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THE

Philosophy of History



BY



REV, A, SCHADE, PH. D.



BASED UPON THE WORKS OF

DR. R. ROCHOLL.



With rights obtained from the Author and Publisher of
the German Original.



1899.

A. SCHADE, Publisher.

1134-1138 Pearl St., Cleveland, 0.



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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1899, by

REV. A. SCHADE, PH. D.,
in the OflBce of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.



SYNOPTICAL INDEX.



Prospective Remarks.
BOOK FIRST: HISTORICS.

A— CO-EFFICIENT FACTORS OF HISTORY.
1. History and Natural Sciences. 2. History and Metaphysics.

3. Personal as distinguished from Natural life. 4. Man the Synthesis: Matter, Mind.
5. Philosophy of History in its relation to unsatisfactory interpretations of history.

B— CO-OPERATIVE MODE OF HI3T0RY.
I. Purpose and Goal of History.

2. Law of Development. 3. Law of Movement: Physical means. 4. Evolution of History; Mind interacts.

5. Plan of History.

BOOK SECOND: THE PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY.

SYLLABUS.
A— SUBSTRUCTURE OF, POLARITIES IN, HISTORY. First Circle of Nations: TURANIAN.
1. Celestial Scenery. 2. Terrestrial Scenery.

3. Prehistoric Man; Locality of his Origin 4. Original Man: Common Source of Language, Right,Religion.

S. A First Man; the Hieroglyph. 6. The Calamity and the Catastrophe. 7. Mythical Religion.

8. Ethnical Material classified. 9. Ethnical Mass differentiating. 10. Polar Tension, individualising.

11. Eastern Semi=circle: TURANIAN. 12. TURANO=MONGOLIAN WORLD: Western Semi=circle.

B— SECOND CIRCLE OF NATIONS: ARYANS.
!. Orient, South: HINDOOS, Transcendency, Incarnation. 2. Orient: North: PERSIANS.
3. Occident: GREEK, Immanency. 4. Occident: ROMANS, Apotheosis.

C— THIRD CIRCLE OF NATIONS: MEDITERRANEAN BASIN.
1. Ethnical Composition in Roman Crucible. 2. Theocratic State disintegrating.
3. CUSHITO=SEMITIC Nations. 4. The Community of the HEBREWS.

D— THE DIVIDE OF THE TIMES.

1. Intermediation postulated, historically: Synthesis.

2. Intermediation postulated, physically: Sacrifice.

3. Intermediation in its ethical and aesthetical effects: Resurrection.

E— THIRD CIRCLE OF NATIONS: POST=AUGUSTEAN PERIOD.

1. ROME and the Church. 2. Ecclesiastical Deformation: BYZANTINE STATE=CHURCH.

3. Church and TALMUD. 4. KORAN: Islam and the Church.

F— SECOND CIRCLE OF NATIONS: INDO=GERMANS. MEDIEVAL PERIOD.

1. German Characteristics: Karl the Great. 2. Principles developing European Civilisation.

3. Pope and Emperor. 4. Church^State: Lamaism.

Q-FIRST AND MOST PERIPHERAL CIRCLE OF NATIONS: AGE OF MISSIONS.
1. Turano'Mongolians as bearing upon European Civilisation.
2. The Horizon widening: Age of Discoveries.
3. Germanic North and the Reform. 4. The Counter=Reformation.

5. Absolutism and Enlightenment; Dissection of the Thought of Humanity.
6. Civilization rendered Trans-oceanic 7. Humanism in new distortions.

8. Cosmopolitan World=Theories^ System of European States.
9. Humanism philosophically conceived and sociologically applied.
10. Greek Catholicism and an Asiatic Renaissance: East°European Aryans.
11. Humanistic Thought corrupted. Result: Ethnical Chaos.
12. Consummation of Universal History.

BOOK THIRD: DILEMMAS OF HISTORICS.

SYLLABUS.

A-ENIGMATA OF HISTORICS.

1. Nature-bound and Mummified Peoples. 2. Paroxysms of National Life.

3. Undulations throughout International Life. 4. Hero=Worship. 5. The World's Government.

B— RESULTS OF HISTORY.
1. Progress under aspect of physico==technical acquirements.
2.1ntellectual advantages gained.
3. Progress in Aesthetics. 4. Advance in religio=ethical matters.
5. The World's Transition into the State of Unity, Freedom and Permanency.

CONCLUSION.
A Consistent System of a Philosophy of History is possible; the Defects of this notwithstanding.



CONTENTS.

Prospective Remarks. Place of Philos. of Hist. among sciences — Interpretation of facts not
without preconceptions — Method of investigation inductive, but also deductive; imagination
not to be despised— Naturalistic concept of historic advance — Application of hypotheses
legitimate, connecting inductive and deductive reasoning.

BOOK FIRST: HISTORICS.
I. A. Coefficients of, B. Co°operative Mode of History.
FIRST DIVISION. (I A) Relation of History as a Science to Kindred Sciences.
I. Ch. Relation of Historic to Natural Sciences.

3 I. Two worlds represented in human nature-Natural science disregards the spiritual com-

ponent — Hegelianism sublimates the data of reality— "Light of Asia"— Miss Evans' "Christ
Idea" — Anthropography. Tellurian contingencies effect human development, but not

beyond a certain limit.

7 2. Sidereal relations exist — "Zodiac" — Astral hypothesis — Automatic evolution — "Dyna-
mic" mechanism — Seven riddles of Dubois-Reymond— A philos. of hist, beyond the domain of
natural sciences, in realm of liberty.

II Ch. Relation of Phil, of Hist, to Metaphysics. (Ch. 5.)

9 3. Metaphysical misconceptions, false spirituality: "Occasionalism" — "Mechanic" view as
' to integral relations betw. mind and matter — Malebranche, Descartes, Leibnitz — Constructive prin-
ciple? "Motion" — Spencer refuted — Direction in motion indicates design, finality — Spencerian
naturalism in ethics: makes the spiritual "of no purpose."
10 4. Mechanical view of idealists criticised — Miracles — Denying matter the capability of be-
coming animated, makes the natural * 'of no purpose." Sin.

III Ch. Personal as Distinguished from Natural Life.

12 5. Life the constructive element of nature — Barth partakes of sidereal life — All natural is
confined, arrested life, even the human soul; to be delivered on conditions.

14 6. Evolution reaches its zenith in the human soul, then ceases— Man's task to redeem na-
tural life, which became arrested on his account — Personal spirit takes possession of the soul;
in this union they constitute the "mind" — Ethical cosmos immanent in the physical — History
deals with the world of personality and permanency, having the purpose in itself, whilst in
the world of transiency nothing, has a purpose per se — Nature is the world of ''material unity un-
der formal diversity," prone to detachment and "generalness"— History tends to conduct the
world to formal (essential) unity under material (personal) diversity."

15 7. Phenomena common to both worlds: physical analogies — Examples of such congruities —
Identity, reciprocity and authority of moral and natural law— Duty deducible alone from the uni-
fying process going on in personal life,Dorner — Phenomena of the purely spiritual world
are -without physical analogies — Grades of distinctness — Natural processes for ethical purposes.

16 8. Discrimination necessary concerning the analogies entailing all earthly relations —
Examples of terms promiscuously and mischievously used: culture, civih'sation, freedom,
liberty, intuition, instinct, Vernunft, Verstand, mind — Dual relationship of the spirit: only
one side involved in earthly conditions — Consciousness not subject to limits of space and time
— Spirit an entity per se — Dual form of existence, the axiom,which,if recognised, delineates the
biology of history.

20 9- Retrospect — Data of the genesis of higher grades in natural life,marked by miracles — ■
Stages of revelation— In the system of the "apparatus" (for the moral task) and in the method of
working it, the laws which condition all previous development remain in force in the higher
sphere. ,

IV Ch. Man the Synthesis of Matter and Mind.

22 10. Ethics combines the truths elaborated by physical sciences and metaphysics, adding
those also of history — Philology adduces the utterances of both worlds — Nature is man potential
— Human soul the epitome of the universe — Spirit an ontogenic entity sui generis :Herbart. Lan-
guage and nationalities, Schelling, Humboldt — Picture -language, Brugsch. As posterior to maturi-
ty of judgment language is inexplicable — The re -flection, re-cognition of the thought reflect-
ing from things; Herbart — I^anguage not the result of rational reflection; is the spiritual func-
tion of the person in its entirety — Communication with the "world of formal unity." — "Dead'*
languages are immortal — Birth of language: declaration of dominion over nature — I^anguage
akin to freedom of the will.

26 II. Spiritual freedom as against natural necessity — Genesis of the feeling of value:
Conscience the plenipotentiary of the sovereign Absolute Good; the guardian of free-
dom and personal dignity — Only in this sphere freedom of the will can prosper — Kinship
betw. language and conscience — Necessity and love— Kinship of the spiritual entities — Miscre-
ant use of physical analogies — Unison betw. necessity of the Good with freedom and with love
represented in love's emblem: Sacrifice. ,

g^ 12. Recapitulation — M. Mueller on dual nature of language —Import of philology upon
knowledge of "human nature"— Sum and substance of induction: cohesion, continuity and unity
of consclousness^Deductions in prospect: Man the type of universal history — Humanity a unit,
intelligible only when viewed as a totality —Incitements from outside the means of mental de-
velopment — Progress proceeds from the sphere of personality not from that of natural general-
ness — Apparatus of the ethical task; its import upon developing consciousness — Harmonious
cultivation of faculties — One sided culture at the expense of cultus.



\



CO EFFICIENTS AND CO-OPERATIVK MODE OF HISTORY. IX

13. Unavailing methods in focusing a total view of humanity — Typical personages: Joh. 33
v. Miller — Impossibility to compose the thought of an ideal man, to conceive a real proto-
type of history— Rousseau— Man the type and theme of history.

V Ch. Philos. of History as against Unsatisfactory Interpretations of History. (Chapt. i and 2 ) «5

14. Each empiric science of nature, language, law and history has its limits, contains
some nescience — Philos. the umpire— Aversion to predominance of metaphysics— Murray.
— Bowne — Agnosticism preferring scepticism to certitude; imposing a false world-theory —
Synthesis of true monism to be found in the spiritual— Contempt of empiricism by idealism
avenged in Darwinism — Philos. the clearing-house of the sciences, and the candle holder-
Division of scientific labor calls for its organization— Philos. related to sciences as the systems
of human body are related to the organism of the individual.

15. Decline of Philos. together with the loss of esteem for Philos. of Hist — Cause of un- gg
popularity of spiritual matters — Intellectualism identified with religion — "Government of re-
ligion" Guizot — Epistemology:Musing and thinking — Genesis of comprehension — "Unreflected" '
(sub-) consciousness — Vicissitudes to which ratiocination is exposed— Concomitant faculties
and their co-operative functions— Herder — Perception, reflection and intuition — New discover-
ies but re-arrangements of old data— An adjustable organism of systematic knowledge— Image
of nature in man; Scottish realism; Daguerre.

16. Human nature in its fallen state; comprehension of life in a synthesis made difficult aq
— Hegel's failure, from ignoring the fall and the losses — Man's unfolding under specific topics:
physically, psychically, religiously — Schematic tabulation declined— Natural and spiritual ele-
ments of human existence mirrored in hist.— Man the type and theme also of the world of absolute
reality.

SECOND DIVISION (I. B.) Operative Mode of History.

Syllabus. ^^

The means through which hist, works, as far as they are at man's disposal — Influences of
environments — Purpose, movement, development, plan of hist.

I Ch. Intent and Aim of History.

17. Purpose: Theory of "Occasional cause" foundered at demonstrating the adaptation of
motion to its aim — Human soul the realised purpose of nature — Things have a meaning, are
means for other things, but have no purpose in themselves — Illustr: machine — Genesis of the
concept of finality — Value of entities determined by their interrelations — Matter is thought m
its process of hypostatisation — Design in plant-life unalterable — Agreed with natural science as
to normative principle — Purport not deducible from development of means for an end; finality
underlies the organism as a totality.

18. Purpose a matter of totality, that of nature in its totality is the soul: i. e. thought ob- 4g
jectivising itself — Thought, the object in organisms is their soul; means, i. e. organs brought
forth in their arrangements for the purpose form the body — Mechanical action of life in its self-
realisation; self-reproduction ceases with the attainment of its highest form, further on its
purpose is disintegration — Henceforth the soul alone conveys the thought of finality, contin-
ues to be of any purpose— Hence the soul separable from matter— Course of the thought of
purpose through stages of natural, rational and moral qualifications — Purport of nature to serve

as the polarity in the spirits self-substantilisation— Soul the quintessence of nature as indi-
vidualised — Its purpose is to be the means for the unification of natural life with spiritual es-
sence in personal life,where fitness is measured by the moral standard — In mind nature is to be
sublimated and obtains its personal value: True element in Rothe's ethics — Mind is natural
life in its inseparable combination with the spirit; it finds its purpose in the communion with
the world of absolute reality — Immanency of purpose in history, thejtnoral cosmos — Bacon on
false methods of deduction from purposes instead of induction from efficient causes — Purpose
per se. — Droysen's corroboration of this pregnant paragraph.

II Ch. Law of Historic Development. 50

19. Order in which means are employed to reach the end. — I^awfulness not merely from
natural necessity — Do special laws inherent in particular occurences regulate them ? — Fitness
of things — Truth of "Mechanical" occasionalism and "dynamic" mechanism may be harmon-
ised — I^aw the power of thought over matter and facts; declaration of reason of its rights to
control them — The soul's manifestation of its right to live in unison with the spirit. — Natural
law identical with the moral — Domain of lawfulness.— Existence inconceivable without re-
lativity of things. — Renouviere*s corroboration: new biological hypothesis: an original
world entirely animated.

20. Activity of hist, partly under natural necessity, partly in freedom — Examples of 52
nature's determining influences upon human destiny — Electro-magnetic polarisation — Ger-
minal articulation — "Natural selection" — Reactions of classes upon classes, nation upon
nation. — Indications of providential interferences — Rhythm of epochal oscillations — Physical
lawfulness powerless after a certain limit is reached — Explorers,Reformers— Inquiry concerned
with the plan of history. %

III Ch. Historic Movement. Natural Corollaries. —

21. "Motion" per se implies no aim, but development does — Organic world alone de- ^^
velops — Firmament: emblem of absolute rest — Force in motion is life's self-assertion, sub-
stantiating itself by virtue of the purpose to establish relations — The purposive thought
liberates forces as means of materialising itself — Generation of force In social organisms.



X OPERATIVE MODK OF HISTORY.

Powers dormant in nature-bound races — **Fluxion" of Newton — Life: process of self renewal —
Import of rest, i. e, latent motion, as applied to ethnical movements: Zoellner. — Peoples with
arrested cultures rest, preparatory to future activit}', perhaps for purposes of reviving others —
Contrast of expansive strain and condensive pressure; energy and apathy forming the tension
of polarity; a synthetic formula, perhaps for the cognitions time and space. Bowne.

58 22. Tranquil progress propelled by alternating counteractions in the undercurrents of

hist. — Ethnical movements of this kind indicated by layers of languages — Physico-historic
progress, straight line; cultural advance, wave-line — Circular movement tantamount to a
standstill. Culture advances in spiral^helically corresponding curves wherein freedom comes to its
right — Hist, not calculable from statistical figures — Materialistic concept of hist, without anal-
ogy in the laws of mechanics. Lotze— Free will as against blind "fate" — Under aspect of "dy-
namics" hist, remains incomprehensible, because man is not the product of the elements.

60 IV Ch. Means of Historic Development. Mind's Interaction. —

23. Distinguishing movement from development, which only pertains to organic life —
Evolution limited by decadence and decomposition —Ascent and descent in organic life: arch-
line— Permanent disposition (national temperament,etc.)in the ethnical world: horizontal lines —
These lines are of partly natural inclinations and partly real mind life intersected by vertical line:
men excelling in energy and ingenuity-Guizot's definition of civilisation-Natural and historical
evolution analogous — La Place's theory: detachment, departure towards selfhood — Tendency of
the purpose unfolding itself — Differentiation caused by division of labor among specially
adapted organs — In the tendency to selfhood the character of membership is never lost, not
evan in the highest developed organism.

62 24. In the social differentiation the organism becomes an organisation — Genesis of na-
tionalities — Three periods of physico-psychical development — First: colonial life; folk-lore —
Cultural degree of the future nations depends upon higher or mean recognition 'of the deity,
to which every detail of existence is related — Second: Traditions distorted, symbols of primi-
tive truths and of subsequent picture-thinking misunderstood, will cause I, idolatry; 2, my-
thology — Relative good in nature made a surrogate for the Supreme Good — Perversion of
inner remnants of religiousness finally renders most abject depravity religious — Reminiscence»
of human unity applied in founding world-empires — Third: Authority questioned — Thought-
ful people withdraw from the masses — Subjectivism;Class-hatred — Invention of an indifferent
deity — Differentiation outruns itself — The purpose safe with certain barbarians — Limit of natu«
ral, cultural development, analogous to plant-life, which includes decline — The line drawn where^
the deepest but empiric relations to the world of* 'formal unity" begin — New series of develop-
ment, pertaining to religious life, the most personal matter — Attention to be chiefly engaged
with the results of the interaction betw. physico-historical and purely personal development,,

^ VCh. Plan of History.

25. Reason in hist ; sense to be adduced from without — Plan not to be discovered by
analysing co-efl5cients, but by way of logics, i. e. by establishing their relations — Illustr :
Architect, plan, building, and beholder — Motif and plan (design) inherent in plant -life — So
in hist, plan partly inherent, self-developing; partly exterior objective guidance — r Part of
the plan inherent; provided there is one typical man conveying within him the type and de-
sign of hist, which is but man unfolded; provided, possibilities of abnormal development —
2 Part of the plan in thought, objective; "Fore-thought" the postulate of reason.

BOOK SECOND.
71 Syllabus.

II. A. Turano-Malayans, Ugro-Tatars. II. B. Aryans: Hindo-Iranians, Graeco-Romans,
Indo-Germans. II. C Mediterranean Basin; Cushito-Semites; Hebrews. II. D. Concentric
Middle. Theme of Hist, appears at the Divide of the Times. Solution of all problems. Pivot-
point of History. II. E. Roman orbit: pervaded by Christianity. II. F. Indo-Europeans,
transformed under strains of orient-occidental forms of consciousness. II. G. Age of celerity
and of Missions, ^ra of organising the realm of unity, perpetuity and perfection.
The plan evinced through history indicates this arrangement of the hist, material.
FIRST DIVISION. (II. A.) Great Pre-Historic Substructure of History. Polarities.

First Circle of Nations: Turanians.
»j^ I Ch. Scenery: 1. Celestial Background.

26. Man related to the celestial as well as to terrestrial worlds; issue of both and center
of the universe— Illustr: Pyramid — Mind, history, heaven — Sidereal conditions directly bearing
upon human interests — Man with his story and the visible universe committed to each other —
His central position not fortified by the illusory idea of inhabitable stars; neither
weakened by quantitative insignificance— Thought more than equivalent to the vastness of
dimensions — Man the microcosm as contemplated by the natural philosophy of by-gone times:
Zodiac, Kabala — Experiments leading Kepler to the "equation of the center."

75 27. Cosmos, the reflex of the higher world of true reality, a system of substantialised

thought— Kant's categories, the regulative and eternal laws of thinking imprinted into the
cosmos— The precipitate of thought— The universe, despite its nascency, consists of mere
stuff in dead motion —Spectral analysis, the "chemistry of the heavens:" "world of material
unity"— Unprofitable hypothesis of the inhabitability of the stars not harmless— A better hypo-
thesis— Earth man's own universe, belonging to him — The blossom of creation and its crown —
Human body is the scion of heaven and earth, hence both influence history.



GREAT PKE-HISTORIC SUBSTRUCTURE OF HISTORY. XI

I! Ch. Stage-scenery: Terrestrial Back-ground. 77

28. La Place's hypothesis: continual detachment; differentiation the fixed tendency of
nature— Formation of the globe; Werner — The earth's history repeats itself in history proper,
but no further than human biography is involved in nature's nascency. _p

29. The globe firm, its surface still changing; Lyell— Historj interested in the articulate *°
formation of the earth's surface, to a certain extent— Teleological view upon the geographical
differentiation— Ritter's overzealous teleology— Formation of Asia and Africa — Riddles of
anthropography. . . . ^, . «, . 7Q

30. Remarkable instances of symmetry — African -Asiatic axis — The two Americas— This '
symmetry has no significant bearing upon hist. — Axis of the Asiatic-European system of
mountains and African- Asiatic chain of deserts— Common axis poising upon Bolor-Tagh—
System of oceans— Articulation of coast-line— Three Mediterranean gulfs.

III Ch. Remnants of Pre=historic Man. Lecality of his Origin. 81

31. Chinese apperception as to the universe— Astral, mundane, historic sphereoids—
"Fossil man." Lyell— Man's existence in the tertiary period not established— Dar winistic
"Descent of man" refuted; J. Ranke. Virchow — Better to meditate upon "destiny of man" —
Lake-dwellers. Keller— Stone, bronze, iron ages— Definite chronology irrelevant.

32. Region most favorable to evolution— Untenable suppositions— One common origin— o^
Pure fountain-head. Racial changes — "Lemuria" affirms the scientific postulate of one com-
mon home. , , CO

33. Humanity a connection not a collection— Our method m the search after the *'Syn- °^
thesis;" Illustr. lock and key— Unity of the race axiomatic conclusion from induction— Full
knowledge possible, despite Hamilton.

IV Ch. Original man. One common Source. Language, Right, Religion. §4

34. Proofs of unity of the human family— One original language— After nature had
assumed its present form, development continued solely in the invisible world of mind-life.
Identity of American Indians with Asiatics proves unity of humanity— "Meander crosses"—
Common mental endowments insufficient to explain prefixes,sufflxes,etc. — Import of Sanskrit:
M. Müller on Pentecost — Import of missionary work upon philology: Klaproth — One universal
language to be anticipated— Idea of right possessed by all men— Universality of religious-
ness bespeaks the oneness of humanity— M. Mueller on "Origin of Religion"— Imagination
(source of religion ?) never surpasses the compass of perception— Want creates no conscious-
ness of the Divine, but reminiscence of the Good does— Self-made religion ."Dog -philosophy"
Kingsley (Hypatia) — Religion the basis of every culture.

35. Hypothetical: "God is"-Origin of religion in a positive thought-Ontogeneity— Found- 87



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