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FASTI, Books III. and IV.

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or ■ l r






Fasti, Book III.
Notes on Book III.
Fasti, Book IV.
Notes on Book IV.
Index of Proper Names
Appendix .








Test Papers (First Series)

„ „ (Second Series)

Vocabulary in Order of the Text





Part I. contains (a) Introduction, (b) Text, (c) Notes.
Part IT. contains (a) Test Papers, and (b) Vocabulary.
Part III. consists of a translation.

Before beginning the Text read the Introduction, in
order to obtain a general idea of the subject-matter,
referring to it subsequently as occasion requires. In a
final reading, immediately before the Examination, all
important points in it should be carefully committed to

■»»In reading the Text the chief object should be to arrive
at t/ie meaning with as little help as possible, but nevertheless
to ensure perfect accuracy. There will probably occur, even
in the first sentence, (a) some words which you do not
know, and (b) some difficulty in seeing the exact construc-
tion. For the first, turn to the Vocabulary ; for the second,
to the Notes. If there occur any words which you do not
know and which do not appear in the Vocabulary, write
them neatly down, with their meaning, in two columns
upon the blank pages left for the purpose, adding genitive
cases or principal parts, etc., exactly as has been done in
the case of the printed words.

After doing your utmost to make out the passage in this
way, turn to the Translation, and see how far you were
right. The Translation is not intended to save you the
trouble of making out the meaning, but to serve as a test
of your accuracy and to correct your errors.

Beginners may find such a method as this somewhat slow


at first, but speed will soon be gained, while the memory
will be strengthened to a degree otherwise unattainable.

Variant readings are not noticed in the Notes, except-
ing when they differ from the University Correspondence
College Text sufficiently to perplex the student if adopted
by the Examiners. Write all such variant readings in the
margin of the text, and try to master the meaning and
syntax of both readings equally.

The subject- matter, except in so far as it is explained in the
Introduction, may, as a rule, be neglected on first reading
the book; more thorough attention can thus be given to
the language.

You are strongly advised to master the section of the
Introduction that deals with metre. Until you have done
so you will be unable to distinguish words which are spelt
alike, but differ in meaning according to the quantity of
one or more of their vowels.

When reading the book for the first time, work through
the Jirst series of Test Papers, leaving the second series for
the second and subsequent perusals.

On reading the Text through for the last time previous
to the Examination, mark in Text, Notes, and Vocabulary
such points as still require a final revision, and go carefully
through the Index of Proper Names.



§ 1. Publius Ovidius Naso was born at Sulnio (Sulmona).

. about ninety miles from Rome, in the country
Life of Ovid. of the Paeligni) in the year 43 BC< 0f an

ancient equestrian family, he was destined for the bar, and
sent to Rome to learn the art of rhetoric. He appears to
have acquitted himself with great success in the schools,
and afterwards, like most of the wealthy young students
of the day, went to Athens, the university of the Roman
world. On returning to Rome he held successively the
offices of * Triumvir ccqritalis, f Decemvir litibus iudicandis,
and X Centumvir.

But he soon threw over the honourable and lucrative
career his father had mapped out for him, and resigned
himself to the charms of poetic instinct, in him so strong
that he probably tells no more than the truth when he
says, § " "Unbidden ever came song to fitting numbers, and
all that I essayed to speak was verse." The success of his
poems was immediate and complete, and it was due in
some degree to the attractive nature of his subjects, but
mainly to the brilliant elegance with which he adorned
every theme he touched.

* Member of a bench of three judges, who decided petty disputes
between slaves and persons of inferior rank, looked after prisons, and
superintended the execution of criminals.

f These Decemviri decided actions of freedom, and made arrange-
ments for the trials heard before the court of the centinnvin.

J The court of " the hundred men " was a judicial body which had
to deal with cases relating to property and inheritance.

§ " Sponte sua carmen numeros veniebat ad aptos,

Et quod temptabam clicere versus erat." — Tristia, iv. 10, 26.


His married life does not appear to have been a happy
one : he was thrice married and twice divorced ; yet he
appears to have discovered a real affection for his third
wife when trouble came upon him. In his fifty-first year
he was banished to Tomi, a town on the Black Sea, near
the Danube. From this wild spot he sent unceasing laments
and appeals to Rome ; but Augustus was inexorable, and
the hopes he had rested on the accession of Tiberius proved
vain. Broken in health and spirit by nine long years of
loneliness and sorrow, he died in exile a.d. 18.

The precise cause of his banishment is not clear, but it
was probably in some way connected with the Emperor's
granddaughter, the younger Julia. The ostensible reason
was the offence given to Augustus, who had made great
efforts to check the growing profligacy of the time, by the
objectionable character of several of Ovid's poems. The
banishment was not, however, an exsilium, but a rehgatio,
which left Ovid the possession of his property and the hope
of a possible return.

§ 2. Ovid's earlier works were love poems : the Amoves,
„. . the Ars Amatoria, the Remedia Amoris, and the
Heroides (mostly love-letters from the heroines
of mythology to their faithless husbands). Later came his
chief works, the Metamoiyhoses, mythological accounts of
the transformation into birds, beasts, trees, etc., of the
unfortunate victims of the love, jealousy, or rage of gods
and goddesses, and the Fasti, a poetical Roman calendar.
At the time of his banishment Ovid was still revising the
Metamorphoses, and the Fasti was probably only recently
begun. During his exile, besides continuing the Fasti, he
composed the Tristia, piteous elegies imploring the mercy
of Augustus ; the Epistolae ex Ponto, of the same nature
as the Tristia ; the Ibis, a satire ; and Halieutica, a treatise
on fishing.

§ 3. Of the Fasti we possess only six books, though it
The Fasti is certain that Ovid intended to write twelve,
and their one for each month, and possibly he actually

purpose. wr ote a rough copy of the greater part. This
work, like Vergil's Aeneid, is in large measure a glorification


of the history of Rome, her origin and her destiny, particu-
larly as centred in, and represented by, Augustus and the
imperial house, who, through the illustrious Julian line, are
traced back to the divine beginnings of the Roman people.
Under the somewhat unpromising title of a Calendar we
find a storehouse of mythological and antiquarian lore,
and not a little astronomy and philology, though these last-
named, it must be confessed, have no solid basis of truth.

The months of March and April (which are the subjects
of the third and fourth books), being the months of Mars
and Venus, both ancestors of the Roman race and of the
Julian line, lend themselves peculiarly to those flattering
references to the reigning house of which Ovid was so fond,
and which were possibly prompted by his desire to succeed
Horace and Yergil, who were now dead, as court-poet.

§ 4. The idea of writing an elaborate Calendar did not

originate with Ovid. In his day there was

models a ^ r ty extensive literature dealing with the

origins of ancient usages and customs. The

groundwork of Ovid's Fasti was the Fasti of Verrius Flaccus,

which at that time had not long been published. Only

fragments of this work are now extant. Our poet probably

made use of the Origines of Callimachus, a poet of Alexandria

(died 240 B.C.). Doubtless he had read Hesiod's Works and

Days at school, and, like Yergil, derived some help from it.

He possibly owed the suggestion of the Fasti to the " Roman

Callimachus," his old acquaintance Propertius, who had

already treated of national antiquities in his Elegiacs, and

he may have worked under this friend's influence.

§ 5. The chief sources of information open to Ovid were
Ovid's (i) Annates Maximi, called after the ^Pontifex
sources of Maximus, who recorded on tablets the events
information. f ^jg y ear f fg ce . ^ Commentarii Pontifi-
cum and Libri Augurales, which contained rules of religious
ceremonial; (iii) Chroniclers, such as C. Licinius Macer,
L. Cincius Alimentus, and Q. Fabius Pictor; (iv) Laws;
(v) List of magistrates in chronological order ; (vi) Libri
Lintei, ancient chronicles preserved in the temple of Juno


Moneta; (vii) Inscriptions; (viii) Poems, such as Ennius*

§ 6. Ovid had a wonderful facility for versification ; so
st . naturally, indeed, did it come to him, that we

are told he even wrote a poem in the language
of the Getae, among whom he lived during his exile. This
disadvantage, however, his remarkable fluency and rapidity
had, that he hated the drudgery of revising, correcting,
and pruning ; in this he contrasted strikingly with Vergil.
His poetry charms us by its elegance and ingenuity, and
by the lightness of touch, which betokens a master hand ;
but, although often rhetorical, it is deficient in majestic-
eloquence. Ovid wrote in the purest Latin of the Augustan
age, and is very seldom guilty of archaisms or solecisms,
defective caesura, or ambitious artificiality of phrase, in all
which respects he differs from Vergil.

§ 7. The year of Romulus consisted, according to Ovid,,
of 305 days (III. 163, tercentum et quinque
year diebus), or ten lunar months, which Numa
increased to the extent only of two lunar months
(making 355 days). To the year of Romulus Julius Caesar
added 60 days (III. 163, decies senos, "ten times six")
the fourth part of a whole day (III. 164, e pleno tempora
quartet die), i.e. 60| days, thus making a year of 365| days.
The quarter of a day was inserted by means of an inter-
calary day once in every four solar years (III. 165-6, in
lustrum accedere debet . . . una dies). The Julian year,
as it was called, was really longer than the solar year by
about eleven minutes, and in consequence eleven days were
dropped in England in 1752 a.d., in order to make the
right adjustment. Caesar's reform was made in 46 B.C.,
which year had to be filled up to the number of 445 days,
in order that 45 B.C. might commence at the same time as
the solar year.

The three days of the Roman month by which dates

D , were reckoned, and which alone had names

dates. °f their own, were the Kalends, which were

the 1st of the month ; the Nones, which in

March, July, October, May were always on the 7th


day, but in the other months were on the 5th day ;
and the Ides, which were always eight days after the

The days were distinguished as fasti, nefasti, and endo-
tercisi ( = intercisi, endo being an old form of in). The
dies fasti, i.e. the days on which it was allowed to the judge
to utter (Greek <f>rjixL, Lat. fari, fatum (the three formal
words, do (" I grant a trial "), dico (" I deliver sentence v ),
and addico (" I adjudge " the thing in dispute), were days
on which legal courts might sit, and judicial decisions
be pronounced. The dies fasti included those days on
which it was lawful to summon an assembly or the
senate, which were called dies comiticdes. The dies nefasti,
days on which it was not allowed to utter the three
formal words, were days on which legal courts were
closed ; these were public holy days or religious feast-days.
The dies endotercisi were days partly fasti and partly
nefasti. The dies fasti were marked in the calendar F,
the dies nefasti N, the dies endotercisi EN, and the dies
comitiales 0,

The register of legal court-days, inasmuch as it was one
of the special charges of the priesthood, was in early times
the peculiar possession of the Patricians, who alone had
" religious orders." This exclusive knowledge the patricians
studiously kept from the plebeians, in order that they
might render them completely dependent, especially in
legal matters. However, in 304 B.C., during the cen-
sorship of Appius Claudius Caecus, his scribe, Gnaeus
Flavius, got possession of these secrets, and posted up in
the Forum a complete calendar of the Dies Fasti and Dies

§ 8. (a) Metre. — The metre of this poem is elegiac, i.e., it
Prosody cons i s ts of alternate hexameter and pentameter

Each hexameter consists of six feet ; each foot is either
a dactyl (- ^ w) or its equivalent, a spondee ( — ). (A
spondee is said to be equivalent to a dactyl, because one
long syllable takes as long to pronounce as two short ones.
Therefore - w w and — are equal.)


To this the last (sixth) foot is an exception, admitting
only of two syllables, of which the last is common (-).

The fifth foot is regularly a dactyl. A spondee only
occurs in this foot for the sake of a special rhythmic effect,
and, commonly, wholly or partly in a proper name, e.g
Fasti, iii. 105 —

QuTs tunc | aut Hya [ das || aut | Pleiadas | Atlan | teas.

In each verse should occur a Caesura (or " cutting ") —
that is, a pause in the sound, due to the ending of one
word and the commencement of the next in the middle of
a metrical foot: e.g., in the example quoted above there is
a caesura between the words Hyadas and aut.

When occurring at the end of the first syllable of the
foot (as in the line above), the caesura is known as strong'
or male. When occurring at the end of the second syllable
in a dactylic foot, as in Fasti, iv. 615,

Turn de | mum vol j tumque || Ce | res am | mumque re | cepit,

it is known as weak or female. Sometimes, but rarely in
Ovid, is it found in the fourth foot : e.g. Fasti, iv. 483,

Perque vi | ces modo j Persepho | ne || modo | filia | clamat.

But most common by far is the strong caesura. Very
rarely indeed is there no caesura.

Each pentameter consists of five feet, made up of two
full feet followed by a long syllable, and then two dactyls
followed by a single syllable, which may be either short or
long : e.g. Fasti, iv. 444,

Et domi | nam ca.| su || nulla se | cuta Co | mes.

The feet in the first half may be either dactyls or spondees,
but in the second half they must be dactyls, and dactyls
without elision. The two odd syllables make up a foot,
and hence there are five feet in the line. The last word
is almost invariably a dissyllable in the Fasti ; a trisyllable
is not allowed, but we sometimes find a final word of four,
or even five, syllables in the Tristia.

A vowel at the end of a word is elided before a vowel or
h at the beginning of the next word if in the same line.


When this does not take place there is said to be a Hiatus,
a rare irregularity in Ovid.

The syllables am, em, im, om, and um at the end of a
word are elided before a vowel or h at the beginning of the
next word. This is known as Echthlipsis.

The letter h has no effect as regards scansion.

Occasionally two vowels (of which the first is e or i),
which do not form a diphthong, are scanned as one syllable,
the first vowel sounding as English consonantal y. This
figure is called Synizesis or Synaeresis.

(b) Quantity. — With regard to rules for the quantity of
syllables, the following are the most important, but they
are nearly all subject to exceptions : —

(1) A diphthong or contracted syllable is long, e.g. auce])s 7
cogit ( = coigit).

(2) The former of two vowels not forming a diphthong
is short, e.g. gravius.

(3) A vowel is long when it is followed (1) by two con-
sonants or x or z, whether in the same word or different
words ; or (2) by semi-consonant i (sometimes printed j) in
the same word.

(4) A vowel by nature short is either long or short when
it comes before a mute followed by a liquid, e.g. tenebrae :
but gm and gn make a preceding vowel long.

(5) Final syllables of words ending in a, i, o, u, as, es, os,
and c, are long. Final a, however, in nom., voc, and ace.
is short. Final es is short in such noms. sing, as miles,
pedes, eques, and in the nom. plural of Greek nouns, e.g.
Troades, lampades ; and final as is short in the corresponding
Greek accus. plural, Trbds. Final os is short when it re-
presents Greek os, or us following u or v.

(6) Monosyllables are generally long, except those ending
in b, d, t.

(7) Final syllables of words ending in the liquids, I, n, r,
in the dentals d, t, and in ys, are short.

(8) Final e is short, except in 1st and 5th declension^
and in adverbs.

(9) Final is is short, except in ace, dat., and abl. plural,
and in 2nd sing. pres. of verbs of the 4th conjugation.


(10) Final tis is short, except in the nom. and ace. pi.,
and gen. sing, of the 4th declension, and in fern, nouns
like virtue.

Metrical irregularities in Books III. and IV. of the Fasti
are noticed in Appendix 4.




jDellice, depositis clipeo paulisper et hasta,

Mars, ades et nitidas casside solve comas.
Forsitan ipse roges, quid sit cum Marte poetae.

A te, qui canitur, nomina mensis habet.
Ipse vides manibus peragi fera bella Minervae : 5

Num minus ingenuis artibus ilia vacat 1
Palladis exemplo ponendae tempora sume

Cuspidis : invenies et quod inermis agas.
Tunc quoque inermis eras, cum te Romana sacerdos

Cepit, ut huic urbi semina digna dares. 1 o

Silvia Vestalis (quid enim vetat inde moveri ?)

Sacra lavaturas mane petebat aquas.
Ventum erat ad molli declivem tramite ripam :

Ponitur e summa fictilis urna coma :
Ftssa resedit humo, ventosque accepit apeito 15

Pectore, turbatas restituitque comas.
Dum sedet, umbrosae salices volucresque canorae

Fccerunt somnos et leve murmur aquae.
Blanda quies furtim victis obrepsit ocellis,

Et cadit a mento languida facta manus. 20

f. in., iv. 2

18 OVID.

Languida consurgit, nee scit cur languida surgat, 25

Et peragit talis arbore nixa sonos,
" Utile sit faustumque, precor, quod imagine somni

Vidimus. An somno clarius illud erat ?
Ignibus Iliacis aderam, cum lapsa capillis

Decidit ante sacros lanea vitta focos. 30

Inde duae pariter (visu mirabile !) palmae

Surgunt. Ex illis altera maior erat,
Et gravibus ramis totum protexerat orbem,

Contigeratque sua sidera summa coma.
Ecce meus ferrum patruus molitur in illas. 35

Terreor admonitu, corque timore micat.
Martia picus avis gemino pro stipite pugnant

Et lupa. Tuta per hos utraque palma fuit."
Dixerat, et plenam non firmis viribus urnam

Sustulit. Implerat, dum sua visa refert. 40

Quo minus emeritis exiret cursibus annus,

Restabant nitido iam duo signa deo.
Silvia fit mater : Testae simulacra feruntur 45

Virgineas oculis opposuisse manus.
Ara deae certe tremuit pariente ministra,

Et subiit cineres territa flamma suos.
Hoc ubi cognovit contemptor Amulius aequi,

(Nam raptas fratri victor habebat opes), 50

Amne iubet mergi geminos. Scelus unda refugit,

In sicca pueri destituuntur humo.
Lacte quis infantes nescit crevisse ferino,

Et picum expositis saepe tulisse cibos 1
Non ego te, tantae nutrix Larentia gentis, 55

Nee taceam vestras, Faustule pauper, opes.
Vester honos veniet, cum Larentalia dicam :

Acceptus geniis ilia December habet.
Martia ter senos proles adoleverat annos,

Et suberat flavae iam nova barba comae : 60

Omnibus agricolis armentorumque magistris



Iliadae fratres iura petita dabant.
Saepe domum veniimt praedonum sanguine laeti,

Et redigunt actos in sua rura boves.
Ut genus audierunt, animos pater editus auget,

Et pudet in paucis nomen habere casis :
Romuleoque cadit traiectus Amulius ense,

Regnaque longaevo restituuntur avo.
Moenia conduntur : quae quamvis parva fuerunt,

Non tamen expediit transiluisse Remo.
lam, modo qua fuerant silvae pecorumque recessus,

Urbs erat, aeternae cum pater urbis ait :
" Arbiter armorum, de cuius sanguine natus

Credor (et ut credar, pignora multa dabo)
A te principium Romano dicimus anno :

Primus de patrio nomine mensis erit.''
Vox rata fit, patrioque vocat de nomine mensem.

Dicitur haec pietas grata fuisse deo.
Et tamen ante omnes Martem coluere priores ;

Hoc dederat studiis bellica turba suis.
L'da Cecropidae, Mino'ia Creta Dianam,

Yolcanum tellus Hypsipylea colit ;
Tunonem Sparte Pelopei'adesque Mycenae,

Pinigeruin Fauni Maenalis or a caput :
Mars Latio venerandus erat, quia praesidet armis ;

Arma ferae genti remque decusque dabant.
Quod si forte vacas, peregrinos inspice fastos :

Mensis in his etiam nomine Martis erit.
Tertius Albanis, quintus f uit ille Faliscis,

Sextus apud populos, Hernica terra, tuos.
Inter Aricinos Albanaque tempora constat

Factaque Telegoni moenia celsa manu.
Quintum Laurentes, bis quintum Aequiculus acer,

A tribus hunc primum turba Curensis habet.
Et tibi cum proavis, miles Paeligne, Sabinis

Convenit ; huic genti quartus utrique deus.








20 ovid.

Romulus, hos omnes ut vinceret ordine saltern,

Sanguinis auctori tempora prima dedit.
Nee totidem veteres, quot nunc, habuere Kalendas :

Ille minor geminis mensibus annus erat. ioo

Nondum tradiderat victas victoribus artes

Graecia, facundum sed male forte genus.
Qui bene pugnabat, Romanam noverat artem :

Mittere qui poterat pila, disertus erat.
Quis tunc aut Hyadas aut Pleiadas Atlanteas 105

Senserat, aut geminos esse sub axe polos 1
Esse duas Arctos, quarum Cynosura petatur

1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Online Library43 B.C.-17 or 18 A.D OvidOvid, Fasti, books III. and IV. → online text (page 1 of 14)