the poor wuites, to render labor
s!dl more odious, and poverty still harder to be borne, the icorhing masses of the
isouth fought four long years, shedding blood like water, and making themselves
almost literally a nation of paupers. The oligarchy, though they lost their slaves,
still keep their lands. They are now laboring again to '' fire the Southern hexrt,''^
find to incite, with the aid of Seymour and Blair, another democratic, rebellion,
through the means of which they hope to regain their loxt power, re-estadlisii
SLAVERY, repudiate THE PUBLIC DEBT, and retain the Southern white masses inignor-
ance and dcgredation I

This is a part of the price the people were compelled to pay, and a part of the
burden they are still compelled to bear as a penalty for permitting the Democratic
victory of 1856; and these are some of the fearful consequences of the four years'
war, which was begun and carried on by the Democratic party, through the aid,
I xtendcd to the conspirators by the democratic administration which that victory
broiigJd into p>ower, to destroy the Government and perpetuate slavery.

democratic fraud and FALSEHOOD.

A violent attempt has been made by the baser sort of the copperhead Democracy
to hold the Republican party in some way responsible for the crushing weight oj
taxation this democratic rebellion has brought vjxm the people. But the charge
itself is treason, for it implies that tlie Bepubliean party should have made no effort
to jnd down the rebellion and save the Union. If they had made no resistance to
their armed attack upon the Government, bat permitted them, peaceably, to destroy
the Union and establish a slave-holding confederacy vpon its ruins, there would have
been no war, no national debt, no ta.xatio.v !

TREASON TO BE MADE HONORABLE AND LOYALTY ODIOUS.

The American people are asked to mahe treason a virtue and loyalty a crime
by the election of the rebel candidates for President and Vice-President in prefv;ronce
to the General who overthrew the rebellion and saved the Union, and to punish by
defeat the Republican party, who furnished Grant the men and means to accomplish
that object at the expense of a large national debt, and to reward by victory the
Democratic party, whose treason and rebellion rendered that debt necessary. Such
a verdict would convert the men who served this nation into traitors and those who
fought four years to destny it into patriots!

Mr. Seymour's New York "friends," who inaugurated, at his suggestion, the auti-
draftriot of July, 1803, and murdered negroes, burnt orphan asylums, and destroyed
the property of loyal men, have shown a keener sense of decency and prnpiiety
than the advocates of Seymour and Blair have in thus attempting to hold the Repub-
lican party responsible for the burdens which their own crimes brought upon the
country. They have not been shameless enough to charge upon the National Gov-
ernment, or the party which controlled it, the responsibility of the expense rendered
necessary to suppress the riot, and to pay for the property they burnt and the lives
they sacrificed.

The copperhead demand, that the American people shall punish, ns criminals, the
Repiiblicau party for the present national debt, and its burden of taxation, could find
no litter and more siirnificant illustration than in the conduct of the sou who sought



to take from a father the control of his estate, on the ground of incompetency or
dishonesty, because he had entailed a debt upon it in extinguishing a fire which that
incendiary son had wilfully communicated to it.

The Democratic party, in 18G0, applied the incendiary torch of civil war to the
fabric jf civil liberty erected by the Fathers of the Republic, and for four long years
labored with bloody ferocity to destroy it. They failed in their treasonable designs,
and the nation was saved. They now ask the people to hurl from power the party
who thwarted their conspiracy and to give them the control of the Government tchich
they sacrificed tuhee hundred tuousand lives and compelled the expenditure of
TUiiEE TUOUSAND MILLIONS OF DOLLARS in trying to destroy I

IS THE UNION WOKTH WHAT IT COST?

The question for the American people to decide is — first, whether the Republican
party icere guilty of a crime, by armed resistance to the efforts of the Rebel Democracy
to overthrow the Government ; and second, if they were not, whether the price paid
for jrntting down the rebellion and saving our free Rcp)uhlican Institutions, purged of
the only blot upon them, 2vas more than they luere worth. If they believe the Repub-
lican party should have permitted the government, founded hy Washington and his
associates, to be destroyed without a struggle to save it, or that it is not worth
the lives and treasure which that struggle involved, they tvill elect Seymour and Blair,
TUE candidates NOMINATED BY THE REBELS. If they think the establishment of Lib-
erty, Justice, and Equal Rights on this continent is worth the sacrifices made to secure
tbem, tliey will elect Grant and Colfax, the candidates of the loyal men of the nation.

DEMOCRATIC CORRUPTION.

Whether the war cost more than it ought is not a question for its authors to raise,
because in all the frauds committed upon the Government during its existence, they
have been the greatest and most numerous criminals, stealing fifty dollars to the
Republican's one.

Nor does it become the rebel and copperhead Democracy to complain of the burden
of taxation for another reason. They not only created the national debt, but it is by

THEIR frauds THAT THE GOVERNMENT IS SWINDLED OUT OF THE REVENUE WHICH WOULD

so LESSEN THE BURDEN OF TAXATION as to make it Scarcely felt by the peoph.

f^inety millions of gallons of whiskey are annually manufactured, subject to a
tax of two dollars per gallon, or one hundred and eighty millions in the aggre-
gate; but through the influence of the "Whiskey Ring,'' composed exclusively of
copperheads and rebels, and sustained by the President and his Democratic supporters,
only thirty millions annually (last year less than half that sum) is paid into the
Treasury, and the tax payers are tjierefore cheated out of ove hundred and fifty
millions of dollars annually, which they must make^ vp in taxes. This theft is
committed by democrats, every one of whom is the noisy advocate of Seymour and
Blair.

REPUBLICAN ECONOMY.

A few facts will show how free from prodigality and corruption the Republican
party has been since it came into power, and that it has been far more economical
than its predecessors in all ordinary expenditures.

No comparison, of course, can be made of the cost of the war and many depart-
ments of the Government between Mr. Buchanan's administration and the republi-
can administration which succeeded it; but there can be between the two adminis-
trations in regard to the civil and diplomatic expenses of the government. And this
comparison is most favorable to the Republican party. Read the following facts:
Civil and Diplomatic expenses of the Government during 1860, the last year of

Mr. Buchanan's administration, was $45,7^6,058

First year of Mr. Lincoln's, 1861 $46.14.'!. 059

Founh " " 1864 27,800,400

First year of Johnson's, 1865 40 .346.55.3

Second " " 1866 42,420,8:0

Third " " 1867 52,008,021

Making an aggregate of. $208,808,862



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Which is an average of about ^41 ,700,000 yearly, or an average of four millions a year
less since tht Republicans came into power, and covering the whole period of the war,
than during the last year of Mr. Buchanan's administration. This item, it must be
remembered, includes the salaries of all officers engaged in the civil service at home —
president, members of the cabinet, heads of bureaus, revenue officers, clerks, &c., as
well as oixr diplomatic agents. And yet, notwithstanding the enormous increase oi
clerks and other civil officers, especially those connected with the internal revenue
departiuent, rendered necessary by this great Democratic rebellion, four millions ol
dollars annually have been saved to the tax payers of the nation in our civil and
diplomatic expenditures alone, for seven years, making an aggregate of twenty-eight
millions. The years 18G2 and 1863 have been omitted because the payment on the
public debt for those years is included in the statement of civil and diplomatic ex-
penses in the Financial Report from which these figures are taken.

The expenditure of Mr. Buchanan's administration, the last year of its existence,
was, in gold, a little over ^80,000,000, or more than $112,000,000 in greenbacks
at the present rate of exchange. This too was when the army was vastly less than
it is now, and the navy scarcely half as large.

For the ordinary expenses of the Government for the fiscal year, which begun
the 1st day of July, 1868, the appropriation by a Republican Congress was one
hundred and six millions eight hundred thousand dollars, being more than five millions
OF DOLLARS LESS, when reduced to gold, than Mr, Buchanan expended the last year of
his rule. These are only fair examples of the economy of a Republican Congress in
every department of the public service. They have labored with unceasing zeal
and fidelity to lessen the burdens brought upon the people by the Democratic rebel-
ion of 1861.

ANOTHER CIVIL WAR THREATENED.

But the copperhead and rebel democracy are not satisfied with the awful calamity they

, brought upon the nation by that wicked and bloody conspiracy, the hundreds of

thousands of lives they sacraficed, the millions of widows and orphans they made,

the three thousand millions of dollars they expended, the enormous and grinding national

debt and its contingent weight of taxation they created..

The taste for blood, and the love for plunder and devastation and ruin, which that
four years of carnage and crime begat, instead of being satiated, has only been
sharpened by what it fed upon. And they are now inaugurating another civil war.

If the democracy elects Seymour and Blair, they declare that the first act of their
President will be the commencement of a war to overturn the Southa-n reorganized State
governments, to annul all the reconstruction laws of Congress, to take from the colored
people of the South the right to vote, and to disperse Congress at the point of the
BAYONET, if it shall stand in the way of these great Democratic reforms !

This SECOND DEMOCRATIC CIVIL WAR, which is only to be prevented by their defeat
at the polls, will, undoubtedly, be as long and bloody, and destructive and expen-
sive as their first revolt, and will cost the nation another three thousand millions
OF dollars, three hundred thousand more precious lives, and make another million of
widows and orphans !

There is evidence, strong as proofs of holy writ, that the copperhead and rebel
democracy are preparing to precipitate the nation into such a second rebellion,
if the people, in their madness, or God in Ilis wrath, should permit Horatio Seymour
to be elected President and Frank Blair Vice President. This evidence // the solemn
declaration of the candidates of that corrupt, utterly unscrupulous, and disloyal party —
the platform adopted at their New York National Convention, the avowel of all the
Sonthern rebels, delegates to that convention, and others who dictated its policy and
are its admitted leaders, such as Howell Cobb, Robert P. Toombs. A. H. Stephens,
General Forest, General Wade Hampton, General Preston, Gov. Vance, Gov.
Perry, Basil Duke, Barksdale, Beauregard, Vallandigham, &c., the tone of the copper-
head rebel press generally, and the whole spirit and temper of the rebel people and their
Northern henchmen.



THE PROOF OF THEIR INTENDED REBELLION.

The treasonable letter of Frank Blair, which procured him the nomination he holds, was
indorsed by the New York rebel Convention, and is the key-note of the campaign. It is,
therefore, an authentic and official declaration of the purposes of the rebel and copperhead
Democracy. It is dated June 30th, and contains this threat of civil war:

"If the President elected by the Democracy enforces, or permits others to enforce, these
reconstruction acts, the Radicals, by the accession of twenty spurious Senators and fifty Repre-


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Online Library1867-1869 Republican Congressional CommitteeThe public debt a Democratic legacy. The first rebellion a rally for slavery. What it cost the nation. A second civil war threatened → online text (page 1 of 2)