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Flares, Trawlers' Lights, and General Pyrotechnics.

4104 Captain A. J. Loftus, S.R.N., F.R.G.S., Siamese Legation, S.W.

Patent Glycerine Side Lamps for Ships.

(0 SUB-DIVISION. BUOYS AND BEACONS.

Lent by the Corporation of Trinity House, London.

4106 Model of the First Eddystone Lighthouse. First proposed to
the Trinity House by Mr. Walter Whitfield in 1691, and built at his
oxpense in 1694, in consideration of certain dues granted under patent
from the Crown. Mr. Henry Winstanley, of Littlebury in Essex,
designed and carried out the work, from which a light was first exhi-
bited in October, 1698. In the following year he strengthened the
tower and raised it 40 feet, or to a total height of 120 feet. The
finished structure is shown in the model, and was continued " with great

(reputation " until the great storm of 26th November, 1703, during which
it was destroyed, and the brave and devoted constructor, who hap-
pened to be there at the time, with workmen and keepers, perished.
" Many fair tombs in the glorious glooms

At Westminster they show ;
The brave and the great lie there in state

Winstanley lieth low." (Jean Ingelow.")

4107 The Second Eddystone Lighthouse. The Winstanley Lighthouse
having been destroyed by a great storm in 1703, the structure shown
in the model was designed and completed by Mr. John Rudyerd, a silk
mercer of Ludgate Hill, aided by two experienced shipwrights, Messrs.
Smith and Norcott, from Woolwich dockyard. The tower was of
wood, built around a core of solid moorstone (granite) in the base. It$ ,
greatest diameter was about 24 feet, and the whole height from <tbe ;



366 Navigation Section. [Cook

Lent by the Corporation of Trinity House continued,
lowest side of the top of the ball was 92 feet. The light consisted of
24 candles, of which five weighed 2 Ibs. , and was first kindled 28th
July, 1708. The Lighthouse was accidentally destroyed by fire in 1755,
when the keepers were rescued by boats from the shore, narrowly
escaping with their lives.

4108 The Third Eddystone Lighthouse. After the burning of Rudyerd's
wooden tower in I755> on the recommendation of the Royal Society,
the lessees placed the work of reconstruction in the hands of Mr.
John Smeaton, a member of that Society, distinguished by his
inventions in mechanical improvements. He determined to build
the tower entirely of stone, each block dovetailed into its neighbours,
so as to make the tower practically solid. Work was commenced at
the rock on 5th August, 1756 ; the first stone laid June I2th, 1757, the
last on 24th August, 1 759, and the light exhibited by candles as before
on l6th October, 1759. Candles were superseded by oil lamps and
reflectors in 1810, and a lenticular apparatus adopted, 1845.

4109 The Fourth Eddystone Lighthouse. The portion of the gneiss
rock on which Smeaton 's tower rested having been seriously shaken by
the sea, the Trinity House found it necessary to build another tower on
a portion of the rock eastward of the existing light. The new tower
was built, from the design and under the superintendence of Sir James
Douglass, F.R.S. , by Mr. Thomas Edmond and Mr. W. T. Douglass,
resident engineers. First stone laid on August I9th, 1879, and the last
on 1st June, 1881, both by His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh.
The base is 44 feet in diameter; the light, which is lenticular in
bi-form, is"33i feet above high-water spring tides.

4110 Ancient Pharos. The tower here represented is now standing within
the Castle Yard at Dover, and is mentioned by many early writers,
Somner, Leland, Camden, &c. , as the remains of a Roman Pharos.
It fell into ruin in the early part of the i8th century, but was recently
restored by the Royal Engineers. The model was presented to the
Trinity House by General Collinson, R. E.

4111 Smalls Rock Lighthouses. First and Second. The old light was
exhibited from a wooden structure built in 1778 by Mr. Henry White-
side, which was removed in 1861 when the new light was built of
granite, from the design and under the superintendence of James
Walker, Esq., F.R.S., by Mr. (now Sir) James N. Douglass, F.R.S.



THK Australian Irrigation Colonies (Chaffey Brothers) offer a pleasant occupation,
a healthy life, a cheerful home, a soil of unequalled fertility producing by irri-
gation results unparalleled in the annals of Horticulture comfort, civilization, and
material prosperity combined. They consist of half-a-million acres, in the sunny
and salubrious climate of Victoria, and South Australia, on the great River Murray,
which affords an abundant supply of fertilizing water for the Irrigation of Vineyards
and Fruit Farms, and for the production, in assured quantity and excellence, of
Grapes, Oranges, Lemons, Olives, Apricots, Figs, and other Fruits (already so suc-
cessfully grown in Australia), by Cultivators with large and small Capital, holding
from Ten to Eighty Acres and upwards. The Wines and Fruits of Australia are
now in extensive demand in British and Colonial Markets, and there is a practically
unlimited field for such production under most profitable conditions to the Settlers.
Pamphlet Free. Address the Chief Commissioner, Mr. J. E. Matthew Vincent, 35,
Queen Victoria Street, E.C., from whom all information, &c. , maybe obtained,
also an illustrated folio descriptire work, price zs. 6d. Ad-vt.



Gallery] Navigation Section. 367

Lent by the Corporation of Trinity House continued.

4112 Trinity House Douglass Burners. A set of progressive sizes, from
two to ten wicks for vegetable or mineral oil, and one of ten rings for
gas.

4113 Nore and Dudgeon Light Ships, 1731, 1736. This model repre-
sents the first Light Ships moored on the English coast for the guidance
of Mariners ; two were fitted out by Mr. Robert Hamblin and Mr.
David Avery, one placed to mark the Nore Sand, River Thames, and
one off the Dudgeon Shoal, Norfolk.

4114 Goodwin Light Ship, 1795.

4115 Parabolic Reflector for Lighthouses or Light Vessels. The

Reflector is made of copper, of 21 inches aperture, upon the principle
first applied by Captain Sir Joseph Huddart, F.R.S., an Elder Brother
of the Trinity House ; it is silvered on the inside, and burnished. For
a shore light it is fixed on a framework, but in light vessels it is hung
upon gimbals.

4116 Maplin Pile Lighthouse. Built in 1838, on iron screw piles on the
north side of the Thames Estuary, under the direction of James
Walker, Esq., F. R.S., then Engineer-in-Chief to the Trinity House.

The Light is 36 feet above high water. The piles are all screwed 14
feet into the sand by Mitchell's patent screw, four feet diameter. The
separate model represents the lower portion of the pile.

4117 Piano-Convex Lens. Used in Portland Lighthouses, Dorsetshire,
in the year 1 789.

4118 Facet Reflector. Specimen of a Reflector of 21 inches aperture, and
Lamp, used first at Liverpool under the direction of Mr. Thomas
Hutchinson, in 1763, and afterwards at Lowestoft and other lighthouses.

4119 Model of Bishop Rock Lighthouse, 1858 1881. Built in place of
an uncompleted iron structure from designs by James Walker, Esq.,
F.R.S., by Mr. Nicholas Douglass, assisted by Mr. (now Sir) J. N.
Douglass, F.R.S., completed in 1858. The light was no feet above
high water.

4120 Bishop Rock Present Lighthouse. In consequence of injuries
sustained through excessive strains, the Trinity House found it necessary
to encase the tower then existing with granite masonry, and increase the
height of the light by 20 ft. , which was successfully carried out by
Mr. W. T. Douglass, under the supervision of Sir James N. Douglass,
F.R.S., and finished in 1889.

4121 Model of St. Catherine's Lighthouse. Originally established in
1780, reduced in height as a precaution against landslip in 1840, and
furnished with an electric light in 1888. It is believed to be the most
powerful electric light in the world.

4121 A Model of the Needles Lighthouse. The Light which had been
exhibited since 1780 from a Tower on the Isle of Wight was frequently
obscured by Fog. It was therefore transferred in 1858- to the present
structure built on the rock itself. This Tower was designed by Mr.
James Walker, F.R.S., and was carried out under the superintendence
of Mr. Thomas Ormiston, M.Inst.C.E. The works were frequently
inspected during progress by H.R.H. The Prince Consort, then Master
of the Corporation of Trinity House.



368 Navigation Section. [Cook

Lent by the Corporation of Trinity House continued.

41218 Model of the Hanois Lighthouse. Built in 1862 on a rock lying off
the West End of Guernsey. A granite structure designed by Mr. James
Walker, F.R.S., and erected under the superintendence of Mr. William
Douglass, M.I.C.E. The optical apparatus is dioptric of the First
Order, revolving, having a six wick Douglass Lamp in focus. The
Tower from base to vane is 117 feet in height.

41210 Model of the Little Basses Lighthouse. Built on the Little Basses
Rock, S. E. coast of Ceylon, in 1876. The work was entrusted to the
Corporation of Trinity House upon the completion of that on the
Great Basses. It was designed by Sir James N. Douglass, their
Engineer-in-Chief, and carried out under the superintendence of Mr. W.
Douglass, M.I.C.E.

4122 Siren Fog Signal. The Siren, used in conjunction with a trumpet,
was introduced as a Fog Signal in the United States, and adopted in
England about the year 1874. In its present improved form the rotary
action is automatic.

4124 Small Lens for Gas Buoys.

4125 Douglass Fluted Craterless Carbons for Electric Lights.

Specimen of those used at St. Catherine's Lighthouse, Isle of Wight.
Devised by Sir James N. Douglass, F.R.S., for preventing the forma-
tion of a crater, and holding the arc centrally at the points of the
carbons.

Smaller carbons of various sizes from their earliest introduction.

4I2$A Electric Light Carbons. Specimen of Carbons the small size used
at Dungeness in 1862, and the large at St. Catherine's. 1889.

41251? Gas Burner, Douglass Six Ring. Designed by Sir James N.
Douglass, F.R.S., with the object of obtaining the maximum of
intensity within the smallest practicable focal area. The intensity of
the flame is 825 candle units, its consumption of gas 101 '2 feet per
hour.

4126 Smeaton's Eddystone Candle. The light as first arranged was
given by 24 candles ("whereof five weighed two pounds"), arranged on
a chandelier in two rows or rings, one above another.

4127 Panel of a First Order Lenticular Apparatus. Made by Messrs.
Cookson, of Newcastle, and placed in the Start Lighthouse in 1836.

4I27A Refracting Lenticular Panel. One of the Panels used in the experi-
ments on Lighthouse Illuminants and called in the report the " Eddy"
stone Lens." Subtending a larger vertical angle than had before been
attempted, in order to avoid the loss occasioned by the suppression of
upper and lower prisms. The focal length is 920 mm. and subtends an
angle of 60 horizontally, so that six panels would complete the circle.
Its superficial dimensions are 75^ inches by 40^ inches.

4128 Dungeness Lens Electric Light. When the Electric Light was
first exhibited permanently at Dungeness in 1862, after experimental
exhibition at South Foreland in 1858, this Electric Lamp and special
lens were used in duplicate, one set above the other, under the direc-
tion of Professor Holmes and Professor Faraday, F.R.S.



Gallery] Navigation Section. 369

Lent by the Corporation of Trinity House continued.

4129 Smeaton's Clock. " This Timepiece, by a simple contrivance, being
made to strike a single blow every half hour, would thereby warn the
keepers to snuff the candles." (Smeaton's Eddystone.)

4130 Models of Light Vessels. The latest type of Light Ship used in
the Trinity House service. The length of the vessel is 103 feet,
breadth 23ft. 6 ins., and depth 12 ft. 10 ins., displacement about 250
tons.

4I3OA Another model of a Light Ship in use until lately in the Trinity
service, similar to the above, but of an older type, and stationed at the
' ' Goodwin. "

4I3QB Model of a Light Ship. Built in 1883. Tonnage, 183-35. Length,
103 feet ; depth, 10-3; and breadth, 21 '3. Moored in 39 fathoms on
the Seven Stones, a reef of rocks to the northward of the Scilly Islands.
The light is group flashing, three flashes in quick succession at intervals
of one minute. The Fog Signal is a Siren giving three blasts in quick
succession, low high low, every two minutes.

41300 " Warden " Steam Tender. Built in 1884. Gross Tonnage, 245-95.
Length between perpendiculars. 135 feet ; breadth, 22 feet ; depth
moulded, 1 1 -6 feet. Bi-compound Engines. Twin screws. Indicated
H.P. , 376-3. Speed, io - i knots. Stationed at Ramsgate for atten-
dance on 6 Light Vessels, 27 Buoys, and 5 Lighthouses situate
between the North Foreland and Beachy Head.

41300 " Satellite " Steam Tender. Built in 1886. Gross Tonnage, 242-39.
Length between perpendiculars, 141-2 feet ; breadth, 22*1 feet; depth
moulded, 1 1 -45 feet. Tri-compound Engines. Twin screws. Indicated
H. P., 478-36. Speed, 10-928 knots. Stationed at Harwich for atten-
dance OH 8 Light Vessels. 47 Buoys, and 7 Lighthouses situate
chiefly between Aldborough and the Gunfleet Light.

4131 Models of Buoys. Types of Buoys now in use in the Trinity House
service. The different forms and mountings accord with the decisions
of the Buoyage Conference, held at the Trinity House, in 1882-3,
under the Presidency of His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh.

4132 Lighthouse and Buoyage Diagrams. River Thames, approaches,
showing buoyage. River Mersey, approaches, showing buoyage.
Smeaton's Eddystone, section and plans. Douglass' Eddystone,
section and plans. Bishop Rock Lighthouse, section and plans.
New Bishop Rock Lighthouse, section and plans. Wolf Rock Light-
house, elevation and section. Little Basses Lighthouse, section.
Little Basses, plan of land and arrangements. St. Catherine's Electric
Light, section. St. Catherine's Electric Light, plan. Dimensions of
Lamp Flames, 2 wick to to wick.

Lent by the Commissioners of Northern Lighthouses.

4133 Bell Rock Lighthouse. Situated on a reef of rocks in the North
Sea, 12 miles from Arbroath, the nearest land, and covered by 16 feet
of water at high water of spring tides. Designed and executed by Robert
Stevenson, F.R.S.E., F.G.S., M. Inst. C.E., and Engineer to the
Commissioners of Northern Lighthouses. Height of masonry 100 feet,
diameter at base 42 feet. Commenced 1807, finished 18 1 1. Now the
oldest Rock Lighthouse Tower in Great Britain.



37 Navigation Section. [Cook

Lent by the Commissioners of Northern Light 'hot 'tses continued.

4134 Skerryvore Lighthouse. Situated on a reef of rocks on the west of
Scotland, exposed to the force of the Atlantic Ocean, and 10 miles from
Tyree, the nearest inhabited island. Designed and executed by Alan
Stevenson, L.L.B., F.R.S.E., M.Inst.C.E., and Engineer to the
Commissioners of Northern Lighthouses. Height of masonry 141
feet, diameter at base 42 feet. Commenced 1838, finished 1844.

4135 North Unst Lighthouse. Situated on the Rock Muckle Flugga
(the most northern point of Her Majesty's Dominions), Shetland.
It is built on an outlying rock of a conical form "called a "Stack,"
rising to the height of 200 feet above high water, to which height the
sea has been known to rise with such force as to knock down the boundary
walls and break the doors open. Its northern face is nearly perpen-
dicular, and exposed to the full fetch of the Northern Ocean ; the
southern face is a steep rocky slope, which, previous to the cutting of
steps in its surface, could only be scaled with difficulty. The top of
the rock affords little more area than is sufficient for the site of the
lighthouse. A temporary light was erected in 1854 for the guidance of
the Baltic Fleet, and the permanent station was completed in 1858.
Designed and executed by David Stevenson, F. R.S.E. , M.InstC.E.,
Engineer to the Commissioners of Northern Lighthouses.

4136 Facet Parabolic Reflector. As used in the earliest Scottish Light-
houses in 1 787 by Thomas Smith, |Engineer to the Commissioners of
Northern Lighthouses.

4137 Silver Plated Parabolic Reflector. With sliding lamp to secure
accurate focussing. Designed by Robert Stevenson, Engineer to the
Northern Lighthouse Board, 1811.

4138 Skerryvore Catadioptric Revolving Apparatus. With Fresnel's
lenses, but extended to 56 in altitude. The light is received and col-
lected into eight horizontal beams by the principal lenses ; the light
which would escape above them is collected into eight inclined beams
by small lenses, and reflected to the horizon by inclined mirrors. The
lower part of the light is sent equally to all parts of the horizon by
Alan Stevenson's prismatic rings of glass, which act as mirrors. The
rings at Skerryvore are the first that were made of the largest or first
Order size.

Designed by Alan Stevenson, LL.B., F.R.S.E., M.Inst.C.E.,
Engineer to the Northern Lighthouse Board. th of full size.

4139 First Order Holophotal Revolving Apparatus. The central part
of this apparatus consists of eight lenses. The light which passes
above and below these lenses is collected into eight horizontal beams
by annular shaped reflecting prisms. These reflecting prisms were
substituted for the inclined lenses and mirrors of Fresnel's first Order
revolving apparatus by Thomas Stevenson, and were first used at
Singapore in 1849, on a small scale, and on a large scale at North
Ronaldsay, in Orkney, in 1851, both designed by Messrs. Stevenson.
th of full size.

3140 Fixed Azimuthal Condensing Light. Designed by Thomas
Stevenson for Sounds or narrow Seas of varying width, where the
light requires to be seen farther off in some directions than in others,
and where the whole horizon does not need to be illuminated. The
light which would otherwise be wasted on the land, instead of being



Gallery] Navigation Section. 371

Lent by the Commissioners of Northern Lighthouses continued.

merely returned through the centre of the apparatus in the usual way,
is gathered by refraction and prismatic reflection, and allocated in the
exact proportions required for strengthening the arcs of largest range.
It is used at nine Lighthouses in the Western Highlands of Scotland,
where small apparatus has been made to produce in those particular
azimuths (where alone great power is required) effects equal to much
larger apparatus, consuming proportionately large quantities of oil.

4141 Azimuthal Condensing Ships' Light, designed to distribute the
whole light equally over ten points of compass, in accordance with the
Board of Trade requirements. Applied first in 1866 to the Pharos,
Northern Lighthouse Steamer. Designed by D. and T. Stevenson,
Engineers to the Commissioners of Northern Lighthouses.

4142 Hyper-Radiant Lens of i33O mm > in place of 92o mm radius, suggested
by Messrs. Stevenson in 1869, with the view of utilizing to the full the
flame from the larger diameter of burners recently introduced, this, the
first lens of its size, was made to Messrs. Stevenson's design in 1885,
and tried at the South Foreland experiments the same year, when it
was found to be optically the most efficient lighting apparatus yet made,
and has since been introduced into numerous lighthouses at home and
abroad.

4143 Dioptric Holophote. This apparatus was designed by Thomas
Stevenson for Lighthouse Illumination. It collects all the light of the
lamp into one beam of parallel rays solely by means of glass.

The apparatus constituting the front half of the instrument bends the
light that falls upon it into a beam of parallel rays, while the prisms
which constitute the back half are so formed as to prevent any light
from passing through, and to cause every ray to return back to the
flame, and to be finally transmitted through the front half, so as to
increase the intensity of the emergent beam.

A red ball is fixed on a wire so as to be in focus to illustrate the action
of the instrument. To an observer the front half of the apparatus will
appear full of red light, but in the back half no red is to be seen, though
the wire which carries the ball, not being in focus, is distinctly visible.

4144 Dhu Heartach Lighthouse. Situated on a rock on the West Coast
of Scotland, exposed to the force of the Atlantic Ocean, and fourteen
miles from lona, the nearest land. Designed and executed by D. and T.
Stevenson, Engineers to the Commissioners of Northern Lighthouses.
Height of masonry 107 feet 9 inches, diameter at base 36 feet.
Commenced 1867, finished 1872.

4145 Model of First Order fixed Dioptric Light This apparatus
consists of a central lenticular belt, and an upper and lower set of
reflecting prisms. The cylindrical belt with diagonal joints and the
upper and lower reflecting prisms were substituted by Alan Stevenson
in 1836 for the segmental belt and upper and lower silvered mirrors of
Fresnel's first order apparatus. \ of full size.



4146 Smalls Lighthouse. A wooden model of the Smalls Lighthouse,
off the Pembrokeshire Coast, Bristol Channel, erected in 1 778, replaced
in 1861 by the present granite lighthouse.

The model is an exact representation of the Smalls Lighthouse in the



372 Navigation Section. [Cook

Bristol Channel, projected by John Phillips, Esq., of Liverpool, built
by Henry Whiteside, a self-taught mechanic of Liverpool, in 1778.
It stood on a bare rock rising little more than lo feet above high water.
The lighthouse was built on wooden pillars, 40 feet from the ground,
the entire building being 58 feet high, and standing 70 feet above
high water. In 1861 this was replaced by a granite lighthouse.

Lent by Miss Payne, 2, Westerhall Villas, Wy mouth,

4147 Smeaton Eddystone Lighthouse. Original model of the Eddystone

Lighthouse, constructed by John Smeaton, Esq., F.R.S., and which

was made by himself, and has been in the possession of the family of

his grandson, John Croft Brooke, since the death of Mr. Smeaton.

Lent by Miss Mary Croft Brooke, Hildenborough Vicarage, Tunbridge, Kent.



4148 A " Nun Buoy " belonging to the yacht of His Majesty George IV.
This exhibit is an " Anchor Buoy," same pattern as that now known in
the Service as a " Nun Buoy." This buoy was used by the " Royal
George " Yacht, of King George the Fourth. A statement to this effect
is painted on the buoy.

Lent by Admiral- Superintendent W. E. Gordon, H.M. Dockyard, Portsmouth.



(d) SUB-DIVISIONMARINE METEOROLOGY.

4151 Case of Instruments.

Specimens of instruments used in the Royal Navy, viz. : Coast
Barometer : this has a tube with large bore mounted in a solid oak
frame, with porcelain scales, the vernier reading to - oi inch. Wind
Gauge, pattern devised by Sir W. Snow Harris : an Improved form of
Lind's Anemometer. Hand Anemometer, devised by F. Galton, F.R.S.
Self -Recording Aneroid, fitted for use at sea. Mercurial Barometer.
Aneroid. Two Thermometers in Screen, fitted as a Hygrometer.
Hydrometer. Thermometer for Sea Temperature. Instruments occa-
sionally used. Maximum Thermometer. Minimum Thermometer.
Sling Thermometer. Rain Gauge. Instructions for taking the observa-
tions. Log and Rough Book. Marine Barometer, pattern used prior
to 1854.

Lent by the Meteorological Office.



OTJIR,

'XTE " roEi J a.X3VXiv&

PATRON. HER MAJESTY THE QUEEN.

President. The Right Honourable the EAKL OF ROMNEY.

Treasurer.]. F. W. DEACON, Esq.

Over 61,000 boys have been sent to sea. Over 27,000 have been drafted to the Royal Navy.
No Voting. The benefits of this Society are not reserved for those whose influential
friends can obtain votes to secure their admission, but reach at once the orphan and
friendless.

All taught swimming-.

Donations and Subscriptions urgently needed.

Bankers : Williams, Deacon & Co., 20, Birchin Lane, E.G. ; Coutts, No. 57, Strand ;
and Goslings & Sharpe, 19, Fleet Street, E.G., who will receive subscriptions.
Marine Society's temporary Offices, \\, St. Mary Axe, E.G.
See Exhibit in Howe Gallery, *68a.

H. W. ANDREWS, R.N., Secretary.



Gallery] Navigation Section. 373

4152 Clayden's " Ocean Current Models."

1. Working model showing the Gulf Stream, and other great currents
in the Atlantic.

2. Working model showing the currents of the Indian Ocean, and
the change they undergo with the change of the monsoons.

In both models the movement of the water is shown by floating
particles of Lycopodium powder. The motion is entirely produced by
jets of air impinging on the water, and arranged so as to imitate roughly
the average direction of the wind .

Lent by A. W. Clayd<n, F.R.Mct.Soc.



Online Library(1891 May 2 : Chelsea Royal Naval ExhibitionOfficial catalogue & guide → online text (page 42 of 65)