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ESSAYS ON VOCATION

SECOND SERIES



Uniform with the present volume, clothes. 6d. net

ESSAYS ON VOCATION

FIRST SERIES

BY

H. WALFORD DAVIES ARCHIBALD RAMAGE

SIR WILLIAM OSLER EDWARD SHILLITO

J. LEWIS PATON FANNY STREET

SIR ERNEST POLLOCK W. H. SOMERVELL
AND EMILY E. WHIMSTER

EDITED WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY

BASIL MATHEWS



ESSAYS ON VOCATION



BY

A. GLUTTON BROCK, B.A. GODFREY PHILLIPS, M.A.
SIR Hv. VERNEY LOVETT, c E> RAV EN M A %

K. C.S.I., C.S.I.

MOTHER EDITH, O.M.S.E. W. E. S. HOLLAND, M.A.



EDITED WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY

BASIL MATHEWS



SECOND SERIES



HUMPHREY MILFORD

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

LONDON EDINBURGH GLASGOW COPENHAGEN

NEW YORK TORONTO MELBOURNE CAPE TOWN
BOMBAY CALCUTTA MADRAS SHANGHAI PEKING

1921



CONTENTS

PAGE

I. THE NEW WORLD-TREK. BY BASIL MATHEWS,

M.A 5

II. LITERATURE AS A VOCATION. BY A. GLUTTON

BROCK, B.A 18

III. VOCATION IN THE IMPERIAL SERVICES
(CIVIL). BY SIR HY. VERNEY LOVETT, K.C.S.I.,
C.S.I. ' 26

IV. THE LIFE OF THE COUNSELS. BY MOTHER

EDITH, O.M.S.E 32

V. THE MISSIONARY VOCATION. BY GODFREY
PHILLIPS, M.A., Union Theological College, Ban-
galore . . 43

VI. VOCATION IN THEOLOGY. BY THE REV. C. E.

RAVEN, M.A. ....... 56

VII. WHERE SHALL I WORK ? BY THE REV. W. E. S.

HOLLAND, M.A. ...... 65



THE NEW WORLD-TREK
BY BASIL MATHEWS

1 TRUTH is as Beauty unconfined :
Various as Nature is man's mind :
Each race and tribe is as a flower
Set in God's garden with its dower
Of special instinct ; and man's grace
Compact of all must all embrace.
China and Ind., Hellas or France,
Each hath its own inheritance ;
And each to Truth's rich market brings
Its bright divine imaginings,
In rival tribute to surprise
The world with native merchandise.'

ROBERT BRIDGES.

I

' HUMANITY ', as President Smuts has said in a sentence
that will certainly stand as a classic picture of the post-
war world-situation, ' has struck its tents and is once
more on the march.'

' Humanity is on the march/ But the question on
which all future history pivots President Smuts does not,
and our wisest prophets cannot answer. The question is
' Whither ? '

That man should march is nothing new in his story.
There is, indeed, a strange fascination in 'looking back
over history across those dramatic epochs when the races
have been moved by some mysterious common impulse
to trek from continent to continent, submerging old
civilizations and building new ; or in watching those
voyages of the human spirit from one culture and order
of thought to another.

In them all as we look back across the great watersheds
of history we can trace a clear movement in defined

dKRORI



6 THE NEW WORLD-TREK

directions. Our historical geography maps reveal by long
curving arrow-headed lines across continents and seas
the devastating sweep of the Mongol hordes, the fan-like
spread of the Aryan tribes, the intermittent lava-flow
of the Semite from the human crater of Western Asia.
Our histories throw up, also, into vivid relief the voyages
of the human spirit those vast flood-tides of historic
change that sweep away an old order and change the
coast-line of man's life : the rise, for instance, of Mesopo-
tamian civilization and its flow across the Near East ;
the solid tread of Roman order and mental discipline
from the North Atlantic to the Nile and the Euphrates ;
the tidal wave of destructive barbarism under which the
weakened Roman ramparts broke and were submerged ;
the swift rush of Islam across the Near East and North
Africa till the scimitar flashed in the defiles of the Pyrenees
and at the gates of Vienna. These, with the wonderful
Catholic ideal of the Middle Ages, and such adventures of
humanity as the mental spring to liberty which we call
the Renaissance, and the spiritual clamour for national
separatism which we call the Reformation, are marches
of humanity treks, the historical direction of which we
can discern and follow.

To-day, however, we are in the presence of a vast and
dramatic movement to which none of these past wander-
ings tremendous as they were can offer any adequate
parallel. And the total present movement is so enormous
in area, so profound in its significance, so universal in its
bewildering surge that the mind is confused and dazed in
watching it. Men of all races are moving across the plains
of history from their ancient camping-places. But across
what wildernesses they are trekking ; in face of what
enemies they make their way ; and to what goal they
move, we simply do not know.

The Israelite had a Moses to lead him, and a Promised



THE NEW WORLD-TREK 7

Land to nerve him in face of the drought and the despair
of the desert. Islam had a battle-cry of ' Death to the
Infidel, and Glory for the Faithful ', and an objective of
victory. The men who sailed to America had a tyranny
to escape, a new world to flee to, a freedom to fight for,
and a William Bradford to lead them. But man on trek
to-day so far as we can see in the dust of the movement
or can hear in the din has neither leader nor voice.
He has no chart of the new ocean and no map even of the
coast of his new world.

II

The dramatic significance of the movement will become
clearer if we can stand away from it a little and focus it
(as the historians will do more clearly some day) against
the background of that unique, world-wide racial move-
ment which forms the greatest single fact in recorded
history the present world-dominance of the white
peoples.

The essential meaning of this fresh world-march is that
the new trek shows every sign of involving the end of the
white man's world-power.

That ' white ' dominance is the creation of the last
four centuries. It began paradoxically enough when the
fall of Constantinople and the control of the Turk over
the trade routes overland to India threw the Western
merchants back upon the ocean for a route for their
Eastern spices and stuffs. That Islamic dam sent Vasco
da Gama round the Cape to India and Columbus across
the Atlantic on the same quest. So in those squat six-
teenth-century craft began the movement by which the
white races of Western Europe dominate America, Africa,
much of Asia, and at last Australasia.

To-day, as a result, the white races occupy some two-
fifths of the earth's habitable surface ; they total practi-



8 THE NEW WORLD-TREK

cally one-third of the human race ; and, what is more
astonishing still, they hold under their political control all
save one-tenth of the globe's surface. By far the greater
part of that control is now in the hands of the English-
speaking section of the white races. There is, as I have
suggested, no other recorded fact of history so tremendous
as that.

If it were possible (which it is not) by the most pene-
trating power of imagination to recover the outlook of
a fifteenth-century Western man, we should realize how
incredible to him even in his wildest freaks of inventive-
ness would be this amazing realized white domination
over continents and oceans and races the very existence
of which had barely dawned on his consciousness. Why
should little groups of white peoples in the north-west
corner of the small continent of Europe grow to stupendous
numbers and achieve power beside which Rome itself is
dwarfed ? Yet there the fact stands as the dominating
feature of the world's landscape.

Ill

We have, however, now to let a new fact not only dawn
upon our consciousness, but soak into our spirit and
saturate our judgement. The new fact is that the Great
War and even more, the attempted peace, have witnessed
the real emergence of racial movements which challenge
that white domination in the most thorough-going way.
That white domination I suggest is essentially tran-
sitional and tutorial. It must pass. It may, of course,
not pass necessarily to other hands ; it may simply die
and no new centralized domination take its place. It
would seem, however, as though the new world-trek of
humanity had in it the power definitely to break the
white man's almost hypnotic authority. Man on his new
trek has no leader and no voice : the march is a wander-



THE NEW WORLD-TREK 9

ing that has no visible goal : it is a journey without time-
table or terminus. But there is at least one principle that
drives this human movement ; and that principle will
break the old order to pieces.

The Great War, as it went on, was seen more and more
to be a war to achieve for the different nations what we
now all call self-determination. Since the war ended, the
tragic struggle of the peace debate has been an attempt
to realize that same principle in practice and to apply it,
e. g. to Poland, to the small nations that once were
Austria, and so on. Where the full application of the
principle seemed impossible owing to a real or supposed
lack of power for self-government, the parallel principle of
mandatories has been developed. This principle is to be
applied to the development of the Armenian, the Arab,
the African, the South Sea Islander : but the exercise of
the mandatory by a great power, for the development of
the ' child races ', is itself described as ' a sacred trust of
civilization ', not an inherent right to domination.

For if the peoples are dominated, they have no self-
determination. On this principle any mandate, any
dominion (like that of Britain in India) is simply a tutor
to lead the growing race ultimately to freedom, not a rule
for purposes of exploitation.

The revolutionary fact emerges here, however, that the
principle of self-determination when fully applied on
a world-scale must obviously end domination of other
races by the white. Whatever our own view may be, that
is the interpretation which the great world of Asia is
beginning (and with increasing emphasis) to put upon
the principle of self-determination that it means self-
government in the full sense and equal rights.

The war immensely stimulated this development.
A million Indians voluntarily enlisted in the war and
Indians died on all its fronts. Scores of thousands of



io THE NEW WORLD-TREK

Chinese, of Africans, and many thousands of other races
like the Arabs, the Malagasy, the Annamese, and others-
served in various ways. Japan was a combatant from the
early days.

They were not merely uncritical pawns in the conflict.
They analysed the situation with penetrating judgement.
The Russo-Japanese war, which left the white Goliath
prostrate before the yellow David, the West vanquished
by the East, had stung Asia to a new vision of the future.
The hypnotic spell of white power had then been broken.
Now, in the Great War, Asia and Africa saw the white race
tearing itself to shreds and calling in the yellow, the brown,
and the black to help in the ghastly, maniacal process.
To a dispassionate observer there would seem to be
nothing intrinsically improbable in the prophecy of
a Japanese statesman early in the war : ' This is the
beginning of the end of European civilization.'

As a result of this vast upheaval, then, enormous forces
are liberated which are changing the face of the world.
The principle of self-determination is sweeping through
the consciousness of humanity. Old allegiances are
strained ; ancient loyalties are weakened ; new ambitions
are quickened. The world is in turmoil through the new
racial consciousness that has been born.

IV

The race consciousness is affecting every people upon
the earth. We may here swiftly glance at its influence on
four or five of them.

The Turk has seen the old Turkish Empire dismembered.
But, illuminated by the principle of self-determination,
his leaders have to-day a dream vaster than any that the
Turk has yet realized. It is the Pan-Turanian ambition.
The Syrian, the Arab, the Jew, the Armenian are taken
from under his rule. But there are in what was South-East



THE NEW WORLD-TREK n

Russia and in Central Asia millions of people of the
Turkish (the Turanian) race. An empire that included
all the Turks would be greater than the old Turkish
Empire. What is more, it could, in hostile hands, be
a javelin at the heart of India or of China. The Pan-
Turanian race movement is one of the vital forces of the
new world.

The Pan- Arabian movement, which dreams of an
Arabian Empire that would stretch from the buttresses
of the Persian plateau across Mesopotamia and Arabia to
Suez, may be dismissed by the scoffer as ridiculous in the
light of the known tribal dissidence of all the Arabian
people. ' Nothing but an external authority from the
West can weld the Arabs into unity ' we are told every
day. And so it would seem to be on the surface. Yet it
is well to remember that once upon a time a man named
Mohammed rose and gave the Arab a battle-cry, a flag,
and a creed ; and in a century that flag was victorious
from the Caspian to the Indian Ocean and from Persia
across all North Africa to the Atlantic. Such an event
may recur. The wizard of history has not yet exhausted
his store of miracle.

Even the relatively placid Bantu peoples, who inhabit
the larger part of Africa and live in their millions in
America, have developed so to speak an Ethiopian
consciousness. The ' Black Star liner ' scheme is not an
isolated whimsy. It is a wave on that new tide of race
consciousness which the wisest local observers tell us
may still sweep across Africa in a terrible race-conflict.
The Pan-Negro Conference in New York in August 1920
fermented throughout with the yeast of racial ambition.
And that ambition directed itself toward the vision of
'Africa for the Africans', and the entire elimination of
' white ' control.

But the Pan-Turanian, the Pan-Arabian, and the



12 THE NEW WORLD-TREK

Pan-Negro movements, vitally important as they are, are
dwarfed into comparative insignificance by the vast
volume and momentum of the surging tide that is carried
forward by the winds of ' Asia for the Asiatic '. Here, at
last, we come to the pivot of the situation : the issue on
which the history of the future swings.

Japan is the protagonist of the new world ; she is the
spearhead of the javelin aimed at the Western rule of the
earth. By this it is not for a moment meant that Japan
is the enemy. She is simply the present leader in a
renaissance which will, as certainly as the tides move,
change the centre of gravity of the world's life. She has
learned the secrets on which Western domination largely
rested the technical miracles of modern science. With
them she beat Russia. With them she is becoming
a foremost manufacturing nation in the world.

But the sixty millions of Japan are again dwarfed
by the four to five hundred millions of Chinese people,
hardy, industrious,, intelligent, practical, and prolific ;
with the vastest stores of unexploited mineral and agri-
cultural resources that the world can show not even
excepting America. And behind these again come that
mysterious force, the more than three hundred millions
of India.

These eight hundred millions of people and especially
the five hundred millions of the yellow races challenge
white domination not (as a whole) consciously, but by the
irresistible momentum of the new life into which we
ourselves have led them. Their potential power is
stupendous from a military point of view. It is far
greater from an industrial point of view (for their coal,
iron, waterway, and human resources are incalculably
greater than those of the West). It is greatest still from
the point of view of migration. The Asiatic peoples are
spilling over the brim of Asia. Hawaii, Fiji, South Africa,



THE NEW WORLD-TREK 13

Latin America, the Pacific sea-board of Canada and of the
United States, and other places are feeling the ceaseless
' lap-lap ' of the waves of Asiatic migration. Australia
(a semi-desert reclaimed by the white man by an effort
in its way unique in history) is only held for the white
man by the most stringent laws, behind which lie the
military and naval resources of the British Empire.
Natural action of the human tides of migration unim-
peded by legal dykes would make Australia Asiatic in
a decade.

The union of the three powers that are in the hand
of Asia the military, the industrial, and the migratory
will (if natural tendencies are allowed to move freely)
change the world. Nothing is more certain than that if
natural forces prevail race antagonisms will grow in
the field of world-industry (leading say to an Asiatic
blockade against white goods), and in the field of migration
(which the white may resist by force), but will, in that
case, lead straight into a race-war that will end ordered
life of man on the globe.

These are not simply alarmist opinions : they are
inevitable products of the sum of the facts, if the purely
material facts and the purely selfish motives construed in
the purely nationalistic spirit are to prevail.

V

This inevitably leads on to the question which is surely
the most vital that can be debated : ' Are there any moral
and spiritual forces available that can secure for mankind
as a whole an ordered and harmonious development of
a world-commonwealth out of this world-chaos ? '

The principle of ' self-determination ' is obviously as
inadequate in the international sphere as it is between
individuals in the family, the city, or the state. Freedom
we must have, and self-determination is a first element in



14 THE NEW WORLD-TREK

freedom. Self-determination, however, without comity
and co-operation is not freedom but chaos ; just as in
the family self-determination for the individual, without
parental authority and mutual comradeship, spells
destruction both for the individual and for the group.

On a world-scale self-determination alone means self-
destruction. We must find a more excellent way or take
the way of the Gadarene swine. We must, in Viscount
Grey's pregnant and terrible phrase, ' Learn or perish '.

The real problem is : ' Can the nations, while seeking
and finding self-determination, develop simultaneously
a practice of co-operation ? ' Can Britain and China,
America and Japan, the new Russia and the new Turkey,
the new Teutonic Republic, the Indian peoples, and the
African, grow into a world-fellowship to which each brings
its peculiar gift to enrich all the rest. Each race has
a unique contribution to make. As Robert Bridges says :

' Each race and tribe is as a flower
Set in God's garden with its dower
Of special instinct ; . . .
China and Ind, Hellas or France,
Each hath its own inheritance. 1

In practice this means immediate self-abnegation all
round, though it means ultimate universal enrichment on
a scale yet undreamed. It means for the white race
readiness to abandon the notion either of permanent
domination of other races or of their economic exploita-
tion, though commercial interchange will immensely
increase. For Asia it must mean a readiness to restrict
emigration to certain limits in volume and to certain
areas. For everybody it must mean *give and take ' ; it
must mean loyalty to international law and the absolute
sanctity of international agreements ; it must mean
readiness to set the welfare of the whole body of humanity
1 * England to India ', in October and other Poems, 1920.



THE NEW WORLD-TREK 15

above the selfish ambitions of the individual member. In
a word it must mean, in terms of moral and spiritual
forces, that the whole Christian conception of service
must dominate the life of the races in place of the pagan
conception 'of domination. In terms of organization it
must mean that the League of Nations becomes the
central fact of the world's life.

The League of Nations, as the first sentence of its
Covenant declares, has as its central purpose the develop-
ment of co-operation. Where peoples are too primitive
for full co-operation or too defenceless for self-preserva-
tion, or too undeveloped for full self-government, the
League of Nations Covenant declares that the service of
those peoples (and not their domination or exploitation)
is ' a sacred trust of civilization '. The great powers are,
so to speak, to be the tutors of the weak in order to train
them for taking a free full place at the round table of the
nations of the world.

This project of replacing tyranny and chaos by. an
ordered freedom within a League of Nations may seem
difficult ; it may, indeed, be dismissed by many minds
as impossible. But the alternative is death ; and, the
gulf that seems to be fixed between the present chaos and
that harmony is not a gulf fixed in the order of things
it is, in fact, only an attitude of mind. And an attitude
of mind is simply there to be changed. What is more,
the bad old attitude, fixed as it is in the adult, does not
exist in the child.

The movement from universal self-determination to
freedom within a world- wide League of Nations is a step
mainly of the spirit rather than of organization. The
League of Nations, like the Kingdom of God, is there just
when, in the full sense, we believe in it. It must, of
course, have a constitution ; but in essence it is not so
much a machinery as an attitude of mind. It is a new



16 THE NEW WORLD-TREK

attitude, an adventurous attitude ; but not an impossible
one. Like Christianity it ' has not been tried and found
wanting, it has been found difficult and not tried '.

If the argument we have developed is valid, then the
fork in the road the decisive turning that will decide
the destiny of ' humanity on the march ' is just here :
' Is separatist self-determination to destroy us or is
co-operation between the races going to save the world ? '

We have argued, first, that man is 'on the march '-
that this is the supreme ' malleable moment ' in history ;
secondly, that the dominant force driving him on that
of self-determination is destructive by itself, yet is
creative when it enters into alliance with the forces of
union and co-operation ; and thirdly, that the Christian
conception of service and of co-operation, if accepted on
a world-scale, can secure an enduring harmonious ordered
life for man.

' Whereto all nations shall be drawn
Unfabled Magi, and uplift
Each to Love's cradle his own gift.' l

Only one more step seems to be needed, but that step
is the vital one. It is that this conception of service
should be accepted by men of all races as the dominant
principle of action. For the individual two things at once
emerge, First, that his vocation in whatever occupation
he may be engaged is to carry his life through under the
rule of the call to service. As the essays here and in
the previous volume 2 demonstrate, the civil servant, the
teacher, preacher, the business man, the lawyer, the
author and journalist, the doctor and nurse and the
missionary (whether as preacher, teacher, doctor, or
nurse) have all an immediate place in the field of play.

Robert Bridges, ' England to India '.
2 Essays on Vocation. First Series. Milford, 1919.



THE NEW WORLD-TREK 17

And, secondly each man or woman who has not yet
determined his place in the field has not yet heard the
calling, the vocation will find it a sound principle of
judgement as between one calling and another to enter on
that course which seems to provide the fullest opportunity
of influencing the mind of the nations and especially of
those in other continents newly coming into play in the
direction of friendship and co-operation for the common
\vealth of the world.



LITERATURE AS A VOCATION

BY A. GLUTTON BROCK

GREAT writers in the past, Shakespeare among them,
have earned their living by literature, and some good
writers do so to-day. Indeed a good writer can, I think,
make sure of earning a living by hard work ; but whether
he is rich or poor depends upon qualities which he may
lack. Shakespeare could have been a popular journalist
or novelist if he had lived to-day, he could have earned
enough by brilliant but easily done work to give him time
for his masterpieces ; Wordsworth could not.

So, even if you are a great writer, you must take the
chance of poverty or wealth ; and, if you are a good
writer, you will take it. ' But how are you to know in
youth whether you are a good writer ? The mere desire
to write is not proof of a vocation ; many youths wish to
be writers because a few writers are famous, because they
admire the works of writers, good or bad, or because it
seems an easy, pleasant way of earning a living. Such
a vague desire may be misleading ; in fact you can
discover whether you have a vocation for literature only
by writing, and by continuing to write, no matter how
much you are discouraged.

In some great writers the impulse precedes the power ;


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