A. Audrey (Amy Audrey) Locke.

In praise of Winchester; an anthology in prose and verse online

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town ;

Beneath their pointed cannon all Itchen's valley lay,
St. Catherine's breezy side, and the woodlands far away,
The huge Cathedral sleeping in venerable gloom,
The modest College tower, and the bedesman's Norman home.
They spoiled the graves of valiant men, warrior and saint and

sage,
But at the grave of Wykeham, good angels quenched their rage.

Good angels still were there, when the base-hearted son
Of Charles, the royal martyr, his course of shame did run ;
Then in those cloisters holy, Ken strengthened with deeper

prayer
His own and his dear scholars' souls to what pure souls should

dare ;

Bold to rebuke enthroned sin with calm undazzled faith,
Whether amid the pomp of courts, or on the bed of death ;
Firm against kingly terrors in his free country's cause,
Faithful to God's anointed against a world's applause.

Since then, what wars and tumults, what change has Europe seen !
But never since in Itchen's Vale has war or tumult been ;
God's mercies have been with us, His favour still has blest
The memories sweet and glorious deeds of the good men at rest ;



40 IN PRAISE OF WINCHESTER

The many prayers, the daily praise, the nurture in the Word,
Have not in vain ascended up before the gracious Lord.
Nations and thrones and reverend laws have melted like a dream ;
Yet Wykeham's works are green and fresh beside the crystal
stream.

Four hundred years and fifty their rolling course have sped,
Since the first serge-clad scholar to Wykeham's feet was led ;
And still his seventy faithful boys, in these presumptuous days,
Learn the old truths, speak the old words, tread in the ancient

ways:

Still for their daily orisons resounds the matin chime ;
Still linked in bands of brotherhood St. Catherine's steep they

climb :

Still to their Sabbath worship they troop by Wykeham's tomb,
Still in the summer twilight sing their sweet song of home.

Verses by Roundell Palmer (first Earl Selbourne).



4. TUDORS AND STUARTS

' What shall we do for a gay young Spaniard ?

What shall we do for a gay young Spaniard?

Wooing a wife from England.'

[Winchester Pageant.]

me Spanish ON the 23rd (July) he (Philip of Spain) left Hampton for Win-
Marriage Chester, accompanied by many marquises, dukes, earls, and other
lords and gentlemen, besides those from Spain, having with him
upwards of a thousand horse. He dismounted at the cathedral,
where he was received by six bishops, and next day he went to
visit the Queen, who came to meet him at the large hall. On the
25th the espousal was celebrated with great pomp and rejoicing
in the said church, with marvellous signs of great joy and satis-
faction on the part of all the spectators ; and during this cere-
mony the marriage articles were confirmed and sworn to by the
Prince, and the marriage was to be consummated that night.



GJOOD QUEEN BESS 41

There were present at the espousal the ambassadors from the
Emperor, from the Kings of the Romans and Bohemia, from
your Serenity, from Savoy, Florence, and Ferrara, and many
agents of sovereign princes. The proclamation was entitled
thus : Philip and Mary, by the grace of God, King and Queen of
England, France, Naples, Jerusalem, Ireland, Defender of the
Faith, Prince of Spain, Archduke of Austria, etc.

Cal. S. P. Venetian, vol. v. No. 923.

A WHILOM Mayor of Winchester was fortunate enough to Good Queen
have attained that position when Queen Elizabeth was visiting BesB
the city. 1 The Mayor was more celebrated for his virtues than
for his grammar. ' Mr. Mayor,' said the Queen, ' yours is a very
ancient city.' ' It has a-been, your Majesty, it has a-been,'
replied the local dignitary. Local Tradition.

' Of the favorers and mislikers of the present estate of religion.'
AND because the citie of Winchestre is moste noted in hamp- ' Favorerg of
shiere either for good example or evill (all that bear aucthoritie SU p erBt j C i on >
there except one or two beinge addicte to thold supersticion and
earnest fautores thereof), It should be well donne to associate
for the commission in the sayde citye the Busshopp of Winton,
Sir Henrye Seamour, William Uvedall, henrye Wallopp, John
ffoster, and George Acworthy, the busshopps chauncelour, and
for hedd officers there . . . non be appoynted unto nor continue
to exercise anie of the . . . offices or callinges but they whose
religion is approved, nor none likewise placed or displaced by one
or two, but by common consent [of] the benche at some generall
session, which will easelie drawe the common p[eople] to one good
conformitye when they in aucthoritie goe all one waye, or do the
not crosse or hinder the well doinges of another.

The Bishop of Winchester to the Privy Council,

1 3th November 1564.
Camden Miscellany (Camden Society), ix. 54-5.

1 Elizabeth visited Winchester in 1560, 1569, 1574, and 1586, and pos-
sibly also in 1591. See The Wykehamist, July 1912, pp. 30-1.



IN PRAISE OF WINCHESTER



Typical
expenses of

nixteenth-
century
Judges of
Assize at
Winchester



WESTERN CIRCUIT (AUTUMN), 1596
(i) Rewards for Presents at Winchester sent to the Judges on circuit.

Inprimis of Mr. Maior of Winton & his brethren,

one mutton, one veale . . . nil.

Of Mr. Norton, one bucke, the rewarde . v 8

Of my Lo. Bishopp of Winton, one bucke . v 8
Of Mr. Tichborne, two capons, iiij rabetts, and iiij

pewetts, the rewarde . . . xij d

Of Mr. Fashion, one freshe samon . . xij d

Of Mr. Kirby, one freshe samon and vj puetts, the

rewarde . . . . . xij d

Of Sir Thomas Weste, one freshe samon and one

samon-peale .... xii d

Of Mr. Gifforde, one buck and six coople of

conyes, the rewarde . . v 8

Of Mr. Sheriff, 1 half a buck & one freshe samon nil.
From the Colledge of Winton, one mutton, the

rewarde . ... . . , vi d

Of the Lord Marques of Winchester, one bucke,

the rewarde . . . i v 8

Suma for p'sents at Winchester . . xxiiii 8 vj d

(ii) Private Charges of Judges.
Provision bought at Winchester :

Inp'mis three quarters of lambe . . iij 8 ij d

It. a rostinge-pigge .. . . . xviii d

It. for capers and olives . . . vi d

It. a strayner . . . . . vi d

It. two capons . . . . xxii d

It. a quarter of veale . . . . ij 8 iiij d

It. for suett ..... iiij d

It. a neates foote & tripes . . . vi d

It. for two pulletts and viij chickings . . iij 8 x d

1 Robert Oxenbridge, Esq., of Hurstborne.



JUDGES ON CIRCUIT 43

It. for bread & flower, viz. iiij bushels & three

pecks ..... xxvj 8 vj d
It. five barrells & one firkyn of beere, at v 8 the

barrell ..... xxvij 8 vj d

It. wood & coles . . . . xj 8

It. butter, tenne pounds . . . iij 8 iiij d

It. for egges . . . . . xij d

It. for iiij chickings .... xx d

It. salt & candles . . . . xx d

It. peases . . . . . ii 8 vj a

It. a paire of calves feete . . . ij d

It. for bacon . . . . . vj d

It. yo r LL. chambers . . . . xx 8

It. to the butler . . . . ij 8 vi d

It. to the helpes in the kitchen . . iij 8 vj d

It. to the turnespit . . . . xij d

It. to the porter . . . t . ii 8

It. to M r White's man that waited . . xij d

It. the grocer's bill . . . . vj s

It. for wyne . . . . vij 8

Suma totalis of joynt chardges at Wynchester . vij 1 xvij 8 x d

Medietatis inde . , .- . . iij 1 xviij 8 xi d

Accounts of Thomas Walmysley, one of the Judges of the
Court of Common Pleas, on his riding the Western

Circuit with Edward Fenner, one of the Judges of the
Queen's Bench (Camden Miscellany, vol. iv.).



September 17, 1603.

WE are now removing shortlie to Winchester, where we shall Unwelcome
staie till we have also infected that place, as we have donne all 8
others where we have come. It is intended to give audience
there to the Spanishe Amb r , who is gonne before w th other
Amb rs to lodge at Southampton.

Sir Thomas Edmonds to the Earl of Shrewsbury from Woodstock.
Nichols' Progresses of James I., i. 271.



44 IN PRAISE OF WINCHESTER

September , 1603.

of th ... OUR Treaty is not begonn, for y* Sp. Emb. hath yet not
kad ki s au dj ence by reason y l y 6 Plague fell in his howse. On
Sonday he comes to receave it at Wynchester, where the K.
meanes to ly as long as y 6 Plague can escape us, 1 which drives us
and down so rownd as I think we shall come to York. God bless
the King ; for once a week one or other dyes in our Tentes.

Sir Robert Cecil to the Earl of Shrewsbury from Woodstock.
Nichols' Progresses of James I., i. 272.

Junes L at THE King arrived at Winchester on the 20th of September
[1603] ; and with the Queen (who went there two days before
him) was received by the Mayor and Corporation with great
solemnity ; and their Majesties were graciously pleased to accept
two large silver cups, accompanied by the following speech from
Sir John Moore, Recorder of that City :

' If my tongue, the natural messenger off the heart and
mynde, could soe lively expresse, most high & mighty Prince,
& our most deere & dread Soveraigne, the exceeding joy and
gladness of this your Highness ancient Citty of Winchester as
they are sensably conceived within us all ; then needed I not,
though the meanest off your Majestie's subjects, fearr to undergo
the office of my place, & be the mouth of this politique body, a
body consisting of many bodies, & yet relying onely upon one
body, your sacred person, by whose happy entrance into this
famous island, decreed & ordeyned by the God of Heaven, we
finde & acknowledge ourselves possessours off our present felicity.
. . . And let me presume, my dread Sovereigne, heare before
your Majestie's feete, in the name & behalf e off all these grave
Majestrates and Citizens off your Highnesse's auncient & in times
past most famous City of Winchester, being sometimes the seate
of your Majestie's Progenitors, the place off their Parliaments
& sepulchers, the place of the Minte and Staple, whose now

1 James remained at Winchester from September 20 to October 4, and
was there again in November.



SIR WALTER RALEGH 45

decayed walls and ruynous buildings presenting to your Majestie's
view a desolation, are again re-edified with the joy & comfort of
your Majestie's presence and access to this place ; lett me, I say,
presume to yield & give up unto your Highness all that we enjoy
& possess under your Majestie & by your gracious permission,
hoping that your Highness, off your clemency & goodness, will
again restore unto us all our ancient liberties heretofore granted
by your Highness' progenitors ratifyed & confirmed. . . . We
your Citizens off your Highness ancient City of Winchester, in
all obedient & dutyfull manner, & in all humbleness presume to
present this cupp, most humbly beseeching your Royall Majestie
to accept the faythfull hearts and good wills off your Highness
poore Citizens off this City. . . .'

Nichols' Progresses of James I., i. 274-6, quoting
Harl. MS. 852, p. 8.

IN the month of November [1603] the City of Winchester became The trial of
the scene of much public business of great notoriety ; and it was e

probably owing to the attachment of the High Sheriff (Sir
Benjamin Tichborne) to the King's person and government, and
the great interest which he was found to possess in the County,
that when the rifeness of the Plague in London rendered it im-
possible to hold the Court of Justice there, his Majesty removed
them to Winchester. He had previously sent orders to the
Wardens, Fellows, and Students of the College to quit their
respective apartments and offices, for a certain time, in order to
make room for the judges and other Public officers who were
appointed to lodge there and he had provided the Episcopal
Palace of Wolvesey for holding certain Courts therein.

By the middle of the month Winchester was crowded, not only
with the Crown Officers, but also with the Peers of the Realm,
and their several attendants ; for now matters of the utmost
importance were to be discussed, which equally required the
attendance of the latter as of the former. This was no other
than the trial of the pretended Conspirators, for what was called



46 IN PRAISE OF WINCHESTER

Sir Walter Raleigh's Conspiracy ; in which certain Noblemen,
who, of course, were to be tried by their Peers were implicated, no
less than persons of almost every other quality and description.

Nichols' Progresses of James I.



The scene of WHILST these transactions were carrying on, the eyes of the whole
kingdom were directed towards Winchester, where the conflux
of great personages, and the expenditure that this must have
occasioned, exhibited some faint image of its former consequence.

Milner, History of Winchester.



The accused IT is sayd that S r W. Raleighe's arraynme't held from eight in
the morninge till seven at night. That he caryed hym self both
so temperate in all his answeres, and answered so wisely & readily
to all objections, as it wrought both admiration in y 6 hearers for
his good p te , and pitye towardes his pson.

Michael Hickes to the Earl of Shrewsbury.
Nichols' Progresses of James I.



Winchester WINCHESTER is a very famous & ancient citty, it was the Royall
seat f ^ e West Saxon Kings ; it had 6 houses in it for coining
& minting mony in the raigne of King Athelstane ; & long since
that all the publike Records & Evidences of the whole kingdom
of England were kept there. This Citie hath been twice fired by
sudden mis-fortunes ; and in King Stephens raigne it was sack'd
and spoil'd by rude soldiers that belong'd to the King, & Mawd
the Empresse factions ; but after it was much enrich 'd by the
royall favour of King Edward the 3, who caused a mart or staple
of Wooll & Cloth to be kept there, but since (as times hath
altred) this worthy city hath suffred many changes, yet still
with Fame and Reputation she beares up her head.

John Taylor, the Water-poet.
A Catalogue of Taverncs in ten Shires, 1636.



THE CIVIL WAR 47

THY reign, O Charles ! my Muse reluctant sings During the

And treats of rights of people, and of Kings ;

While by degrees the din extends afar

Of civic slaughter, and intestine war,

Thy walls, O Venta, feel th' internal rage,

The savage fury of this blinded age ;

Rous'd by the sparks of Freedom's sacred flame,

To aid in arms a British senate's fame,

Thy Castle's champion, Waller, calls to arms,

And eager quits retirement's wonted charms,

By zealous fury 'gainst his Monarch steel'd,

Erects his patriot standard in the field,

In vain the long-try'd Castle's sturdy rock

Oppos'd the chance of war, and brav'd the shock

Of foes, contending to direct the helm,

And wield the sceptre of the shaken realm ;

First round the walls the Royal leader mann'd

Each stubborn fortress with his trusty band,

High o'er the tow'r th' inviting standard wav'd,

And each attack of rebel fury brav'd,

But brav'd in vain ; the savage waste of war

Levell'd its turrets, left its ramparts bare,

And its first master gave the last destructive stroke.

John Wooll.

**~ The King's House at Winchester, 1793.



WINCHESTER, 6th October 1645.
I CAME to Winchester on the Lord's day the 28th of September. Cromwell

. After some dispute with the Governor, we entered the besie & es

WincLester
Town. I summoned the Castle ,- was denied ; whereupon we

fell to prepare batteries, which we could not perfect (some of
our guns being out of order) until Friday following. Our battery
was six guns ; which being finished, after firing one round, I sent



48 IN PRAISE OF WINCHESTER

in a second summons for a treaty ; which they refused. Where-
upon we went on with our work, and made a breach in the wall
near the Black Tower ; which after about 200 shot, we thought
stormable ; and purposed on Monday morning to attempt it.
On Sunday night about ten of the clock, the Governor beat a
parley, desiring to treat. I agreed unto it and sent Colonel
Hammond and Major Harrison in to him, who agreed upon these
enclosed Articles.

Sir, this is the addition of another mercy. You see God is
not weary in doing you good. . . . His goodness in this is much
to be acknowledged : for the Castle was well manned with Six-
hundred-and-eighty horse and foot, there being near Two-
hundred gentlemen, officers, and their servants ; well victualled,
with fifteen hundred-weight of cheese, very great store of wheat
and beer ; near twenty barrels of powder, seven pieces of cannon ;
the works were exceeding good and strong. It 's very likely it
would have cost much blood to have gained it by storm. We

have not lost twelve men. . . .

Carlyle, Oliver Cromwell's Letters.

The Restora- Ax Winchester, the mayor and aldermen, in their scarlet gowns,
met at the market cross, and went down to the cathedral, where
they heard a very loyal and eloquent sermon from Mr. Complin,
minister of Avington, near Winchester. Marching thence into
the High Street the mayor with the rest of the corporation
ascended a scaffold, covered with a red cloth, and there solemnly
proclaimed King Charles. The which ended, the musquetteers
gave a gallant volley ; then, silence being commanded, the
remaining part of the cathedral singing-men, whereof Mr. Burt,
a gentleman of eighty years of age, was one, with the master of
the choirister and other musical gentlemen, sung a solemn
anthem, in a room built on purpose somewhat above the mayor's
scaffold, the words, ' O Lord, make thy servant Charles our
gracious King, to rejoice in thy strength,' etc.

Quoted in The Winchester Guide, 1796.



CHARLES THE SECOND 49

September 16, 1683.

THIS [an accidental fire at Newmarket] made the king more Charles n.'s
earnest to render Winchester the seat of his autumnal field- Palace
diversions for the future, designing a palace there, where the
ancient castle stood ; infinitely preferable to Newmarket for
prospects, air, pleasure and provisions. The surveyor has already
begun the foundation for a palace, estimated to cost 35,000,
and his Majesty is purchasing ground about it to make a park, etc.

Evelyn's Diary.

FROM the troubles of the state, and the noise of the Town, Charles ii.'s
From being as busy as great, visit

From the tedious Pomp that attends on a Throne,
To Quiet and Us you retreat.

Here you spend those soft hours in Princely delight

Which alone do the recompense bring
For the business and cares which wait on the Great,

For being so wise, so gracious a king.

Thus while the World was innocent and new,

Gods, kind and bountiful, like you,
Tir'd with the long Fatigue of Majesty,

Oft forsook their Thrones on high.

And to some humble Cell vouchsaf 'd to go,

And by their sweet Retreat below,
Bless'd both themselves and Mortals too.

Chorus

Welcome, great Sir, with all the joy

That 's to your sacred presence due ;
With all the Mirth which we enjoy,

That mirth which we derive from you.
D



50 IN PRAISE OF WINCHESTER

Blest by your presence everything

Does with new Vigour now appear.
Another fresh and blooming spring

Seems to recall the aged Year.
The happy Hours, which hasten hither,

Creep hence unwillingly and slow.
Time doubting stands, and knows not whether

Nature to obey or You,
Yet might it your acceptance find,

Each minute should for ever stay :
But see ! the Crowds which press behind

Force the foremost Hours away.
Ceres for you would have reserv'd her store,
But for such greatness thought the sight too poor :
And not unjustly fear'd she might become,
By being too officious, troublesome.
And the God of our Art bids us come to salute you,
And begs you would kindly accept of our Duty :
But refus'd to assist us with his Divine Fires,
How should they want a God whom Your Presence inspires.



Chorus

Therefore we freely come to praise

You, the Author of our Joys

To own our happiness, and grow

Much more happy by doing so.

For Angels themselves, who are perfect in joys,

No more happiness know than this,

To see and adore, to love and to praise

The fountain of their bliss.

Thomas Fletcher. 1
A Song to His Majesty at Winton, 1684.

1 See below, p. 53, note.



PRESUMPTUOUS HOPES 51

ON that same site, where once the castle stood, The new

With many a Gothic arch and turret proud,

How chang'd the scene, that meets the exile's eye !

How proud the new creation seems to rise !

Thy hand, O Wren ! portrays the vast design,

And its stupendous beauties all are thine.

Yet, ah ! in vain th' ingenious Master plies
His happiest skill, and each glad labour tries ;
In vain the eager sculptor boasts his art,
And proud mechanicks, ardent, take a part
To swell the triumphs of the royal dome,
Above the patterns of immortal Rome,
Death, unrelenting, breaks th' illusive spell,
And drags the Monarch to an humbler cell.

John Wooll.
The King's House, etc., 1793.



THE monarch occupied with his splendid visions of fountains, Charles n.

and
Ken



statues, and all the pomps of architectural decoration, seemed to &nd ThomaE



forget the lesson is, alas ! too seldom remembered how soon
the short-lived projectors of ' the gorgeous palaces ' may be
gathered to the dust on which they stand. Two magnificent
structures, crowning the valley of the Itchen, yet remain the
Cathedral and the College ; and within a few years here stood the
wreck of this royal work ; the first venerable pile, from age to age,
call succeeding generations to the contemplation of far more
enduring scenes the other is associated from age to age with
ideas of early piety and learning the site and fragments of the
last remain to mock at human vanity, and the presumptuous
hopes of earth. Looking forward to length of days the thought-
less monarch now more frequently visited Winchester for oblivion
of public cares and often with different harlot-duchesses. It will
be anticipated that I am about to relate the well-known anecdote
of a beautiful courtesan, in humbler station, but no less a favoured






52 IN PRAISE OF WINCHESTER

companion of his libertine hours. Of the truth of this story there
can be no doubt, for it is related by Hawkins, and we know that
Hawkins recorded nothing of the life of Ken except what he
received from the mouth of Ken himself, in his last days. The
kindness which the King had ever shown to this virtuous man
forms one of the best traits in his character. His own lodgings
were mostly at the Deanery during his stay at Winchester. A
lodging at the adjoining prebendal residence of Ken was de-
. manded for the King's favourite of the hour. ' Not for his
kingdom ! ' was the virtuous reply.

The ' bowing ' Dean (Dr. Meggot), horrified at the outrage on
the principles of ' passive obedience,' was far more compliant.
There is a small attached room, 1 built of brick at the end of the
large drawing-room in the Deanery, from tradition called ' Nell
Gwyn,' where it is supposed she lodged whilst the King was at the
Deanery.

When many applications [for bishopric of Bath and Wells] the
services of the Dean, Canon of Windsor, etc., were put forth, the
King remarked, ' Odds fish ! who shall have Bath and Wells but
the little fellow who would not give " poor Nelly " a lodging ? '

Of this unexpected elevation, in the dedication of his hymns to
Hooper, Ken wrote :

' Among the herdsmen, I, a common swain,
Liv'd pleas'd with my low cottage on the plain ;
Till up, like Amos, on a sudden caught,
I to the pastoral chair was trembling brought'

W. L. Bowles.
Life of Ken, ii. 54, etc.

' Like some To show our joy were but to bid you go ;

Such farewells are to parting Tyrants due,
To base, dull men, and all who are unlike to you.
Yet can we grieve, and wish you always here ?
1 This brick appendage was taken down by Dean Reynell.



BISHOP KEN 53

Mere envy that, and no less madness were,

Than to wish our Friends, who with th' Immortal reign

Themselves Immortal, here on Earth again.

Yet you vouchsafe to bless us with your stay,

And slowly hence even to Glory fly :

But smiling thro' these peaceful Shades you glide,

Like some calm Ghost where all his Treasure 's hid.



When future times shall Wickham's offspring count,

Who did by steps the Seat of Honour mount,

Then, then shall you, and only you, be found,

Who reach'd a Mitre from so low a ground.

When others often pitch'd and stop'd for ease,

At one bold flight you gain'd the mighty Space ;

Thus all e'en the Uninteress'd admire

The glorious height you 've reached, and wish you high'r.

From a poem by Thomas Fletcher, 1 written in 1685, 'To
Thomas Ken, Lord Bishop of Bath and Wells, staying at
Win ton after his promotion.'



... OH ! if that day arrive, 'in one

And we, old friend, though bowed with age, survive,


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