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Newport, Rhode
Island, and for four
years an army hos-
pital occupied the
academy, working
havoc with trees
and shrubs and
turf. At all other
times the place
has been renowned
for its quiet beauty
and attractiveness,
due in part to its
situation on the
water and in part

to the abundance of shade-trees fringing
" Lovers' Lane " and other walks, or scat-
tered about over the comely face of the
campus. But the advantage of a pic-
turesque location was minimized by the
placing of certain buildings, some of them
of the humblest and ugliest sort, where
they cut off the view of the water as if it
were something to be ashamed of. Mr.
Flagg was quick to see this defect, and he
has largely remedied it by arranging the
new buildings in groups or series on three
sides of the campus, leaving open most of
the side toward the river.

On this side— one of the wider ones —
lies the artificial inlet for practice-boats,
measuring nearly eleven hundred by six-
hundred feet, and almost wholly inclosed


by massive piers, with a diminutive light-
house on each side of the opening toward
the water. This basin, with the craft
it shelters, will be one of the most con-
spicuous and charming objects in the land-
scape. Directly across the grounds, just
inside of and parallel with the high brick
wall that severs town from gown, runs a
new row of officers' houses, most of them
semi-detached. In front of these, with the
superintendent's house on one side of it
and the administration building on the
other, towers the dome of the new chapel,
rising from the highest
t on the grounds.
1 a happy coinci-
e that the recov-
of Paul Jones's
' in Paris should
occurred at a
when so appro-
e and magnificent
mb as this chapel
ds, should have
approaching com-

This is the cen-
tral feature of
the reconstructed
academy. From
its wide steps the
choicest vistas
will lure the eye.
On the right, as
one stands here,
and skirting the
inner edge of
the new parade-
ground, stands
the midshipmen's new quarters, flanked
at the end toward the river by an enor-
mous seamanship building, a part of which
will be fitted up as a gymnasium, and at
the end toward the town by an armory
of like design and proportions. On the
left rises, or will rise, tlie academic group,
the new library occupying the western
side of a square the northern side of which
will hold the academic building proper,
while the southern side will be shut in
by the physics and chemistry building.
Southwest of the academic group of build-
ings, which occupies in part the site of
what has been known for thirty-five years
as the " New Quarters," hes " Oklahoma."
This region, extending along the bound-
ary-wall of St. John's College to College

llall-toiic i)Iate eiitf raved by K. N'arley


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Half-tune jilatc cnj^raved by K. \'arlcy


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Creek, is one of the many Naboth's vine-
yards coveted and acquired by the academy
during its sixty years' existence. It accom-
modates two rows of officers' houses, too
modern to be torn down, but in their
bricky redness swearing somewhat loudly
at the newer granite or gray-brick build-
ings elsewhere on the reservation. These

tually quarters for the bachelor officers,
standing not far from the main entrance
at the head of Maryland Avenue, and there-
fore readily accessible to the retired officers
who make their home in Annapolis ; and,
at the northwestern end of the pier inclos-
ing the basin, a power-house, a shop-build-
ing, and a general store. Provision has

Half-tone plate en];raved by W. Aikmaii


cottages, arranged in lines that form a
right angle at the southwestern extremity
of the academy grounds, overlook the pres-
ent parade-ground and athletic field beside
the river. Their broad acres lie well outside
the campus, which, as already indicated,
is bounded on the north by the Severn,
on the south by the group of buildings of
which the chapel is the chief, on the east
(the side toward the bay) by the midship-
men's new quarters, and on the west by
the academic group. Hereafter the main
parade-ground and athletic field will oc-
cupy the new land between the midship-
men's quarters and the bay.

Other features of the architect's plans
are the steam-engineering and naval-con-
struction building, a huge rectangular
structure ; the officers' mess building, vir-

been made for a naval hospital to be built
beyond College Creek, on high land near
the present naval cemetery. Another group
of buildings, not forming a part of the
academy, though allied to it, and coming
into the same general composition, will be
erected on government land across the
Severn, almost opposite the boat-house or
seamanship building. Here will be housed
the naval -engineering laboratory.

Secretary Long allotted the money for
the various structures at the Academy
in accordance with the architect's esti-
mates of their cost, based on the prevalent
prices for labor and material. Unhappily,
all the contracts could not be made at
once, as many of the new buildings were
to occupy the sites of old ones, which
could not be torn down till they were

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replaced. First the seamanship building
and the armory were started, and then
the midshipmen*s quarters. Contracts for
these buildings were let within the amount
of the estimates, though at the time the
last of the three was contracted for the
cost of labor and materials had largely
increased, and the plans had to be modi-
fied accordingly. The advance in prices
was accompanied by a growing demand
for more room for the purposes of the
school, the number of midshipmen having
been greatly augmented. More money
had to be provided, and in 1902 Congress
raised the limit of cost from $8,000,000 to
$10,000,000. But of the two-million in-
crease, some $200,000 was allotted for
dredging a channel to the bay, and $200,-
000 for the building of a hospital, and the
sum left to offset the greatly increased cost
of labor and material was far from suffi-^
cient to permit the carrying out of the
original plans without modification. As
the size of the buildings could not be re-
duced, it was unavoidable that cheaper
materials should be used. Brick and terra-
cotta had to take the place of granite,
ornamental work to be omitted, interior
finish simplified, and, in some cases, fire-
proof construction abandoned. Hence the
later buildings are not in strict keeping
with those that were erected first. On the
whole, however, the general effect is fairly
harmonious, and the buildings are impres-
sive by their size and massiveness of con-
struction. In style they remind one of the
debt our younger architects owe, and are
repaying, to the teachers and traditions of

Some idea of the magnitude of the al-
terations in progress may be had from the
following figures : Whereas the present
** New Quarters*' (the chief dormitory
since 1869) is only about 300 feet long,
the really new quarters, arranged around
an enormous courtyard, occupies a plot
of ground measuring over 700 by 400
feet, is 100 feet high, and is subdivided
into a thousand rooms. Chief among its
innumerable apartments is a huge assembly-
room and memorial hall, adorned with
flags, statuary, etc. The treasures here to
be housed include the flag captured from
the Guerri}re by the Constitution, and
Perry's famous Lake Erie ensign, with its
legend, "Don't give up the ship." The
armory— the first of the new buildings, for

which ground was broken on April 12,
1899, by the superintendent, Admiral F.
V. McNair, then the oldest graduate on
the active list— measures 410 by 110 feet ;
and the boat-house is similar in size and
design. Covered archways will unite the
vast structure containing the dormitories
with these two wings, the three thus joined
making perhaps the longest building in
the world (1270 feet). The academic
building is to be 440 by 370 feet; and
the chapel (which is designed as a me-
morial of the heroic dead of our navy)
measures 160 by 150 feet, the height oif
the dome above the foundations being
168 feet. The corner-stone of this edifice
was laid by Admiral Dewey in June, 1904.
The chapel will be the scene not only of
the religious services of the post, but of all
important indoor academic functions, save
those of a purely festive character. Whe-
ther its seating capacity — twelve hundred
— will prove adequate to the demands
likely to be made upon it, is a question
still to be answered; the library, also, is
probably destined to be cramped for space
in the near future.

The annual register of the academy fully
outlines the course to be pursued by the
lad who wishes to become a midshipman.
Not only are all the questions printed
which were asked at the last previous ex-
aminations for admission, but the thousand-
and-one ailments and imperfections are
catalogued that a candidate must be free
from, — including ** weak or disordered in-
tellect,"— and a list given of the $257.81
worth of personal effects that he must bring
with him, or provide himself with on en-
tering the academy. Here, too, he finds
a summary of the courses of study to be
pursued after he matriculates.

The entrance examinations, though by
no means unduly severe— perhaps, indeed,
because of their very lack of severity,
which induces over-confidence on the part
of candidates— exclude a very large per-
centage of aspirants to a naval career;
while the standards of scholarship and
deportment, once a student has entered,
are so high as to eliminate a considerable
number of lower classmen every year. The
graduate is inevitably a young man of
highly trained intelligence, and the one
who leaves Annapolis with honors must
be an exceptionally able man. Not till he
has been away for some years can he hope

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to be a master of the many branches of
knowledge in which he has been grounded
there; but the necessities of the service,
and the fact that he can retain his standing
only by passing examinations whenever
there is an opportunity of promotion, tend
to keep him a student always, no matter
with what joyous rites he may bury
"Math" and ** Skinny" (Physics) on the
eve of graduation. Then, too, there is
always the possibility, even when he has
reached command rank, that he may be
sent for instruction to the Naval War Col-
lege at Newport (where Captain Mahan's
famous sea -power essays were originally
heard as lectures), or to the Torpedo
School at the same place.

By act of Congress approved in 1903,
the number of midshipmen allowed at the
Naval Academy is two for each senator,
representative, and territorial delegate,
two from the District of Columbia, one
from Porto Rico, and five each year ap-
pointed from the States by the President.
This statute is to continue in force till the
last day of June, 1913; thereafter one
midshipman, instead of two, is to be nomi-
nated for examination by each member of
the Senate and of the House. In 1904
the total number of students was about
eight hundred and twenty; the law con-
templates an increase to nine hundred and
eighty-three. The academic course extends
over four years (as at West Point), with
two years afterward at sea, before the
rank ensign is attained.

When the writer was at the academy in
the early seventies, the entering age was
from fourteen to eighteen years. And in
the next decade Mr. Hobson— the young-
est member of the class at the head of
which he was graduated in 1889— was
only fourteen when he passed his entering
examinations. Now, however, the ages of
midshipmen on entering range from six-
teen to twenty years. Even at a time when
the lower classmen were the merest lads,
it was a breach of etiquette to call them
boys: that was a term reserved for the
negro waiters, etc. The youngest student
was not only a midshipman, but a man.
This, of course, did not apply to the oc-
casional negro student, who was no more
regarded as a man than as a brother.

Students entering before 1851 were
called midshipmen : the name was then lit-
erally as well as historically correct. For

ten or twelve years thereafter their title
was acting midshipmen ; then it became
midshipmen again, and remained so for
another decade. An act passed in 1882
made it naval cadets, and another passed
twenty years later turned it back into mid-
shipmen. As this is a title that cannot be
improved on, it is to be hoped it will not
again become the sport of legislation.

In the years 1868-82 there were gradu-
ated from the academy one hundred and
fifty-three cadet engineers; since then
most of the special courses taken by the
"greasers," as they were elegantly nick-
named by the midshipmen, have been
taken by the whole body of students. At
present the intellectual 61ite among the
graduates have the privilege of studying
naval construction for three years at the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. A
special department of naval architecture,
based on one already in existence for the
training of builders of merchant vessels,
was instituted there in October, 1901, its
curriculum and working methods having
been mapped out by Rear- Admiral Bowles,
Chief N aval Constructor ; his fellow-gradu-
ate of the Royal Naval College at Creen-
wich. Commander William Hovgaard of
the Danish Navy; and Professor Cecil H.
Peabody. H itherto a post-graduate course
in naval construction had been procurable
by our officers only in Europe, until one
was undertaken at Annapolis under Cap-
tain (then Lieutenant) Hobson, in 1897;
but the breaking-out of the war with Spain
closed the academy, and the new depart-
ment was never reestablished.

On the government farm across the
creek from the academy grounds was
established, in 1903, a school of applica-
tion for the instruction of officers of the
marine corps of the navy, its head being
the commanding officer of the marine
barracks at the academy. The training is
limited to one year.

The great expansion of the navy in
recent years, the consequent increase in
the number of midshipmen at the Naval
Academy, and the extraordinary develop-
ment in the use of electricity and in other
branches of applied science, have necessi-
tated many additions to the facilities for
instruction at Annapolis. While the study
of books has kept pace with modem re-
quirements in technical branches, strictly
practical instruction in all departments has

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Half-tune plate eiisrrared by C. W. Chadwick


been attended to with unremitting care.
The teaching of seamanship has been ex-
tended to include the handling of steam-
vessels, launches, and torpedo-boats, as
well as sailing-craft; and in steam and
electrical engineering, wireless telegraphy,
etc., the student is not only taught theo-
retically, but enabled— and obliged — to
put his knowledge to the test. In ordnance
and gunnery the same advance has been
made, advantage being taken of the les-
sons of the Spanish war, and of recent
improvements in ordnance material— guns,
torpedoes, and mines. Turret-ships, tor-
pedo-boats, and destroyers have been sent

to the mouth of the Severn ; and the latest
systems of training gun-pointers on board
ship have been put in force. In the sum-
mer the midshipmen are assigned to duty
on the ships of the coast squadron and on
a frigate, and are so changed about that
every young man spends some part of the
cruise on each type of craft — sailing-vessel,
turret-ship, and torpedo-destroyer.

In short, every effort is made to keep
the graduate of the academy up to that
standard in practical work with modern
weapons and materials necessary to fit him
for the discharge of the subordinate duties
that will fall to his lot on board the new-

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est ships. And this technical training is
not all the midshipman receives at the
Naval Academy. No less emphasis is laid
upon the development of his ideals of duty
and his personal and professional honor.
Moral courage and loyalty to the service
are inculcated with the same urgency and
success that attend his instruction in the
science of commanding a fleet, sailing a
ship, or blowing an enemy out of the
water. The results of this training were
put to the touch seven years ago, when
for the first time in a generation our offi-
cers had a chance to show their skill and
prowess in the work for which they had
been educated. No wonder the late su-
perintendent of the academy, Captain W.
H. Brownson, who investigated naval edu-
cational methods in England last year,
fotmd that Great Britain was adopting
the American system, which hitherto she
had decried ; and that it had won the ap-
proval of the German Emperor, who was
about to found a new naval academy at

In estimating the efficiency of the acad-
emy as a training-school for officers, it
must be remembered that it was tested in
no small degree ten years ago, when Japan
won her victories over the Chinese fleet,
and again in 1905, when she annihilated
Russia's sea power in the East. For be-
tween the years 1869 and 1900 some fif-
teen Japanese youths, sent out by the
imperial government, studied at Annapolis
as a preparation for the naval service of
their country. While Admiral Togo got
his European training in England, Vice-
Admiral Uriu, who began the present war
by destroying the Variag and Korietz, was
a student at the American Naval Academy
from 1877 till 1881.

Nor can the distinction of some of the
five hundred graduates now in civil life
be ignored, in estimating the value of the
training given at the academy. The brief-
est list of these would include Professor
Ira N. HoUis of Harvard University, who
graduated at the head of the (engineer)
class of 1878 ; Mr. Frank J. Sprague, elec-
trician, a graduate of the same date ; Pro-
fessor Albert A. Michelson, physicist,
(1873), and Mr. Winston Churchill,

Athletics flourished at the Naval Acad-
emy under the enlightened superinten-
dency of Admiral Porter, but had languished

sadly when Mr. R. M. Thompson, who
had been a midshipman in Porter's time,
initiated, from the outside, a successful
attempt to revive them. In this he had
the cooperation of many other alumni who
had returned to private life. The re-
awakened interest in rowing, which dates
from 1893, was mainly due to the enthu-
siasm of an undergraduate, Mr. Winston
Churchill. But the favorite sport is foot-
ball, which had held first place in the mid-
shipmen's regard ever since their eleven
went up to West Point, in 1890, and beat
the military cadets by 24 to 0. The annual
game of these two teams at Philadelphia,
to which an enormous crowd is admitted
by invitation only, is one of the most in-
teresting Americanamateur-sportingevents
of the year. Double credit is due to the
academy athlete and sportsman, in that
the time available for training is far less
in his case than in that of the student at
any civilian school or college.

This country has never had a President
who recognized more clearly than Mr.
Roosevelt the importance of sea power.
The rebuilding of the Naval Academy on
a grand scale is a work that has his hearti-
est approbation. It is not strange, there-
fore, that he should have been asked to
address the graduating class on the 30th
of last January; nor that he should have
done so, though to keep the engagement
meant a journey from Washington to An-
napolis in the morning, another in the
afternoon from Annapolis to Philadelphia,
where he was scheduled to make an impor-
tant speech the same evening, and a return
trip to Washington at night. And no one
thought to gainsay him when he said to
the graduating midshipmen :

" No other body of men of your age in
our country owes so much to the United
States, to the flag that symbolizes this
nation, as you do. No other body of young
men has on the average as great a chance
as each of you has to lead a life of honor
to himself and of benefit to the country at

If future graduates of the academy fall
short of the standard set by John Paul
Jones, Perry, Decatur, Lawrence, Farragut,
Porter, and Dewey (of whom only the
last received his training at Annapolis),
it will be due to no lack of opportunity to
fit themselves fof the discharge of every
duty that can devolve upon them.

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Time : When " You " were a Boy
Place : Up-stairs in Hen's Barn


Hen Schmidt, Proprietor and Ringmaster Tom Kemp, Trapeze and Juggling

You, Proprietor and Contortionist NixiE Kemp, Trapeze and Tight Rope

Billy Lunt, Trapeze and Tumbling Fat Day, Clown

Snoopie Mitchell, Everything

Admission — Ten Pins to All, including Grand Menagerie

RCUS was in the air. Circus

had been in the air for some

time, exhaled broadcast by

village bill-boards and fences,

and the fronts and exposed

sides of numerous buildings. Breathing

this atmosphere, small wonder is it that you

and your compatriots were circus-crazy,

and cared not who knew it.

The circus came. PYom half-past four,
in the pink of the dawn, until nightfall, it
was given your unremitting aid and pres-
ence—the two in one. Your fellows were
equally assiduous. Nothing that might be
done outside the tent was
left undone; nothing that
might be inspected was over-
looked. As for the inside,
some of your friends pene-
trated, like yourself, with the
escort of father, mother,
uncle, brother, or neighbor ; ,
some, like Snoopie Mitchell,
" snuk under " ; but all were

The circus went. Behind it remained,
as evidences of its visit, the still conta-
gious bills ; one more welt in the shape of
a ring, added to the other similar but older
welts upon the face of that historic pasture
patch ; and a biuning ambition in the breast
of every youth.

Now witness each back yard a train-
ing-school for tumblers, trapeze-experts,
weight-slingers, jugglers, bareback-riders,
and tight-rope walkers. Right among the
foremost were^^//.

** Hen and me are goin' to have a cir-
cus," you vouchsafed importantly at the
family board.

" Hen and who ?" queried
father, quizzically.

" Hen and me'' Why fuss
with grammar, when greater
things were impending? It
is not what one says, but
what one does, that counts :
at least, according to your
. copy-book at school, in
which you had laboriously

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written, " Deeds, not Words/' twenty

" We 're goin' to give it in Hen*s bam,
and you and mama 've got to come."

" I don't know that I can get away,
having just been to one," stated father,
gravely. " I did n't expect another so

" /'ll come," comforted mother. " When
is it ? "

"W^e dunno yet; but everybody that
gets in has got to bring ten pins— and bent
ones don't count, either.
Hen's mother 's com-

" Do you think we
can spare ten pins ? "
inquired mother of

The idea seemed pre-
posterous to you, with
a whole cushion brist-
ling on the bedroom
bureau; but neverthe-
less you awaited, with
considerable anxiety,
father's reply.

"I guess so," an-
swered father. " But
members of the per-
formers' families ought
to go in free. How 's
that. John ? "

You shook your head
decidedly. Such a sug-
gestion must be nipped
in the bud.

'' NaiVy sir! Every-
body has to pay ! " '

There was no dearth of performers; they
were as plenty as ball-players, and you had
an embarrassing number of volunteers who
offered themselves as soon as the news of
your circus spread through the neighbor-

Snoopie Mitchell was among the earliest.

" Say, I *11 be in your circus," he pro-
posed. " I can skin the cat twice, an* do
the giant's swing, an' turn flip-flops both
ways, an*—"

"Pooh! That 's nothin'. So can I,"
scoffed Hen.

"You can't, neither!'* contradicted
Snoopie. " Le' 's see you, now."

Hen obligingly cut a caper.

" Aw, gee ! " sneered the redoubtable

Snoopie, with high scorn. " That ain't no

Online LibraryA. B. (Alfred Barton) RendleThe Century → online text (page 110 of 120)