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IN PRAISE OF WINCHESTER

AN ANTHOLOGY IN PROSE & VERSE



,/L




THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES




IN PRAISE OF WINCHESTER



CONSTABLE'S ANTHOLOGIES

UNIFORM WITH THIS VOLUME
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IN PRAISE OF OXFORD. An Anthology of Oxford and
Oxford Life in Prose and Verse. By THOMAS SECCOMBK
(Balliol College) and H. SPENCER SCOTT (New College).

VOL. I : OXFORD HISTORY AND OXFORD TOPOGRAPHY.
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Other volumes to follow.



IN PRAISE OF WINCHESTER

AN ANTHOLOGY
IN PROSE AND VERSE



COMPILED BY

A. AUDREY LOCKE



LONDON
CONSTABLE AND COMPANY LTD.

10 ORANGE ST. LEICESTER SQUARE W.C.
1913



DA



FOREWORD

WINCHESTER, though she has undergone many vicissitudes, has
never before been ' anthologised.' This is my justification for
gathering together material 'in praise of Winchester.' This,
and my love for her.

No attempt has, of course, been made to give a complete
suggestion of the history of Winchester by means of the chosen
excerpts. That would involve, hi the early centuries, at least,
a history of England. I have simply caught at a few echoes.
It may be objected that some of them are not harmonious
echoes j that is to say, are not ' literature.' To this I would
answer that the connotation of the term ' anthology,' although
its natural limits cover only ' a collection of the flowers of verse,'
has been so widely extended that it might even be used to
describe a collection of political speeches.

In dealing with ' Winchester in fiction,' it will be seen that
I have rejected the whole-hearted identification of Anthony
Trollope's Barchester with Winchester. Here and there he has
certainly introduced a memory of Winchester, as for instance
in the description of what is obviously St. Swithun's Church,
disguised as ' St. Cuthbert's,' in The Warden. However, a
careful study of The Warden, Barchester Towers, and the Last
Chronicle of Barset shows the topography to be rather that of
Salisbury than Winchester. Moreover, we know from Trollope's
Autobiography that The Warden was conceived when wandering
round the close of Salisbury Cathedral ' I visited Salisbury,



629891



vi IN PRAISE OF WINCHESTER

and whilst wandering there one midsummer evening round the
purlieus of the Cathedral I conceived the story of The Warden,
from whence came that series of novels of which Barchester
with its bishops, deans and archdeacon, was the central site.'
John Hiram, of ' Hiram's Hospital,' is probably John Halle,
wool merchant of Salisbury, who built a banqueting-hall therein
about 1470. The Hospital itself is identifiable with Trinity
Hospital, Salisbury, founded in 1420 for twelve poor men. Thus,
though in some of its details the description of the Hospital
may suggest that of St. Cross, Winchester, the suggestion is not
clear enough to warrant any quotation of it in an anthology of
Winchester.

I am conscious that in quoting details and anecdotes which
concern some famous Wykehamists, I have neglected many
well-known names, and have given only scant details where
much might be told. I must plead in justification the contrast
between the limits of a normal book and the infinite number of
famous men among ' Wykeham's sons.'

Of Winchester herself little need be said here ; perhaps this
gathering of extracts may serve not only to recall Winchester
to those who already love and understand her, but also to
awaken something of that love and understanding in those who
have not yet learnt her secret.

She, like Oxford, throws her spell over her children,
enchanting them with her memories and her moods, as she stays,
quietly brooding among her river valleys and her downlands,
gazing, Demeter-like, across the centuries.

A. A. L.

HAMPSTEAD, July 1912.



CONTENTS

BOOK I

PART I

A ROYAL CITY

' Winchester, that grand scene of ancient learning, piety , and munificence.*
WILLIAM COBBETT, Rural Rides.

ECHOES OF HISTORY

PAGE

I. Memories. Venta A city of memories Serene old age Our
royal town Past times The stream of ages A quiet city The
old white city City tables The tomb of empires ' Redolent
with the atmosphere of ancient times,' .... 3

2. Pre-Norman Times. The Hudibras myth Mythical builders
The city walls The Emperor Claudius besieges Winchester
Roman Winchester Fighting near the city Venta Belgarum
The myth of King Arthur King Arthur's Round Table His
court Itchen vaunteth herself King Arthur's Hall Egbert
'A Mecca' 'The Hethene' destroy Winchester ' The fell
Dane' The Saxon metropolis Ancient glory A leader in
learning King Alfred's book 'The breaker of the Dane'
In Hyde Meadow Guy of Warwick The Danemark Wyn-
chester, the ryche towne Ethelwulf Edward the Elder Edwy
Edgar The ordeal of Queen Emma The reconciliation of
Edward the Confessor and Queen Emma, ... 9

3. Mediaeval Ways. The Book of Winchester Earl Waltheof be-
headed The death of Rufus His burial Henry I. made king
Winton Domesday Allegiance to Empress Matilda She be-
sieges Winchester The praises of the city Second coronation
of Richard I. William Marshall the younger besieges Winchester
The King of France repairs the city walls Fair Winchester
The days of our forefathers, . .... 26



viii IN PRAISE OF WINCHESTER

PACE

4. Tudora and Stuarts. The Spanish marriage Good Queen Bess
' Favorers of thold supersticion ' Expenses of a sixteenth-
century judge of assize Unwelcome visitors Fear of the plague
James I. at Winchester The trial of Sir Walter Ralegh The
scene The accused Winchester ' beares up her head ' During
the Civil War Cromwell besieges Winchester The Restoration
Charles ll.'s palace Charles li.'s visit The new creation
Charles II. and Thomas Ken 'Like some calm ghost' 'In
one hallowed pile* Izaak Walton James II. at Winchester, . 40

5. Later Days. 'A genteel congregation' French prisoners
George III. at Winchester Winchester Assizes The city in
1829 A warlike city A Winchester surgeon A poetical pro-
logue 'No nursery of fools' To the Muses The coming of
the Prince of Wales George v. at Winchester, . , .54



II. TOPOGRAPHY

i. 'Grey City of Eternal Towers.'' O mother of our golden hours '
'Pillowed on meadow and hill' One of the first to be peopled
Fourteenth-century Winchester 'That joly cite' 'A body
without a soul ' ' In a pleasant bottom ' ' An air of antiquity '
Looking from 'Hills' The second Earl of Oxford at Win-
chester Horace Walpole disappointed Dr. Johnson at Win-
chester Jane Austen in College Street Keats at Winchester
' An exceeding pleasant town ' ' The pleasantest town I ever
was in ' ' Sixpence a pint ' ' Not one loom ' The Eve of St.
Mark A daily walk ' Maiden-lady-like ' ' As quiet as a lamb '
Winchester stubble-fields 'The taste of ancient kings' The
city in 1850 This wonderful treasury High charges and low
bows Coach v . Railway Famous for a bishop ! . 6l

2. Familiar Landmarks. A Winchester garden The Itchen By
lichen's banks Father Itchen A Sonnet Samlet in the Itchen
'The King's House ' Fanny Burney visits it The County Hall
Horace Walpole and the King's House Winchester Castle
The Soke Bridge Wolvesey Palace in 1738 ' Wolvesey's ruined
pile' The Butter Cross 'Its Gothic market-cross' 'Grey
landmark of forgotten time' From St. Giles's Hill 'That
white cliff' 'Seint Gyles doune' 'Winchestre Faire' The
humbled Mayor St. Catherine's Winchester from ' Hills '
Mons Catharinae 'Thou grassy steep' 'On the brink of that
huge foss ' St. Cross ' Amid sunny hills ' An ideal of charity
' Pious roofs' Henry de Blois Emerson at St. Cross St. Cross
in the Fifties 'Restorations' in Winchester A kind retreat
St. Swithun's church St. Cuthbert's, Barchester The Russian
gun Winter around Winchester Taverns, ... 80



CONTENTS ix

PAGE

3. Winchester in Fiction. ' Wintoncester ' Esmond meets his ' dear
mistress ' in Winchester Cathedral Esmond spends New Year's
Eve at Winchester Cock-fighting ' The Black Swan' 'Old
Bob' 'Whipping us up Parnassus' Example is better than
precept, ........ 107



PART II
THE CATHEDRAL

' That most beautiful cathedral in Europe' WARD BEECHER.

i. The Venerable Pile. 'A giant massy pile' 'The cathedrale chirch '
' Grand and solemn' ' The vast and venerable pile' The Close
'The grey cathedral' 'The grey, fortress-like cathedral'
Seen from the King's House The temple The sense of awe
The venerable pile 'A fatherly and ancient sovereign' Win-
chester and Salisbury Cathedrals compared, . . .115

2. St. Swithun. The city of the saints Seynt Swithun 'Twice
twenty days' St. Swithun the rainy St. Swithun mends the
eggs Wentane urbisque decorem The humble saint, . . 123

3. Founders' Tombs. ' That most beautiful Cathedral in Europe'
' Praesul praegratus ' ' Largiis erat dapifer ' At the tomb of
Wykeham, . . . . . . .130

4. Cathedral Music. Winchester music in the eleventh century

' The magic soother,' . . . . . 133

5. Some Visitors, etc. John Evelyn A visit (1738) The ' smugness '
of the cathedral John Wesley Fanny Burney Emerson
Greville A Dean A minor Canon The pepper-box A viru-
lent preacher, . . . . . . 135



x IN PRAISE OF WINCHESTER

BOOK II

THE COLLEGE

' Coneinamus, O Soda Its I '
SCHOOL DAYS AND SCHOOL WAYS

PACK

I . The Genius Loci. Quidsilemus ' Learning's best beloved home '
'That loveliness of thine ' ' Poore scholers ' Five centuries at
Winchester The Wykehamist's Mecca 'O stately mother'
Reserve and reticence Fifty years ago A tribute from the poet
Whitehead A dedication, . . . . . 145

2. College Constitution. Zte Collegia Numbers in College Mysteri-
ous meaning in the numbers Firt peal School Unruly
Fellows Three absolute rulers The old order changeth, . 154

3. Commoners. A founder of old Commoners The debt of Com-
moners to Wykeham The supposed adventures of a gentleman
Commoner in the eighteenth century The real adventures of a
gentleman Commoner in the eighteenth century Lord Elcho at
Winchester, . . . . . . .159

4. The Making of Men. ' The blubb'ring youth ' The coming of the
Posers The arrival of a ' candlestick ' The ordeal The making
of a man To a candidate for elections' Stuckling,' . . 170

5. Bnchanted Years. 'That was to live' The College Junior

Schooldays Jane Austen's humour, .... 177

6. Chapel. Second peal Evening chapel 'Their brief and winged
prayer" The Jesse Window Winchester College chapel On
being late for chapel, . . . . . .182

7. Night in College. In Chamber Court The hour of prayer A

brave example Night in 'chambers,' . . . .187

8. 'Hllli.' Juga viridantia' Morning Hills' 'Evening Hills,' . 190

9. Bathing in Itchen. Bathing and Poaching Drowned in ' Pot '

' Milkhole ' and ' Pot ' The junior's christening, , . ., 195

10. Domum. A legend of Domum Cotuinamtts, sodaks! Ad
meos 'The strain of joy and liberty' Domum night Honour-
ing Saint Mary of Winton Reminiscences of a Domum Ball
To hear Dulce Domum sung, ..... 199



CONTENTS xi

PACK

ii. Games. Winchester v. Eton A win for Winchester Sixes A
Health to Houses Six Fifteens Walt Whitman watches
Fifteens The sprite of Winton football' Pruff Ridding,' . 208

12. Fagging and Flogging. To the 'Fag' ' Fagging 'Fagging
defended Ode to a Ground Ash Flogging at Winchester 'A
mere form ' Vtneris lux sanguinoknta ' Birch in thine aveng-
ing hand,' . . . . . . .215

13. 'Noctes Shaksperianae.' Prologue to Otway's Monimia To
Venice Preserved A Shakspeare Society A tale of 'John
Des.' Prologue to Macbeth F. R. Benson and his 'strolling
players' College Tow- Row, . ., . . , 220

14. Town v. Gown. A great riot A formidable thing A foolish riot

Town v. Gown, c. 1800, . . . . . 227

15. Royalties and Medals. George m.'s visit An epigram To the

Prince of Wales (1797), .... . . 230

MANNERS AND MEN

I. Tne Founder. Pater Collegii'Thy Colleges stand fast' The
name of Wykeham Founder's Day ' A bishop great '
Manners makyth man The glories of Wykeham An invocation
' Winton's brooding wing ' A boisterous song, . . 232

2. The Second Founder. A triumphant progress ' Patient Con-
tender for the True and Just ' ' The Peg ' ' The Peg ' in
fiction ' Must thou go ? ' ..... 240

3. A Warden and some Headmasters. 'Tupto' William Ives
Dr. Joseph Warton A defence of Dr. Warton On the death
of Dr. Warton Gabell and ' Gaffer,' . . . .244

4. Some Famous Wykehamists. Wykeham's sons Public schools
vindicated Collins Collins at Winchester ' Poor dear
Collins' 'A man too soon' Sydney Smith Sydney Smith's
mother Thomas Arnold 'Poet Arnold' A diligent student
Goddard and Arnold Dean Hook at Winchester William
Page Wood, Lord Hatherley Roundell Palmer, first Earl of
Selborne Anthony Trollope Matthew Arnold Archbishop
Whately and Wykehamists E. D. A. M., . . . 250

5. ' That Rascal Tom.' ' That rascal Tom ''A son of the Muses'

On the death of Thomas Warton, .... 266

6. Varieties. The Trusty Servant 'This emblematic figure well
survey' A dialogue The twin substitute A 'varying' Im-
liiatura morte peremptus Tr^ttire Mother Gumbrell ' Damme
Hopkins' 'Octo' Boiled beef ' Speedyman' The vagaries
of time, ........ 267



arii IN PRAISE OF WINCHESTER

AVE ATQOE VALE

PAGB

' Farewel ' On leaving Looking backward Passing out Matri
WUcamicat Adream of Winchester days Nos duUia linquimus
arva The wail of an old Wykehamist Ave atque vale A true
good-bye Domum night Vale, Domum night, 1907 Ad
Arnicas To every Wykehamist, ..... 276

INDEX, ......... 289



NOTE

I HAVE much pleasure in acknowledging my indebtedness to several
authors and publishers for their kindness in allowing me to use
copyright matter in this volume. Among others, I have especially
to thank the following: Mrs. William Allingham and Messrs.
Longmans, Green, and Co. for passages from William Allingham's
Varieties in Prose ; Mr. F. Bumpus and Mr. T. Werner Laurie for
a passage from The Cathedrals of England and Wales ; the Hon.
Evan Charteris for passages from Lord Elcho's Affairs in Scotland
(David Douglas); Sir A. Conan Doyle for a passage from 'The Copper
Beeches ' in The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes (George Newnes) ;
Mr. R. C. K. Ensor for two verses from his poem ' At School ' ;
Mr. Arundell Esdaile for his poem 'The Breaker of the Dane';
Mr. Griffyth Fairfax and Messrs. Smith, Elder and Co. for Mr. Fair-
fax's poem ' Winchester ' ; Mr. W. H. Jacob for a passage from his
paper on ' The Westgate of Winchester ' ; Mr. E. H. Lacon Watson
for passages from Christopher Deane (John Murray), and Verses
(A. D. Innes and Co.) ; Mr. C. D. Locock and the St. Catherine's
Press for a passage from Mr. Locock's ' Ballade of Red Tape ' ; the
Rev. W. Moore for passages from his poem Venta (David Nutt);
Mr. Montagu J. Rendall, Headmaster of Winchester College, for
his poems ' College Tow Row, 1907,' ' E.D.A.M.,' and 'Ad Amicos ';
Lady Laura Ridding and Mr. Edward Arnold for passages from
George Ridding, Schoolmaster and Bishop ; Mr. R. W. Seton-
Watson for three poems from Scotland for Ever (David Douglas);
Mrs, Wood Stephens and Messrs. Macmillan and Co. for passages
from Dean Wood Stephens's Life of Dean Hook, and Memoir of
Lord Hatherley; Mrs. T. A. Trollope and Messrs. Macmillan
and Co. for passages from T. A. Trollope's What I Remember.

Also I have to thank Messrs. George Allen and Co. for passages
from Memorials of Old Hampshire (Bemrose and Son); Mr. Edward
Arnold for passages from a poem by Mr. E. D. A. Morsehead in
Winchester College, 1399-1899; Messrs. A. and C. Black for



xiv IN PRAISE OF WINCHESTER

passages from Wessex by Clive Holland, and Winchester by the
Rev. Telford Varley; Messrs. William Blackwood and Son for
passages from Anthony Trollope's Autobiography; Messrs. Chatto
and Windus for a passage from Mr. A. C. Ewald's Life and Times
of Prince Charles Stuart ; Messrs. Longmans, Green and Co. for
passages from Dean Kitchin's Winchester (Historic Towns Series) ;
Messrs. Macmillan and Co. for a passage from Mr. Thomas
Hardy's Tess of the D' Urbervilles ; Mr. Elkin Mathews for verses
from ' Winchester ' by Lionel Johnson in Ireland and Other Poems ;
Messrs. Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner and Co. for passages from
' Evening Hills ' in the Rev. W. Moore's New Poems ; Messrs.
Isaac Pitman and Sons for passages from Canon Benham's
'Winchester Cathedral' in Our Old Minsters (Isbister and Co.);
Messrs. P. and G. Wells for full permission to quote from The
Wykehamist, and for passages from A. R. Bramston and A. C.
Leroy's A City of Memories, and for poems from J. L. Crommelin-
Brown's Poems and Parodies, and A. P. Herbert's Poor Poems and
Rotten Rhymes.

Further, I have to thank the Editors of the Daily Graphic, the
Daily News, the Illustrated London News, and the Victoria County
History for passages from articles in their publications.

I sincerely trust that in this list I have not, inadvertently, left
any kindness unrecognised.

A. A. L.



BOOK I

PART I
A ROYAL CITY



ECHOES OF HISTORY

i. MEMORIES

O Venta ! Caer Gwent I great and glad Venta

Wast thou, ere Saxon yeoman,
Ere nobler Normandy's mailed bowman,
Saw thee : Apollo had
His temple bright
Of song and light,
Here, when the world was Roman.

And wert thou Camelot ? Wert thou
That shrine of all things knightly ?
Through the dark shrouding mists, how brightly
Those glories flash forth now !
High chivalry,
Fair courtesy,
Enriching Winton rightly.

Surely the magic of the Celt,

White City, doth not fail thee
Whatever change and chance assail thee,
Still is that spirit felt :
That ancient grace
Still haunts thy face ;
And long may it avail thee.



IN PRAISE OF WINCHESTER

Where reigned Apollo, Wykeham trod,

Child of a Saxon peasant :
Surely, Apollo still was present,
The old world's goodliest god :
Light's king, and songs,
His reign prolongs,
Throned in a place so pleasant.

On this trenched hill, new come from sea,

The robber Danes have clustered ;
On yonder hill, have Roundheads mustered,
Oliver's Battery :

Oh ! blade and ball,
And crossbow, all
Down lichen vale have blustered !



Lionel Johnson.

1 Winchester,' in Ireland and other Poems.
Elkin Matthews, 1897.



A City of
Memories



IT is no small thing to live in a city of memories where, not
here and there, but at every turn, the past is brought before us.
. . . Non nobis nati, not for ourselves are we born, and Win-
chester, of all the cities in England, owes its greatest debt of
gratitude to the past.

A. R. Bramston and A. C. Leroy.

A City of Memories.

P. and G. Wells, Winchester, 1893.



' Serene old
age'



To have been the capital of Wessex, to have welcomed in
her early days the arrival of every prince and prelate of great
name, for a while to have been the chief city of England, the
home of the great Alfred, the refuge of letters, the mother of
English public-school life these are the titles on which the city
rests her high renown, and these the memories amidst which she



OUR ROYAL TOWN 5

lives. Her ancient buildings, her many customs and usages of
the past, her tranquil beauty and pleasant neighbourhood, give
to the venerable city a right to the undying affection of all whose
lot has fallen to them in such pleasant places. It is not in death,
but in the beautiful tranquillity of serene old age, that Winchester
reposes in her sweet green valley low down amidst the swelling
hills that compass her about. No English city has a nobler record
in the past, or a life more peaceful in our rushing, hasteful age.

Dean Kitchin's Winchester (Hist. Towns Series).
Longmans, Green and Co.

HERE as the white road winds from off the down, our Royal

We greet thee first, erewhile our royal town !

Roman and Celt of old long dwelt in thee,

Till Saxon Cerdic's warriors from the sea

Swept like a tempest o'er the land, and drave

The Britons to the distant western wave,

And this clear stream ran red with Celtic gore,

And yon hill shouted with the din of war.

Now ruby roofs o'erstud the emerald lands,

And grey with age the giant Minster stands,

And the fair chapel by the city wall,

And Waltheof's scarped hill, o'ertopping all.

Down this same road the holy prelate passed,
Ere Eastern morn had crowned the Lenten fast ;
Journeying from Waltham, o'er the hills, to found
His stately college, where the grassy ground
Scarce held her own amid the wildering maze
Of chalky Itchen's myriad water-ways.

Once more, when six long years of toil had flown,
And hammer spake no more to wood and stone,
Nor vaulted roof stood o'er the new-built shrine,
Then rode our Founder by this self-same way.



6 IN PRAISE OF WINCHESTER

To bless his college on her natal day.
Yet once again he passed. Ah 1 sad and slow,
His scholars saw the dark procession go !
Winding their way beneath their new-built home,
Passing St. Swithin's Arch, they chanting come
To the great Minster's forest of wrought stone,
Where for all time the grave must keep her own.
There in the honoured shrine he ever lies,
Where all around the ghostly pillars rise,
And shines the painted clerestory aglow
With moonlight streaming to the floor below,
Then kindle all the glimmering stones, and shed
A dim mysterious glory round his head.

R. A. Johnson.

' The Birthday of Winchester College,'
in the Wykehamist, July 1893.

Part times ' NOWHERE in England do the stones speak more eloquently of
past times than in Winchester, the city of kings and of priests ;
the city where religion flourished, and ecclesiastics fought with
greater warmth than in any other of England's fair cities.
Philistines there have been in the shape of Puritan soldiers who
destroyed carving and effigies ; way wardens who mended the
roads with stones taken from the massive city gates ; modern
builders who run up cheap red brick tenements on the site of
seventeenth-century houses or of time-honoured city walls, and
all these have between them left England's first capital with but
a small proportion of its ancient glory.

And yet though the bishop's castle and the king's castle no
longer tower over the surrounding houses, though the many
convents and churches remain only in traditional sites even
with what is left we can, helped by history and imagination, build
up the past again, still hear the discord between king and bishop,

bishop and prior. . . .

A. R. Bramston and A. C. Leroy.

A City of Memories.

P. and G. Wells, Winchester, 1893.



A QUIET CITY ;

WHO suffereth not low care still to enfold
His thought in narrow circle of to-day,
But liveth to all time, will love to stray,
WINTON, among thy stately piles of old,
And read the tale, in moving language told
By Druid and by Roman stone, and grey
Monument of the Saxon's nobler sway,
How fraught with wondrous change for thee hath rolled
The stream of ages. . . . Christopher Wood.

Reminiscences of Winchester, c. 1860.

A HALO of antiquity and romance surrounds the quiet city of the A Quiet city
Itchen. . . . Winchester has played a most important part in
the history of England. Centuries ago Rome's imperial legion-
aries drove the light-armed Britons before them through its
streets, and planted here one of their impregnable ' castra '
which dominated the surrounding country. A monk of Venta's
cathedral departed hence to assume the imperial purple, 1 and to
sway the sceptre which once held the world in awe. At the union
of the Heptarchy, Winchester became the capital of England,
holding that proud position henceforward for five hundred years,
and here the first ' King of all England ' was crowned. From
Winchester issued the Royal Edict which abolished all distinc-
tions of nationalities in the kingdom, and here the people of
England were first called ' English.' The grey cathedral has
looked down on a long line of Saxon kings ending with Edward
the Confessor, who within its walls received their crowns from
the hands of the archbishops of the realm, and here lie the ashes
of many of these kings. And although during the reign of the
Norman and Plantagenet monarchs Winchester still held her
own as a place of the greatest importance the castle-palace
being the habitual residence of the monarch of England
her glory waned before the growing power of London, and

eventually she was entirely superseded by the latter city.

From Winchester College Five Hundredth Anniversary, 1893.

1 The monk Constans.



8 IN PRAISE OF WINCHESTER

me oid SEE, where below the Old White City lies,

Calm, not decrepit, for her thousand years :

Lightly they lie, as this morn's radiance,


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