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hke Charles F. McKim, Augustus Saint-
Gaudens, Frank D. Millet, E. H. Blashfield,
H. S. Mowbray, and others; to the intelli-
gent assistance and good will of the na-
tional administration and of Congress ;i
and to the liberality of our men of wealth.

1 The bill was introdaced in the House of Representatives by the Hon. James T. McCleary,
and in the Senate by the Hon. George P. Wetmore.

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It was through Mr. Henry Walters that
its new home — the spacious building and
grounds of the Villa Mirafiori near the
Porta Pia— was secured. The enthusiastic
promoters of this splendid enterprise, there-
upon, in January last, undertook to obtain
a million dollars for maintenance; and
as we go to press the one-hundred- thou-
sand-dollar subscriptions are announced
of Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan, Mr. Henry
Walters, Mr. William K. Vanderbilt, and
Harvard University through Mr. Henry L.
Higginson, and the indications are that the
rest of the million will soon be forthcoming.

What with the new impetus just given
to the Metropolitan Museum in New York,
the activity of museums and academies
throughout the country, the noble endow-
ment of the American Academy in Rome,
the improvement of our art schools, and
the augmenting individual accomplishment
of American architects, artists, and musi-
cians, America is destined soon to take a
still more important place among the art-
producing nations of the world.

One of the necessary steps in this direc-
tion is the removal of the tariff on art
works ; and the men of light and leading
in our government should see that, at the
first opportunity, this deleterious and idi-
otic tax is swept away.



IT was good news to all travelers and all
lovers of nature that at the recent ses-
sion of the California legislature the won-
derland of Yosemite, granted to that State
in 1864, " in trust," was voluntarily receded
to the United States. The whole country,
and particularly the State of California, is
to be congratulated upon this fortunate
and honorable outcome of a struggle of
twenty years for the better conduct of the
Valley. The victory, which was accom-
pUshed against demagogic influences and
appeals to a false State pride, is due pri-
marily to John Muir, to the Sierra Club,
of which he is president, and to William
E. Colby, its secretary, who for years have
been at work organizing the movement,
which has been supported effectively and
almost with unanimity by the press of
California. A strong argument for reces-
sion was found in the fact that among

those who favored it was so influential a
promoter of conservative forest policies as
President Roosevelt.

The Century, which since 1889 has
realized the overwhelming importance of
forest-conservation and has taken every
opportunity to advocate a better system
of management of the Valley, contained,
in this department, as early as January,
1893, an article entitled, "The Proposed
Recession of the Yosemite Valley," in
which we said :

An additional reason for this action exists
in the fact that by act of October i, 1890,
Congress created a new National Park, of
which the old grant to the State of California
is the heart, and which is almost equal in ex-
tent to the State of Rhode Island, but does
not include in its jurisdiction the valley which
it surrounds. It was the belief of those most
active in procuring this legislation that the
establishment of the larger park was not only
desirable in itself, but would be a stepping-
stone to reform within the State grant. It is
obvious that the two reservations should be
under one control.

The faulty system of administration of
the Valley by boards of unsalaried com-
missioners, appointed, too often for political
reasons, to do work for which they had no
expert cjualifications, is now happily at an
end. Under the responsibilities which the
recession imposes upon the authorities at
Washington, who are looking for expert
knowledge in every department, there is
every prospect that there will be no indis-
criminate cutting of trees and underbrush,
no clearing of ground for hay-fields, no
talk of funicular railways and of multi-
colored artificial lights on the waterfalls,
no arbitrary chopping of vistas, no pig-sties,
no pyramids of tin cans, no scandals of
politics or graft. (The Yosemite "reces-
sional" must contain mention of these
things, " lest we forget.") Not only should
the best expert advice be seciu-ed toward
preserving as far as possible the native and
unsophisticated wildness of the Valley,
which so enhances its wonderful beauty,
but every facility should be afforded the
public to gain more comfortable and easy
access to it. We bespeak from Congress
a liberal attitude toward such appropria-
tions for these purposes as may be recom-
mended by the President ; for not only is
Yosemite to California what St. Peter's is
to Rome, but it is one of the chief treasures

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of the whole country, and a day's view of
it would repay a visit from the remotest
region of the world.


TH E frontispiece of this number of The
Century, representing " The Joyous-
ness of Spring," is by the Polish- American
artist Sigismond Ivanowski, whose pictures

illustrating three of Tolstoi's famous hero-
ines were a feature of the April number.
Mr. Ivanowski has the faculty of impart-
ing a decorative feeling to the serious treat-
ment of an imaginative subject, and of
using color in a way to evade, as far as pos-
sible, the limitations of the color process.
The present frontispiece is one of four
which will appear in The Century during
the year, illustrative of the foiu- seasons.

The Cciitiiry*^ Aineiicaa AitUtA Series


" Sunset in Normandy " is reproduced on
page 109, was bom in Bristol, Rhode Island,
in 1863. After a brief stay at the £cole des
Beaux Arts in Paris, under Hcbert, a longer
communion with nature out of doors, on the
Nonnandycoastydeterminedhimtodevote him-
self to landscape, though he had begun at the
figure in America, with a nowforgotten portrait-
painter, Horace Johnsonof Providence'. In 1893
he was given the Webb Landscape Prize by
the Society of American Artists (of which he
is a member), and the same year his picture at
the exhibition in Berlin was bought by the
German government. He received medals at
the Paris Exposition of 1900, and at those of
Buffalo, Charleston, and St. Louis. Meanwhile
the artist, who passes his winters in New York,
in the summer-time remains faithful to the
Normandy that first opened his eyes to the
possibilities of landscape-painting, and he has
a house and a studio at Montreuil-sur-Mer« in
the Pas-de-Calais, along the English Channel,
where he works several months each season.
The key-note to the work of Mr. Dearth is
simplicity. First of aU, he obviously puts him-
self in sympathy with his theme ; and, having
determined thereon, he proceeds rather by
the process of elimination, reducing his masses
and tones down to the most simple and ele-
mentary principles. I am inclined, too, to
think that had Mr. Dearth chosen to devote
himself to the figure instead of the landscape,
he would have arrived at an eq^^al degree of
excellence, for the reason that throughout his
work there is a fine quality of intelligent con-
struction. In giving strict attention to the
important masses, and thus troubling himself
in no wise with the smaller things, he ends by

suggesting detail ~a rare thing, and one that
makes, as a rule, for great art. Perhaps in
none of his pictures shall we find this more
apparent than in the " Sunset in Normandy,"
with its almost naive arrangement of trees,
earth, and sky, the cattle being the merest

Certainly the forms of the French poplars
are generalized as they stand on either side
of the winding road, against the evening sky.
But there is no mistaking the fact that they
are poplars, for each brush-sweep is signifi-
cant and shows the artist to have studied the
anatomy and construction of this particular
growth until he knows it au fond. And the
country lies flat. It has the character of such
a road in Normandy, as the painter who has
been there and looked with intelligent eye
will attest. There is a harmonious relation of
sky to earth, the tones of the former permeat-
ing the latter as in nature ; for, of course, it is
from the sky that the earth receives its illumi-
nation, and the thousand surfaces of grass,
growth, stone, and water reflect the light the
heavens send out. It is also refreshing to find
a man who paints, as the French say, without
2Lny parti'Pris—'\n other words, who does not
proceed according to recipe, but attacks each
new problem according to the necessities of
the occasion.

Mr. Dearth has gone through the experi-
ences of most painters, working faithfully
before Nature, learning many of her secrets
only by the closest observation, drawing seri-
ously until the hand was trained to express, in
a brush-sweep, the character of earth, sky, and
trees. The process of elimination is slow and
tedious, but, happily, sure; and to-day, with
much economy of line and a subordination of
all not absolutely essential, he evolves pictures
that have dignity and poetry.

Arthur Hoeber,

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The Two Muses


JCschylus, the *

' who died in 456

^ - , ' Father of Greek Tragedy,'

■B.C., aged sixty-nine, is said to have Dcen killed while sun-
ning hunself in a field, from having his bald head mistaken
ior a rock by an eagle soaring with a turtle, which was drop-
ped on the supposed rock in order to shatter its shell It had
been foretold (according to legend) that the poet was not to
die until a house should fall on him.


OLD i€schylus, with cloak and staff, be-
neath the waning star,
Engaged with themes of Gods and men.
Went out upon the desert fen
Where self and silence are —


Now let me catch yer m'anin*. If I undther-

stand yer talk,
Ye 're tellin' me that iCschylus wint out to

take a walk.


— To meet his soul in privacy. It was a vo-
tive tour

To court the Muse and let his mind o'erlord
the manless moor ;

To list the Gods and haply hear some chorus
of the whole

Accord response antiphonal unto his listen-
ing soul.


I think I have yer m*anin* ; whin I don't I '11

tip th' wink.
He wint out on a vacant place an' thought

he 'd take a think.


His Tragedies threescore and ten,
A noble theme he still would pen
Of Gods and men, the march of Fate,
The cause of Freedom and the State;
And so he sate him in the fen
To meditate —

Just wait now an' be seein' if I catch on what
ye say :

This ytschylus, ye 're tellin', was th' bye that

wrote a play.
I saw a Thragedy mesilf, an' bate it if ye

They had a felly nearly kilt inside a rollm'-



An eagle winging buoyantly abreast the

burning dawn
Soared 'mid the heights of matin fire
With turtle plucked from out the mire,
And scanned the moor in deep desire
Of rock to break it on.


Hould on now. Have I got it like ye 're thry-

Th' eagle was a-lookin' f'r some way t' crack

th' shell ;
An' so he 'd drop it half a mile an' break it

all apart.
Bedad, who 'd think an eagle was a bird that

is so shmart ?


The poet's head, all bald and bare, bright in
the morning shone ;

Unto the eagle high in air it seemed a rounded

With fateful poise and plummet aim, like dis-
cus featly sped,

The turtle hurtling downward came, and
smote the poet dead.


That was too bad. We little know
Th' ind we '11 come to here below.


And so the end — more tragic end
Than ^tschylus had ever penned.

An' was th' turtle kilt, d' ye know?

Charles D, Stewart.


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Color drawing by F. V. Du Mond


, scarle. flash to-day "-(see page 204|^,g.,.^^, byGOOglC


NE, 1905 No. 2




culating the Ground," etc.

es by Mr. Gilbert H. Orosvenor, editor of "The
Inoculating the Ground," in The Century for
;hod of Purifying Water," in The Century for
lively public interest that we are sure the an-
isure that Mr. Grosvenor is engaged for The
having to do with the varied and valuable work
iie United States government. This new series
Weather Bureau, in which article will be found
jr.— The Editor.

Ik- mometer tumbling thirty degrees in almost

of as many minutes, we have a constant, a

3ur never diminishing asset of priceless value.

:at, The wave acts as a tonic, but, unlike any

iiat tonic made by man, it carries no reaction,

m- No other land has cold waves like ours.

Did To the cold dry air of this periodic cold

ten wave, which brings extraordinary changes

er- of temperature, we owe much of the keen,

; CBNTUKY Co. All righu resenred.

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alert mind, the incessant, unremitting
energy of our American race. I had asked
the talented chief of the United States
Weather Bureau, Professor Willis L.
Moore, what was the most remarkable
featiu-e of our climate, and that was sub-
stantially his reply.

When the amazed European asks us
what makes the sluggish mind of the im-
migrant to stir and waken in the United
States, and then to climb, at first hesitat-
ingly, but soon with vigor and confidence,
to the top round in the ladder of success,
we are accustomed to reply, " It 's in the
air " ; and we are right. The spirit which
fired our fathers to cross the wide Atlantic,
and which in less or equal degree still ani-
mates the thousands annually seeking our
shores, is fed and fanned by the cold winds
from the northwest.

The cold wave is bom in the heavens
miles above our heads, usually over the
Rocky Mountain plateau. Suddenly a
mass of bitterly cold air will tumble down
upon Montana. It rushes down as though
poured through an enormous funnel. As
it falls it gains momentum, and, reaching
the earth, spreads over the Mississippi valley
and then over the Atlantic States, covering
them like a blanket. It scatters the foul,
logy, breath-soaked atmosphere in our
towns and cities, and puts ginger into the
air. We fill our lungs with it and live. New
waves are always coming, following each
other in regular procession like the waves
on a sea-shore.

It is fitting, then, that meteorology, the
science of the weather, should be a dis-
tinctly American product and that the
people of the United States should have
the best weather-service in the world. The
United States government spends $1,500,-
000 a year on its Weather Bureau, which
is more money than all the governments
of Europe combined spend for similar
service. It has a staff of many hundred
skilled experts and trained observers who
in all parts of the country are constantly
on the watch to see what the heavens will
bring forth.


Probably ninety-nine men in one hun-
dred judge the Weather Bureau by the
weather-forecasts which they read at the

breakfast-table in the morning paper. They
execrate and ridicule the service when they
are caught at their office or at the theater
imprepared for an unheralded shower, and,
as likely as not, unhesitatingly assume to
themselves the credit when the forecast is
right. Will it be fair or will it rain ? How
hot or how cold has it been to-day ? They
believe the Weather Bureau was created to
answer these questions correctly and al-
ways correctly for their personal gratifica-
tion. They do not know that the local wea-
ther-forecasts are only a fraction of the
work and a very small and imimportant
fraction at that.

Some time ago a skeptical insurance
company determined to investigate the
amount of property saved in one year by
the warnings of the Weather Bureau. It
was a company of conservative men whose
estimate would be under rather than above
the truth, but it found that on an average
the people of the United States saved every
year $30,000,000 because of their weather-
service. As the people contribute $1,500,-
000 every year to its support, this means
that they get annually a dividend of two
thousand per cent, on the investment. An
investment in which the original capital is
paid back twenty times over in twelve
months is extraordinarily profitable and
well worth investigation. How does the
Weather Bureau do it ?

As it is impossible in one brief article to
describe all the branches of the weather-
service, which reaches intimately about one
half of our population every day, I shall
cite only a few of the more striking phases
of its work.


The eagle watch kept on our turbulent
rivers to see that they do not catch un-
prepared the people Hving on their banks,
or on the low-lying lands near them, is
one of the most dramatic phases of the
work of the weather-service. By long ex-
perience and close calculation, the weather-
man has learned to read the symptoms
predicting a rise or fall as accurately as a
physician can count the heart-beats of his
patient with his finger on the pulse ; he has
posted hundreds of rain-gages throughout
the land feeding each river, which, like
sentinels, tell him when the rainfall has
been heavy and the exact number of inches

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of rain that have fallen. To find the
amount of water that will pour into the
river is then simply a matter of arithmetic,
as he knows the number of miles drained
by each river. He knows how much water
the river-bed can carry in a given time as
nicely as his wife can judge the contents

exact time when the crest of a flood would
reach New Orleans, and said that the height
of the flood would be 2 1 feet. Punctually
to the hour the flood came, and its crest was
20 feet and 7 inches, only five inches less
than the height predicted. The immense
ocean of water had started one thousand

From a photograph. Copyright, 1904, by Clinedinst. Washington, D. C.


Chief of the United States Weather Bureau since 1895, President of the
National Geographic Society

of her coffee-cup. He knows the strong
and weak points of the river-banks, so that
if the skies send more water than the river-
bed can carry, he can predict where the
waters will overtop or burst its banks and
drown the farmer's cattle, or flood the city

One of the most remarkable cases of
flood prediction on record was the warning
of the disastrous floods of 1903. Twenty-
eight days in advance of its coming the
forecaster at Washington announced the

miles away. It had dropped from the skies
over a territory six times larger than the
State of New York (over 300,000 square
miles) ; but the weather-man knew its rate
of march as surely as the engineer, with his
eye on the indicator, knows the speed of
his locomotive. The people at Memphis
were warned that the waters would rise to
40 feet and overtop their levees, and they
were given seven days' notice. The people
of Cairo were told to prepare for a height
of 50 feet ; but as they were nearer the start-

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ing-point of the flood, they received only
four days* notice. Such seasonable warn-
ing gave time to the people to prepare for
defense. Thousands of men were set to
work to raise and strengthen the levees
and embankments, to clear the wharves
and river-banks, to remove women and
children, to drive the cattle to places of
safety. When the flood arrived, the people
were ready for it. Comparatively few lives
were lost, and the damage to property,
while terrible, was millions and millions of
dollars less than it would have been if the
people had had no sentinel to cry out the
march of the waters.

The devotion of the dike-watchers of
Holland has been the theme of children's
stories for generations, but the sleepless
watch of the hundreds of Weather Bureau
observers when a flood threatens the land
passes unnoticed and unpraised. The
scientific precision of American science has
made the work appear so simple that it has
been robbed of its romance.


Much of the care of the Weather Bureau
has been devoted to developing a perfect
system of frost and cold-wave warnings.
A blighting frost or withering cold wave in
early spring or autiunn may leave behind
blackened orchards, wilted vegetable-gar-
dens, and empty pockets. In a night it may
destroy the prospects and hopes of the year.
The cunning and tireless perseverance of
modem science has found some ways of
thwarting the malicious designs of King
Frost. The orange-grower of Florida has
devised dresses to wrap aroimd his orange-
trees; the cranberry-grower of Wisconsin
has learned to flood his cranberry marshes
and thus keep them warm ; the truck-grow-
ers of Norfolk cover their early strawberries
and late lettuce and celery with spreads of
cheese-cloth or screens of slats ; the grower
of sugar-cane in Louisiana also has his
methods of frost protection.

But all these shields against the biting
of the frost are worthless unless the farmer
is warned in time to prepare for the icy vis-
itation. The Weather Bureau aims to give
him this warning at least twenty-four hours
in advance, and to this end it has developed
one of the most perfect organizations in the
world for distributing knowledge. When
the weather-observer scents a frost in the

air conditions of a certain region, or sees
a cold wave marching to invade a certain
section, he immediately telegraphs to the
principal town or city in that region.
Thence the warning is sent by special
messengers, by telegraph and telephone, to
every producer in the threatened region.
Telegraph, telephone, and railroad com-
panies join hands with the weather-man to
help distribute the warning. More than
one hundred thousand telegrams alone are
sometimes sent within a few hours. Freight-
trains are placarded with giant signs which
farmers can read far off ; in some regions
the farmers are warned by a code of whis-
tles from the passing locomotive. In the
cold wave of 1898, $3,400,000 worth of
fruits was saved by the weather-forecasts.


Undoubtedly the features of the Wea-
ther Bureau work which yield the highest
returns on our investment are the storm-
warnings sent to masters of steamers and
sailing-craft in our ports. We who live in
tight city blocks and but rarely ventiu-e on
the ocean know Httle of the terrors of a
storm. The wind that whisties down the
street, snatching off our hats, or that rattles
our blinds most provokingly at night, may
mean a gale at sea of from forty to sixty
miles an hour. Between October and April
. our coasts are swept repeatedly by mighty
storms which are hungry for victims, while
often during August and September a West
Indian hurricane may tear up the coast.
The captains of the hundreds of sailing-
ships, coal-barges, and coastwise craft that
carry ice, coal, fruit, and lumber from port
to port, know too well the dangers of being
caught in such a storm, for oiu* coast-line
contains more than one Cape Fear, pointing
like a dagger at every passing vessel. The
Weather Bureau learns from its outposts
as soon as a storm enters the horizon of
the United States, and sends warning to
the ports in the threatened region. Storm-
signals are hoisted on the watch-towers.
The seamen and ships keep snug in harbor
while the tempest rages outside. An idea
of the commercial value of the warnings
may be gathered when we remember that
during every year not less than seventeen
thousand vessels, most of them small, and
many of them easy prey for storms, leave
our ports between Portland and New Or-

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Drawn by Jay Hambidge. Halt-tone plate engraved by C. W. Chadwiclc


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From a photograph by H. C. Frankenfeld


Online LibraryA. B. (Alfred Barton) RendleThe Century → online text (page 21 of 120)