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O - G^ ^,

the sign " has been derived), e. g. ^_^mi sabba, (j-s^Ji
tarahhulun. This doubling of a consonant is either due
— as in the examples just given — to the essential
nature of the form, nominal or verbal (as for example
the verbal forms corresponding to the Hebrew PPel
§ 19), or is the result of assimilation.

When one consonant is assimilated to another, the h.
assimilation is further graphically represented by the
removal of the Sukun from the assimilated consonant.

This applies to the I of the article Jt, when the latter
precedes one of the following consonants: yy, yij, t>,
i^' ;> )' LT' LT" Lr°' u*' -'=' ^' ^' O (*'^^* ^®' <i^°*^ls,
sibilants and r, /, n). Examples: ws^UcJI attdgiru, ^JUJI

attalgu-i fju.4M*i\ assamsu, (the sun), but j.+aJ| alkamaru
(the moon). From the fact that the two last examples

12 6. WASLA.

are stereotyped those consonants that may be assimi-
lated are technically called solar letters, those that
do not admit of assimilation, lunar letters.

Note a. The word iJj, 'ildhun, God, when joined to the article,
drops the first syllable and becomes 4U| (§ 2b) allahu.

Note b. The words ^ mm, ^ 'an, ^\ 'an (and ^1 'in), when

foUowed by a few words beginning with » m or J ? are usually
combined with them into one word, the final ^^ n being at the


same time assimilated to the following consonant, e. g. U* mimma
from U ^ min md, 2) I 'alia from 1! ^1 'an Id.

6. Wasla ". A word beginning with two consonants

receives in Arabic either a full helping-vowel prece-

ded by Hamza in accordance with § 4a (e. g. ^jJs^i I
Plato), or merely a vowel which is heard only when
the word is standing alone , but which must be given
up when the word in question comes to stand after
another word in the sentence. Thus in the latter

case we find JJcjil uktul instead of JuCi" ktul. The I
which is prefixed in this and similar cases is, however,
still written although the helping vowel accompanying
it is given up, and it then receives over it the sign

jLLo, n^asla e. g. ^svlJI ^y-ij bintulwazlrl. The two



3- g- ^^^

words thus united together are also to be pronounced
as if they formed a single word. Such an Alif JJ'aslatum
or Wasla-bearing Alif is called a connective Alif in

6. WASLA. 13

contradistinction to a disjunctive Alif, that is, an Alif

hamzatum or Hamza-bearing Alif (cf. § 4).

Note. The sign " is a modification of jo; wasla or sila deno-
tes "close connection".

When a connective Alif has to be employed at 6.

the beginning of a sentence, a full vowel must be

pronounced, but, as written, only the proper vowel

sign may accompany the Alif, never a Hamza. Thus

we have J^JI arrasUlu, - vi-i uhrug but i~-y=>\ JLs
pronounce kdlahrug.

In the last example the division of the syllables c.
is now ka-lah-rug. If the vowel preceding a connec-
tive Alif is long, it must now be pronounced as a
short vowel, since it stands in a shut syllable (see
§ 8). Thus vdHlfiJ, properly fl-lfulki, has now the
following syllables /?/-/M/-/t2; so too xJUi ^^^ rida-llahi
(§ 2 (?) = ri-dal-ld-hi, tj*^ I f^5 (§ 2 e) da-ia-hul-irvazza.

If the word before a connective Alif ends in a d.
consonant which has no vowel of its own, the conso-
nant receives a helping-vowel. The most natural
vowel in such a case is i, e. g. Ju,*JI oo>-«o dardbati-
VaMa (for ooZ^); so Jll£Xwl istikhalun with the ar-
ticle j|: jCal3l alistikhdlu, in syllables thus: a-lis-
tik-id-lu. In certain cases original final vowels that

14 6. WASLA.

have been dropped reappear before the connec-
tive Alif, e. g. ;^^li\33\ 'fSf hu-mul-kd-fl-ru-na. The <
first word is otherwise uniformly Isa hum (§ 12«). —
The Nunation (§ 3 &) is also treated as if it ended in
a consonant; the favourite vowel in this case is z, e. g.
«-»-*l J^) pronounced as if written n^tMA ^j-^) ragu-
lunismuhu, in syllables: ra-gu-lu-nis-mu-hu.

Note. Before a connective alif the preposition ^c "away
from" becomes ^, the preposition ^, "from" "becomes ^, tiut
before the article ^.

e. The same rule applies to a word ending in a so-

called diphthong (cf. § 2) ; the consonant (. or ^)
forming the second part of the diphthong must receive
a helping vowel before a connective Alif, which vowel
is M or i according as the consonant in question is ,

or ^. Thus we have xJUl yJiSaSajo mus-ta-fa-rvul-ld-M

in place of «<Ul JdiMSjo, sjujf J^z^yrig-la-t/il-ba-ka-ra-

ti for ifSjJ t ^^^y (So, too, with the termination |. "

NoTE. The particles jl "or" and y "would that!" take i as
helping vowel.

/. The connective Alif is altogether omitted in the

following cases:

7, MEDDA. 15

1) In the article J|, when it receives as prefixes
the particles J li or J /a; e. g. ^^1^)3, lil-hak-ki for

(3siJ!i|, tXsv+JLf lal-mag-du for Ji^sj.^5(.

s ^

2) In ^jjI son, in apposition to the proper name

of the son and followed in the genitive by the name
of the father; e. g. tUJpl JjJ ^jJU mus-li-muh-nul-
wa-E-di Muslim, the son of al-Walid. At the beginn-
ing of a line, however, even in this case we must write

3) In the word ^\^ ismun^ name, after the prepo-
sition ;_, M in the oft recurring formula sJJ| |Va»o bis-
mil-ld-M, in the name of God.

Medda. Inasmuch as the Arabic orthography 7.
cannot tolerate two Alifs side by side, in such a case ""
only a single Alif is written, over which is placed a

S iS ^ _

'id-^ Medda or Medd (a sign derived from t\xi). At
the beginning of a word or syllable the Medda carries
with it the force of a Hamza; the vo wel sign Fath is then

also dropped, e. g. Jkil ^a-ki-lun for J.^^! !, ^j\Ji kur-d-

nun for (jHjJ'; so ^\ 'a-ma-na for ^\ |, since the ■
Hamza of the second Alif disappears as explained
§ 38 «.


Note, ^^\j ra'd may be taken as an exanaple of the rule just!
given. With suffixes it ought to appear, according to §_ 2d, as

SIlj, which, however, is written Sf) in syllables ra-'a-hu.
b. Since a *- after a long a H_ is written on the line

(§ 4 c) without receiving an Alif as bearer, the | pre-
ceding the Hamza in such cases likewise receives
Medda, as a rule, although the latter has no effect on
the pronunciation of the word, e. g. *L&. ffd-'a (for
lUi), iJsUS ta-fd-a-lu\ and the same where . or ^
appears as the bearer of Hamza s. ULs-f a-Mb-ba-u-
Am, JoU" ka-i-lun.

Note. Arabic orthography has also an objection to two Waws
appearing side by side, if the first has a Damma (even though
the first may be only the bearer of a Hamza, as expained in § 4 c).

Thus 1^55) TU usnn is often written j*;;.

8. The Syllable. An open syllable ends in a vowel

short or long; a shut syllable ends in a consonant.
Every syllable begins with a single consonant, not
with two or more (cf. § 6). A short syllable consists
of a consonant with a short vowel, as in the second

syllable of icjUo ma-td (with two open syllables); a
long syllable consists either 1) of a consonant with a
long vowel, like the open syllable md in the above
example, or 2) of a consonant, a short vowel and a con-
sonant (shut syllable) e. g. both the syllables of

9. THE TONE, 17

J,AJ( kat-lun (ao too uy^ mau-tun § 2«) |^ sar-ran,
or 3) of a shut syllable with a long vowel. This last
variety, however, is only found (exclusive of pausal
effects § 10) when the following consonant has been

Go ^

doubled (§ 5) and is preceded by a long a, as in xj|o

dab-ba-tun (rarely after ai as in XAjiii du-rvaib-ba-tun
which is derived according to § 66 from ddbbatun).
Such a syllable may be described as doubly long.

Other syllables of this sort are shortened as J^ib yakul

from JjJLs yakul\ o^xij ramat from cjLx» ramat.

Note. A word cdnsisting of but one short syllable, if it stands
alone, either receives an addition at the end (see §49 a 6), or is
joined to the following word. The latter method is adopted in a
series of particles (see § 94), which notwithstanding the connec-
tion are still regarded as more or less independent words. The
principal stress, however, rests on the words with which the par-
ticles are connected.

The Accent or Tone. The accent in Arabic is thrown
backwards towards the beginning of the word till it
meets a long syllable, or if there is no such syllable,
till it reaches the first syllable of the word. A simple
long syllable at the end of a word, however, does not
receive the accent. Examples of words with a final

short syllable: Zj'XSo daraba, lX]i£w] istdnkara; with

a final long syllable: UjC++j tamdmiuma, Cyi fdrdun,

RJCL^.^ mdmlakatun, Ijjj-to ddrabu, SjJ Udatun.

Socin, Arabic G-rammar.* 2


Exceptions: A syllable with a connective Alif (§ 6),
as in Jill (see § 6a), cannot receive the accent; the
pronunciation is therefore uMtL In the same way-
monosyllabic inseparable particles, like ^ and o (cf.
§ 94), prefixed to words, do not affect the accentuation

of the latter ; e. g. ,-m^ famdsa.

10. In pause iinal short vowels are dropped. Also
the Nunation un and in; the Nunation an is changed
to ff, the feminine termination xJL to sJL (with the h
sounded): thus ^JJ^b ndzilun for rjJsLj naziluna;
J^a."^ ragul for Ji4>) ragulun; LI^j,jo marhabd for U.a»yo
marhdban; is^^\S Fdtimah for R^isLi.

11. Numerical Signs and Abbreviations. The usual Arabic
cyphers are the following:

V t, f, t", I', 6, 1, V. A, "1
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.
The tens, hundreds &c., are written to the left of
the units &c. as i") 19, IaIo 1895.

The following are a few of the most frequently
occurring abbreviations:

«-) (vXi = *^LIJI xLL£'«toiAe-s5«/(mt«Peacebeuponhim!

»,slXj£i = rv^j ^^^ ^'^l 1^^ salla-lldhu "alaihi
rvasallama God bless him and give him peace (said of


11. ETYMOLOGY (§§ 12—96).
Chapter I. The Pronoun. (§§ 12—15.)

The personal pronouns are either independent or 12
suffixed. The independent or separate personal pro- ^'
nouns have the following forms:

Sing. Plur. Dual




masc. ooi


fem. oo 1

S ^

(''■■■% "'A \




1 masc. yc
fem. ^


Note 1. The second syllable of the pronoun of the first pers.
singular, although written with I, is short. — The forms in pa-
rentheses (2'"* and 3'''' pers. plural) are used particularly before
"Wasla (§ 6d); these final vowels are originally long.

Note 2. When joined to j and ^J (see § 95) the pronouns of

the 3"''* pers. sing, may lose theii- first vowel e. g. jAj , ^^.

The suffixed 'personal pronouns^ which joined to a 6.
noun indicate the genitive, joined to a rerb, the ac-
cusative, are the following:



Sing. Plur. Dual

I. Pers. j ^i^^ ^ouns ^— q_

I with verbs ^ —

f masc. li) — i;^— \

masc. s — i55 —

fern. Ls> —


c>*— J

Before a connective Alif (§ 6 d) the sufiix pron. of
the 1. pers. singular may receive as helping-vowel the
a which belonged to it originally; thus we may write

LjUX!!i ^J.'-^*' °^ i-jUx)! ^_jLkc|. After a, t and
ai the nominal suffix of the 1. pers. sing, has the form

^ ya. Occasionally (in the Kur'an particularly) the
suffix of the 1. pers. sing, is indicated by a simple ?,
of which the sign is Kesr , as Cjj my lord! In

the same way the corresponding verbal suffix may
be only ^ ni.

After an immediately preceding i or ai the suffixes ;

8, U», 1*^, J^ substitute the vowel i for u, thus

assuming the forms s, U», ^, ^-^ e. g. JLo instead

of xJLi. Before the connective Alif lic generally

becomes '^». — The suffixes ^ and ls& resume


their original forms j^i^and jvff before a connective

For further information regarding the affixing of
these pronominal forms see § 82 and the table of
paradigms No. XXIII.

The reflexive pronoun, when carrying a certain e.
amount of emphasis with it, is generally expressed

by the word ijusj nafsun soul, to which the proper
suffixes are appended. In many cases, however, the
personal pronoun suffices to express the reflexive.

The demonstrative pronouns are the following (with 13.
their inflexion compare § 76«).

The simple pronoun (rare) o-

Sing. \'o ^b, s6; ^^, aj"; Uf


} Gen. Ace.

^ *^ ■ — i

Plur. (1,1 (uld) or ©^,1 {ula'i)

This simple pronoun combines:

(1) with the demonstrative particle \s>, generally

written defectively {s^ or less correctly ss § 2 &). The
result is the usual demonstrative pronoun to indicate
that which is near at hand {this, these):




^5^, s6; 1^', aj'

Nom. ...16


1 Gen. Ace. ^ib








jjo i^j^)






The simple demonstrative combines (2) with a
suffix of the second person. Only in the older Arabic,
particularly that of the Kur'an, however, does the
suffix vary according to the number of persons ad-

dressed (e. g. plur. lj3c>, dual UxJii), elsewhere it
appears uniformly as d. There is also a form with
(^ before d. The result is two forms of the demon-
strative pronoun to indicate that which is more remote
(that, those):

Masc. Fern.

Sing. dtS, vdji (JJiS, JijS) dU (JLo) viiJb

Nom. viljta, ^ilo dbU, >iI)LS

Gen. Ace. aUjo, ^iJ^,c> ^^i^, ^^'


- i

Plur. ^^^^1 (d^.]), rarely dJ'3^\

d. Among the demonstratives we must also place the

article J I (see § 5 &). When the noun, in the circumstances


detailed in § 6 /" 1, begins with a J, this letter has a
Tesdid placed over it and the J of the article is drop-
ped. Thus we get kilij for xJUdW; so too Jj for
M (§ 5 note).

The relative pronouns are the following: 14.

i^iXi\ who, which, that, — originally a compound a.

demonstrative with the article as one of its elements
(hence the connective Alif) — declined as follows:






Dual I

Gen. Ace.



^:1m, ^rjS\

/US (indeclinable)
0, those who.

one who, such (a one) as, he 6.

Lo (indeclinable) that which, s

lomething which.

Among the relative pronouns may also be included c.

^^1, fern, jbl he who, she who. This word is declinable
in the sing., but the masc. often takes the place of
the fern. It also combines with the prons. in b above
to form \^\ every one who, whosoever; and Uj|


15. The interrogative pronouns are :
^ -who?

Uo what? Frequently strengthened by the addition
of the demonstrative Id: Id Lo what then?

^t, fern. jLsl what sort of? which?

Note. \a after prepositions is shortened to f e. g. fJ why?
With this interrogative U is also connected the interrogative
particle p" how much?

Chapter II. The Verb. (§§ 16-54.)

16. The great majority of Arabic verbs have three
radical letters ; only a small minority have four radi-
cals. The ground-form of verbs, according to which
they are arranged in grammar and dictionary, is the

third person singular of the perfect. The verb JJii

(to do) is used as a model paradigm.

Note. Since all Arabic dictionaries give the verbal and no-
minal derivatives under their respective root-forms, it is necessary,
in order to find the three radicals with ease, to note carefully what
consonants are employed in the formation of verbs and nouns as
prefixes and affixes to, and as infixes in, the stem.

17. From this ground-form or root, which is named
by grammarians the first stem, other stems are deri-
ved by a series of uniform changes, represented by


modifications of the verb JJii, but usually referred
to by their respective numbers in the series. Thus
we speak of "the eighth stem", (indicated in the dic-
tionary simply by VIII) not as in Hebrew and Syriac
of the Piel, the Afel &c. The following stems, the
order of which must be carefully noted, are those
most frequently met with:

I Jii

^ 0*

IV j^t

VII Joiili

X JjtaJLwj

•^ cs -*

II Joii

V J,%x



III jili


C5 Cr

IX J^l^

Note a.

Of these No.

IX and especially N

0. XI are of less

frequent occurrence; still more rare are XII Jej*i|, XIII j)**l,

XIV JJL*«il , XV ^JU»i|. Which of these derived stems are formed

from any given verb, and to what extent the meaning of the ground-
form is modified by them, will be found in the dictionary under
each verb.

Note h. In many cases the verb is used to express the idea
that some one wishes to do something or has something done;

thus iisi "he killed him'' may also signify "he wished to kill him",

and «a:c wj^ "he cut off his head (prop, neck)" may mean "he
had {ewrmiit) his head out off."

G^ -

The ground-form I, in the majority of verbs, takes 18.
the form J^ii, e. g. J^^i* to kill; there is also— mostly
with intransitive verbs — a form Jju (cf. 153), e. g.
-j-yi to be sad, ju^ to do (transitive), and also a

26 19, 20. THE II. AND III. STEMS.

form i}!al (cf. p'Q) , confined to intransitive verbs, as
, r\J^ to be beautiful. Sometimes both the transitive
and intransitive forms, J.ii and Jk*i or J.»i, are
found side by side in the same verb. One and the
same verb, again, may have both the forms J.»i and

19. The I I. ste m J,ii (corresponding to the Hebrew
Pi"el) usually denotes a greater intensity of the action
expressed by the simple verb. This intensification
may affect the subject, object or qualifying adjunct,

as Joi' to kill many people^ to massacre (intensi-
fication of the object). In the majority of verbs,

however, the II. stem is causative as lj.£ to know,

iXft cause to know, to teach. It is also declarative —

as in LjjJi to lie, i^Ji'to take one for, declare one

to be, a liar — and denominative, as in ^i.^^^. to collect

an army (jilAs*).

20. The III, stem J.fiLi expresses an attempt or effort
to perform the action of the simple verb on some per-
son, to influence some person or thing. Thus Jocii to
kill, but Joli to try to kill, to fight with ; ,2>^to
write, v^'Lj to correspond with (with accusative of

21, 22. THE IV. AND V. STEMS. 27

the person corresponded with). This stem also means
to exercise some abstract quality on a person or thing,

e. g. ij^ to be soft, gentle, jT*.j'i( to exercise gentleness
on some one, to treat one kindly.

The IV. stem jjii| (the Hebrew Hiph'il) has a 21.
causative signification, as ,^JUa to be in good condi-
tion, ^Jl.ol to bring into good condition. Very

frequently we find, with this stem, denominative verbs
which appear to us as intransitive, but to the Arab
as possessing an implicit transitive force, and which
express the idea of action in a certain definite direction,

as ^Mj.^\ to do good. Frequently, too, verbs of this
stem convey the idea of going to a place, of entering

upon a certain period or condition; e.g. CjIcI to go
towards the West, a,a^| to enter upon the period of
the morning, to be something in the morning, Oj-cil
to reach the top^ to be high; ILisI (from ^Ls rise up,
stand) to halt, to stay.

The V. stem JJS^ (Hebrew Hithpa''el), a soft of 22.
middle voice is formed from the II. stem and has both a
reflexive and a reciprocal meaning, e. g. IaXJ to make
one's self great, liij to let one's self be taught, to
learn. Sometimes a verb in the V. stem conveys the

28 23, 24, 25. THE VI., Vn. AND VIII. STEMS.

1 • f =-'

idea of giving one's self out as something, e. g. L»-o
to give one's self out for, to conduct one's self as, a

23. TheJVLstemjJ^J^-, derived from the III. stem, is
the reflexive form of the latter, and has a reflexive or
reciprocal signification, as 11 L2 to show one's self bold;
J-jUj to fight one another (usually in the plural).
Another signification is seen, for example, in J,\Ju, VI
form of !ikx to be high, which means to exalt one's
self and then simply: to be exalted.

24. The VII. stem Jii.!] (the Hebrew Niph'al with

the connective Alif ace. to § 6a), derived in most cases
from the I. stem, is a middle or reflexive form of the
latter. Its signification may also be described as

quasi-passive, e. g. jmS^ to break lljCit, to break or

be broken in pieces.

25. The VIII. stem Jixif, (with connective Alif § 6a)

is likewise a middle and reflexive form, for the most

part of the I. stem, as ^lx£.l , to oppose one's self,

object to; sometimes also with reciprocal signification

as jviOAirkj, to dispute, contend with each other.

Note. In the case of verbs wliose flrstiTadical is ja, je, h
or 15, the Cj of the VIII. stem is changed to the emphatic fa, and

26, 27. THE IX. AND X. STEMS. 29

is even assimilated to the first radical, when that letter is a dental
as ^^l instead of j*si| from j^; "^^ or '^1 for IlSBI from
^; O is sometimes assimilated also to a preceding o, e, g. c«^l
or cwl from St^ properly c»*SjI; after J, J and J il» is changed
into the soft J, e. g. JIJ3I for 0U3I from JlJ; ^jjl for ,i>Nj..j|.

S _, O C3 Ci

The IX. stem Joii| (as also the XL stem JL*il,26.
both with connective Alif) is used of verbs which
denote the possession of inherent qualities such as
colours or bodily defects, e. g. from the stem yjL>o:

wi^t to be or become yellow; from the stem .^■. .let
to be one-eyed; from the stem j.*;^ : jU^I to be red.

The X. stem JJUx^J, (with connective Alif) is 27.

primaril5i__a reflexive of the IV. Jixit (otherwise a
reflexive, formed on the analogy of the VIII. stem, from

a stem JJlLw with a prefixed 5), as from the stem jL^^

IV*. (jSi^.l to grieve: X. ^J^^yjA to grieve (one's

self). Very frequently the X. stem denotes also to

wish or to beg something for one's self, e. g. from .Jia\

to pardon, X.: waAZ*!. to ask for pardon; or to think

that something is so, as ^^s-. to be necessary, IV:

J^°,| to make necessary, X: ^^yci«[ to consider

something as necessary for one's self.


28. The quadriliteral stems are denoted, for tlie verbal
and nominal forms, by the paradigm JJjii (that is
by the addition of a fourth radical to Jjti), and con-
sist for the most part of two stems, of which the first
may be said to correspond to the second stem of the
triliteral verb (for Joii is in reality J^juii), and the
second jjjiij to the fifth, e. g. ^Xl> to overturn,
cast down, .UCaJo fall down.

Note. The stems III JJUtnil and IV JJWI (the last corre-
sponding to the IX. stem of the triliterals) ai'e rare e. g. ^^Uiol, to
be quiet, from a stem jjWs.

29. In addition to the active, the Arabic verb has a
passive voice. This passive is formed in the perfect
in such a way that in place of the a-vowels of the
active we have the order u-i-a {i with the second, a
with the third radical) ; thus the act. of stem I. is

Jjii, the pass: Jjti. The additional formative syllables

of the derived stems also receive the vowel m, e. g.

pass. V. JuiAJ", VIII (JkaJCil (with connective Alif).

30. The Arabic verb has two principal tenses, 2^. perfect
"■ which, generally speaking, denotes a completed action,

and an imperfect which in general denotes an uncom-
pleted action.

31. THE MOODS. 31

The imperfect is formed by adding the prefix j,ya. lb.
for the active of the I, V., VI., VII., VIII., IX. and'
X. stems, and the prefix j yu for the active of the
II., III. und IV. stems, and for the passive of all the
stems without exception.

In the case of verbs of which J,ii is the type, the c.
second radical, in the impf. act. of stem I., may receive
one or other of the vowels u, i, a. Which of the three
must be used for a particular verb will be found
indicated in the dictionary under that verb (e. g. J.Xs
impf. u) and should be taken careful note of. Those

verbs, on the other hand, of which J*.«i (with e-vowel)

is the type, together with all passives point their second

radical with a only, thus impf. act. I. J.*ij; pass. Jk*Aj.

Those verbs, finally, of which J^ai (with w-vowel) is the
type, take u with the second radical for the imperfect.
As regards the active imperfect of the derived stems,
the second radical takes i throughout, with the excep-
tion of stems V. and VI. where it takes a; thus impf.

II. J^jb hut V. JoLa3L).

In the imperfect various Moods are distinguished, 31.
namely the ordinary mood which we call the indicative,
the dependent mood or subjunctive, and a modus apo-
copatus (sometimes called the jussive). These are

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