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OVID.— TRISTIA, BOOK L Edited by A. H. Allcroft,
M.A. Oxon., and F. P. Shipham, M.A. Lond. Text and
Notes. Is. 6d. Vocabulary, with Test Papers. Inter-
leaved, Is. Translation. Is. In One Vol. 3s.

OVID.— TRISTIA, BOOK III. (Uniform with the above.)

Translation. By Pv. M. Thomas, M.A. Lond. Is. 6d.

FOR JUNE 1894.
SALLUST.— CATILINE. Edited by T. M. Neatby, M.A.
. Camb. and Lond., and B. J. Hayes, M.A. Lond. Text and
Notes. 2s. 6d. Vocabulary, with Tkst Papers. Inter-
leaved, Is. Translation. Is. 6d. In One Vol. 4s.

A. H. Allcroft, M.A. Oxon., and F. L. D. Richardson,
B.A. Lond. Text, Introduction, and Notes. 3s. 6d.
Translation. Is. 6d. In One Vol. 4s. 6d.

'Ulniv. Corr. Coll. tutorial Scries.




A. H. ALLCROFT, M.A. Oxox.,





F. G. PLAISTOWE, M.A. Camb.,


^tSE LIS- ^

^ Of THE r


London : W. B. CLIVE,


Warehouse : 13 Booksellers Row, Strand, W.C.



§ 1. Life of Ovid.— Publins Ovidius Naso was born
at'Sulmo (Sulmona), about seventy miles from Kome, in
the country of the Paeligni, on March 20th, 43 B.C. Son
of an ancient equestrian family, he was destined for the
bar, and sent to Rome to learn^the art of rhetoric. He
appears to have acquitted himself with great success in
the schools, and afterwards, like most of the wealthy
young students of the day, went to Athens, the Uni-
versity of the Roman world. On returning to Rome
he held successively the offices of Triumvir capitalis}
Centumvir,^ and Decemvir litibus iudiccmdis.-'

But he soon threw over the honourable and lucrative
career his father had mapped out for him, and resigned
himself to the charms of poetic instinct, in him so strong
that he probably tells no more than the truth when he
says, " Unbidden ever came song to fitting numbers,
and all that I essayed to speak was verse." ^ The success
of his poems was immediate and complete, and it was
due in some degree to the attractive nature of his
subjects, but mainly to the brilliant elegance with which
he adorned every theme he touched.


Member of a bench of three judges, who decided petty disputes
between slaves and persons of inferior rank, looked after prisons,
and superintended the execution of criminals.

2 The court of the "Hundred Men" was a judicial body which
dealt with cases relating to property and inheritance.

2 These Decemviri decided actions involving freedom, and pre-
sided over the court of the centumviri.

■^ ' ' Sponte sua carmen numeros veniebat ad aptos,

Et rpiod temptabam dicere, versus erat." — Tristia, IV, x. 26.


His married life does not appear to have been a
happy one : he was thrice married and twice divorced j yet
he appears to have discovered a real affection for his
third wife when trouble came upon him. In his fifty-
first year, 8 a.d., his books were ordered to be removed
from the public libraries, and he was banished to Tomi,
or Tomis, a town in Moesia, on the Black Sea, near the
Danube. From this wild spot he sent unceasing laments
and appeals to Kome ; but Augustus was inexorable, and
the hopes which he had rested on the accession of Tiberius
proved vain. Broken in health and spirit by nine
long years of loneliness and sorrow, he died in exile,
18 A.D.

§ 2. The reason of Ovid's banishment. — The precise
cause of Ovid's banishment is not clear. He tells us
that it was due to two things — " a poem and an error "
{duo crimina, carmen et error, Tiist. II. 207). The poem
was the Art of Love {Ars Amatoria), a work in which the
most immoral themes are treated in a dangerously
seductive style. It was widely reid, and as its influence
was directly opposed to Augustus' attempts by laws and
other means to promote a higher tone in the family and
home life of the Romans, it fell under his displeasure. ^
But as ten years had passed since the first publication of
the book, the immediate cause of banishment must be
looked for in the error. This he emphatically states to
have been an error and not a crime ^ (scelus, faciniLs),
but preserves a mysterious silence about its real nature.
At any rate this error gave great personal offence to

^ Trist. II. 7 : Carmina fcccrunt, ut me morcsquc notarct lam
clcmum visa Caesar ah arte meos. ' ' My poems were the reason
that Caesar branded me and my character with disgrace owing to
that Art {i.e. of Love) which appeared long years ago." Trist. II.
212: Arguor obsccni doctor adultcrii. "lam charged with being
tlie teacher of base adultery."

- Trist. I. iii. 37 : Caclcstiquc viro, quis me dcccpcrit error,
Dicite ; jyro culpa ne scelus esse putct. *' Tell ye that licaven-boin
man what error led me astray ; that he may not think it a crime
instead of a fault." Trist. III. i. 52 : Kon /acinus causam, scd
situs error habet. " 'Tis not a crime but his own error holds the
cause." Trist. III. v. 52: Et partem nostri criminis error habet.
" Part at least of my sin is due to an error."


Augustus/ and as Ovid tells us that liis eyes^ were tLe
offenders, we may infer that he was unintentionally the
eye-witness of some act or acts committed by one of
Augustus' family, and had neglected to give information
to him. This offence was probably the intrigue carried
on by the Emperor's granddaughter Julia and Decimus
Silanus. Julia was banished, Silanus went into voluntary
exile : but the heaviest blow fell upon Ovid's head,
perhaps because the Emperor thought that, by making
an example of one so widely known, he could best publish
to the Roman world his stern resolve to check the
depravity of the times.

Quite a different theory is put forAvard by Huber on
very scanty evidence. He thinks that Ovid was con-
nected with a cabal of which the object was to hinder the
banishment of Julia, and that a second edition of the
amatory poem was published about 8 a.d. The former
he believes to be the nominal, the latter the real cause
of Ovid's banishment. Several other theories have been
w^orked out, but the former of the two given above is
the one generally accepted.

§ 3. The character of Ovid's banishment. — Ovid tells
us that he was rtlegatus non exid^ which latter term he
considers a reproach, for an exiil lost all rights of
Roman citizenship {iura siiffragii, honoriLm, commercii,
conuhii), whereas a relegatus retained all those rights,
nor was his property necessarily forfeited. He was only
compelled to keep away from a stated place, and, in
some cases, to reside at a fixed spot. Ovid's case may
be described in his own words. "The Emperor," he
says, "deprived me neither of life, nor wealth, nor the
rights of a citizen " {Nee vitam nee opes nee ius mihi
■ civis ademit) ; and elsewhere the poet tells us, " All he did

1 Trist. II. 133, 209.

^ Trist. III. V. 49 : Inscia quod crimen viderunt lumina lilector,
Pcccatumque oeulos csniahuissc meum. "I am scourged for that,
all unwittingly, mine eyes have looked upon a crime, and my sin is
that I had eyes." Trist. III. vi. 27 : Nee breve nee tutum est, quo sint
mea, dicere, casu Lumina funcsti conscia facta mali. " 'Tis neither
a brief tale nor safe to say by what mischance mine eyes became
aware of that fatal trouble." (Cp. Tristia II. 103.)

2 Trist. II. 137.


was to bid me quit the liome of my fathers " {Nil nisi
me 2)atriis iussit ahirefocis). Thus Ovid was nominally
condemned to the mildest form of banishment, and more
than this, the Emperor allowed him to publish his
poems freely, as if now beneath his notice. But the
contempt of the Emperor and the separation from his
friends must have eaten like iron into the soul of so
sensitive a poet as Ovid, while the rigours of the
Sarmatian climate gradually wore out his constitution.
§ 4. Ovid's writings.— The chief works of Ovid were
as follows : —

1. Amorum, Lihri III., principally addressed to Cor-
inna, a mistress of the poet. These were first published
14 B.C., and in their final and collected form before 2 B.C.

2. The HeroicU's, imaginary love-letters, for the most
part from the heroines of mythology to their husbands.

3. Ars Amdtoria, or De Arte Amandi, Lihri III.,
published about 2 B.C. The first two books are supposed
to instruct men, and the last book women, in the art
and methods of winning love. When Ovid was banished,
this poem was removed from the public libraries by the
command of Augustus.

4. Rhiwdia Amoris, suggesting remedies for the vio-
lence of love, a kind of recantation of the immoralities
of the Ars Amatoria, probably intended to deprecate the
possible displeasure of Augustus. It appeared about 2 a.d.

5. Meidmorphoseon, Lihri XV., mythological accounts
of transformations caused by the love, jealousy, and
vengeance of gods, heroes, and heroines, starting from
the Creation and reaching down to the time of Julius
Caesar, who is described as having been transformed
into a star. The first two or three books, in spite of
their faults, abound with beautiful passages, and pass-
ages of equal excellence are met with, though less
frequently, in the other books. Ovid was engaged in
revising and polishing this work when he was driven
into banishment ; in the hurry and vexation of his
flight he burnt the manuscript, but, luckily, some copies
had already been distrilnited among his friends, and
the poem was thus preserved, and was subsequently
published by the agency of one of his friends.


6. Fastorum Lihri VI., a metrical calendar of the
Eoman year. Each book deals with one month, and as
M'e have it, it embraces the six months from January to
June inclusive. The remaining six books were never
written. This work was also incomplete at the time of
the poet's banishment, 8 a.d., and he must have done
the greater part of it at Tomi. It is probable that he
began writing this patriotic work in order to recommend
himself to the Emperor, who might make him the court-
poet now that Horace and Yergil were dead. His
banishment, however, put an end to any hopes he might
have entertained in that direction.

7. Tristium Lihri V., five books of elegies written
during the first four years of his banishment, describing
his misery, and entreating Augustus for mercy.

8. Ejjistolarum ex Ponto Lihri IV., letters written
from Pontus {i.e. Tomi) to various friends. They deal
with the same subjects as the Tristia.

In addition to these, Ovid wrote a tragedy called
Medea, which by his contemporaries was reckoned his
greatest work ; an elegiac *' Complaint of a Xut-tree "
styled Nux Elegeia ; and a satire upon a faithless friend
entitled Ihis.

With the exception of the Mttamoiyhoses (which are
written in hexameters) and the Medea, all of these
works are in elegiac metre (see § 5).

§ 5. Metre. — A verse is composed of a certain number
of feet ; a foot consists of a ceitain number of syllables,
from two to four ; and the name of the foot depends
upon the number and quantity (i.e. length) and arrange-
ment of these syllables.

The metre of the Tri-itia is elegiac, so called as being
especially the metre for elegies or mournful poetry. It
consists of successive distichs or couplets, each comprising
two members.

The first member is a Hexanvtter, or verse of six feet ;
the second is a Pentameter, or verse of five feet.

In elegiac verse there are allowed only three varieties
of foot, and in no case more than three syllables in a
foot. These three feet are : —

(i) The Sjmndee, of two long syllables (-1 _).


(ii) The Dactijl, of one long syllable followed by two
short (-1 ^ J).

(iii) The Trochee, of one long syllable followed by one
short (-1 S).

One long syllable is regarded as equal to two short, so

that the spondee ( ) and dactyl (_ ^ w) are metrically

of equal value.

(A.) The scheme of the Hexameter is : —

12 3 4 5 6

Observe that the fifth foot must be a dactyl ; the sixth
foot cannot have more than two syllables, i.e. is either a
trochee or a spondee. E.g.,

/ f r / ^ /

Missus in | banc veni- 1 o |] timi- 1 de, liber | exulis, | urbem.
/ / / ' ' '

Me mise-|rum ! vere-|orque||lo-|cum vere-jorque po-|tentem.

Caesura. — In the hexameter there almost invariably
occurs a caesura, i.e. a pause in the rhythm. This is
shown in the examples above by the mark (||). It is
effected by an arrangement of the syllables in such a
way that the same foot (usually the third) shall contain
the latter part of one word and at least the commence me] it
of a second word.


/ f r r

(i) Quod neque | sum ce- ] dro |I fla- j vus.

(ii) Littera | suffu- | sas |I quod ha- | bet.
/ / / '

(iii) Me mise- | rum vere- ( orque || lo- | cum.

Observe that the normal position for the caesura is
in the middle of the third foot. int_oecurJun]i£iiia^ly
af ter the first syllabl a,-aa in examples i i^ and (ii). it is
known as a strong or male caesura. If it occur, as in
example (iii), bet:we6 ^ the second and third syllables of
a dactyl-foot, it is known as weak or' temale.



Occasionally the caesura comes as late as the fourth

(B.) The scheme of the Pentameter is : —

1 2 3 4 5 6

Observe that the syllables here numbered 3 and
6 are half-feet : the two together make up a single
normal foot, so that the whole verse is considered to con-
tain only five feet in all. The first half of the verse
must end with the end of a word. Further, the fourth
and fifth feet must be dactyls ; and in Ovid's verse the
last word in a Pentameter line must be of two syllables
only (w _ , rarely w w). E.g.,

Da placi- j dam fes- j so, || lector a- | mice, ma- \ num.

In qua | scribe- | bat, || barbara j terra fu- | it.

§ 6. Prosody. — With regard to rules for the quantity
of syllables, the following are the most important, but
they are nearly all subject to exceptions : — •

(1) A diphthong or contracted syllable is long ; e.g.,
mensce, nil { = nihil).

(2) The former of two vowels not forming a dijDhthong
is short ; e.g., puer.

(3) A syllable is long when its vowel is followed in
the same word by two consonants (other than /(), by x
or z, or by semi- con sonant { (sometimes printed j).

(4) A final syllable ending in a consonant counts as
Ion Of before a word beainnins: with semi-consonant i or
a consonant (other than h).

(5) A syllable containing a vowel naturally short is
either long or short when the vowel is followed by two
different consonants of which the second is I or r : e.g.,
pdtris or patris, gen. sing, of ^x7^er. This does not apply
to nl or 7ir, which always make the syllable long. (A
vowel by nature long remains long ; e.g., matris, gen.
sing, of mater.)


(6) Final syllables of words ending in a, i, o, u, as,
es, OS, and c, are long. Final a, however, in nom., voc,
and ace. is short, and Ovid occasionally has final o
short. Final es is short in such nominatives singular as
miles, and in the nom. plural of Greek substantives, e.g.
lampades ; and final as is short in the corresponding
Greek ace. plural, hmipadas. Final os is short when it
represents Greek oq.

(7) Final e is short, except in the 1st (Greek) and 5th
declensions, in 2nd sing, imper. act. of verbs of the
2nd conjugation, and in adverbs.

(8) Final is is short, except in the ace, dat., and abl.
plural, and in the 2nd sing. pres. ind. act. of verbs of the
4th conjugation.

(9) Final us is short, except in the nom., voc, and
ace. plural and in the gen. sing, of the 4th declension,
and in iem. substantives like j^'dus.

(10) Final syllables of words ending in the liquids
I, n, r, and in the dentals d, t, are short.

(11) Monosyllables are generally long, except those
ending in b, d, t.

Elision. — Before a w^ord beginning with a vowel or
h a final vowel or diphthong is elided, as also is a final
m, together with the vowel preceding it ; e.g., Haec
domini fortuna mei est scans as H^c domi- j ni for- |
tUnil me- \ est ; \ and Quantum erat as Qudnt^ erat. \

Accent. — The metrical or rhythmic accent is not to
be confounded with the grammatical accent, with which,
however, it often coincides. The law of grammatical
accentuation in Latin is simply that " the main accent
falls on the antepenultimate syllable {i.e. last syllable
but two), except when the penultimate {i.e. last syllable
but one) is long ; in which case it falls on that." There
is no accent on the last syllable. Thus inter ea, intlmus,





" Missus in hanc venio timide, liber exnlis, urbem :

Da placidam f esso, lector amice, mauum ;
Neve reformida, ne sim tibi forte pudori :

ISTullus in hac charta versus amare docet.
Haec domini fortuna mei est, ut debeat illam 5

Infelix nuUis dissimulare iocis.
Id quoque, quod viridi quondam male lusit in aevo,

Heu nimium sero ! damnat et odit opus.
Inspice, quid portem ! nihil hie nisi triste videbis,

Carmine temporibus conveniente suis. 10

Clauda quod alterno subsidunt carmina versu,

Vel pedis hoc ratio, vel via longa facit ;
Quod neque sum cedro flavus nee pumice levis,

Erubui domino cultior esse meo ;
Littera suffusas quod habet maculosa lituras, 15

Laesit opus lacrimis ipse poeta suum.
Siqua videbuntur casu non dicta Latin e,

In qua scribebat, barbara terra fuit.
Dicite, lectores, si non grave, qua sit eundum,

Quasque petam sedes hospes in urbe liber." 20

Haec ubi sum furtim lingua titubante locutus,

Qui mihi monstraret, vix fuit unus, iter.

TR. III. n


" Di tibi dent, nostro quod non tribiiere poetae,

Molliter in patria vivere posse tna !
Due age ! namque sequar, quamvis terraque marique 25

Longinquo referam lassus ab orbe pedem."
/ Paruit, et ducens " Haec sunt fora Caesaris," inquit,

" Haec est a sacris quae via nomen habet,
Hie locus est Yestae, qui Pallada servat et ignem,

Haec fuit antiqui regia parva Nuraae." 30

Inde petens dextram " Porta est " ait " ista Palati,

Hie Stator, hoc primum condita Ptoma loco est."
Singula dum miror, video fulgentibus armis

Conspicuos postes tectaque digna deo.
Et " lovis haec " dixi " domus est ? " quod ut esse 35

Augurium menti querna corona dabat.
Cuius ut accepi dominum, " Non fallimur," inquam,

" Et magni verum est hanc lovis esse domum.
Cur tamen opposita velatur ianua lauro,

Cingit et augustas arbor opaca comas ? 40

Num quia perpetuos meruit domus ista triumphos,

An quia Leucadio semper amata deo est,
, Ipsane quod festa est, an quod facit omnia festa ?

Quam tribuit terris, pacis an ista nota est ?
Utque viret semper laurus nee fronde caduca 45

Carpitur, aeternum sic habet ilia decus 1
Causa superpositae scripto testante coronae

Servatos cives indicat huius ope.
Ad ice servatis unum, pater optime, civem,

Qui procul extremo pulsus in orbe latet, 50

In quo poenarum, quas se meruisse fatetur,

Non facinus causam, sed suus error habet.
Me miserum ! vereorque locum vereorque potentem,

Et quatitur trepido littera nostra metu.
Aspicis exangui chartam pallere colore? 55

Aspicis alternos intremuisse pedes?


Qaandocumque, precor, nostro placere parent!

Isdem et sub dominis aspiciare domus ! "
Inde tenore pari gradibus sublimia celsis

.Ducor ad intonsi Candida templa dei, 60

Signa peregrinis ubi sunt alterna columnis,

Belides et stricto barbarus ense pater,
Quaeque viri docto veteres cepere novique

Pectore, lecturis inspicienda patent.
Quaerebam fratres, exceptis scilicet illis, 65

Quos suus optaret non genuisse pater.
Quaerentem frustra custos e sedibus illis

Praepositus sancto iussit abire loco.
Altera templa peto, vicino iuncta theatro :

Haec quoque erant pedibus non adeunda meis. 70

ISTec me, quae doctis patuerunt prima libellis,

Atria Libertas tangere passa sua est.
In genus auctoris miseri fort una redundat,
Et patimur nati, quam tulit ipse, fugam.
Forsitan et nobis olim minus asper et illi 75

Evictus longo tempore, Caesar erit.
Di, precor, atque adeo — neque enim mi hi turba
roganda est- —
Caesar, ades voto, maxime dive, meo !
Interea, quoniam static mihi publica clansa est,

Privato liceat delituisse loco ! 80

Yos quoque, si fas est, confusa pudore repulsae
Sumite plebeiae carmina nostra manus !


Ergo erat in fatis Scythiam quoque visere nostris,

Quaeque Lycaonia terra sub axe iacet ?
Nee vos, Pierides, nee stirps Letoia, vestro

Docta sacerdoti turba tulistis opem.
Nee mihi, quod lasi vero sine crimine, prodest, 5


Quodque magis vita Musa iocata mea est,
Plurima sed pelago terraque pericula passum

Ustus ab assiduo frigore Pontus habet.
Quique fiigax rerum secnraqne in otia natus,

Mollis et impatiens ante laboris eram, lo

Ultima nunc patior, nee me mare portubus orbum

Perdere, diversae nee potuere viae,
Suffecitque malis animus. Nam corpus ab illo

Accepit vires vixque ferenda tulit.
Dum tamen et terris dubius iactabar et undis, 15

Faliebat curas aegraque corda labor :
XJt via finita est et opus requievit eundi,

Et poenae tellus est mihi tacta meae,
Nil nisi flere libet, nee nostro parcior imber

Lumine, de verna quam nive manat aqua. 20

Roma domusque subit desideriumque locorum,

Quicquid et amissa restat in urbe mei.
Ei mihij quod totiens nostri pulsata sepulcri

lanua, sed nullo tempore aperta fuit ! ;

Cur ego tot gladios fugi totiensque minata 25

Obruit inf elix nulla procella caput 1
T>i, quos experior nimium constanter iniquos,

Participes irae quos deus unus habet,
Exstimulate, precor, cessantia fata meique

Interitus clausas esse vetate fores ! 30


Haec mea, si casu miraris, epistula quare
Alterius digitis scripta sit : aeger eram.

Aeger in extremis ignoti partibus orbis,
Incertusque meae paene salutis eram.

Quern mihi nunc animum dira regione iacenti
Inter Sauromatas esse Getasque putes ?

Nee coelum patior, nee aquis adsuevimus istis,


Terraque nescio quo non placet ipsa modo.
Non domus apta satis, non hie cibus u til is aegro,

Nullus, ApoUinea qui levet arte malum, lo

Non qui soletur, non qui labentia tai'de

Tempora narrando fallat, amicus adest.
Lassus in extremis iaceo populisque locisque,
Et subit adfecto nunc mihi quicquid abest.
Omnia cum subeant, vincis tamen omnia, coniunx 1 5

Et plus in nostro pectore parte tenes.
Te loquor absentem, te vox mea nominat unam ;

Nulla venit sine te nox mihi, nulla dies.
Quin etiam sic me dicunt aliena locutum,

Ut foret amenti nomen in ore tuum. 20

Si iam deficiam, subpressaque lingua palato

1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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