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TOPICS OF THE TIME



315



dent institutions from even seeming to
toady to men in the business or political
world who are public malefactors, and from
assisting them in their belated and imre-
pentant efforts to win social recognition
from the decent and untainted.

In the case of an educational insti-
tution which solicits and accepts contri-
butions from persons in the political or
business world against whom malpractices
have been publicly proved, and whose evil
deeds and designs are notorious, would it
not prevent moral confusion if some such
plan as the following were adopted ? At
the annual commencement, when an-
nouncements are made of gifts received
and honors conferred, let the authorities
declare their gifts and their gratitude in
due form: "This institution has received
from A. B. during the past year the mu-
nificent gift of so many hundreds of thou-
sands of dollars. The institution confers
upon C. D. and E. F. the honorary degree
of LL.D. for distinguished public services,
as separately set forth; and upon A. B.,
and others named, we confer our highest
dishonorary degree, in order to distin-
guish them for all time on account of un-
social practices, and as bad citizens, bad
examples, and a warning to all men."

OF INTEREST TO FARMERS

IN the last eight months The Century
has printed several articles of uncom-
mon interest to farmers, and appealing at
the same time to all readers who have a
natural curiosity with regard to progress in
agriculture, that occupation which is both
the base and the keystone to the arch
which supports human society.

No single paper The Century has ever
printed has called forth so much inquiry
from those directly engaged in tilling the
soil as the article by Mr. Grosvenor, in the
number for October, 1904, describing a
method of "Inoculating the Ground"
which has been developed by the United
States Agricultural Department. It was
found that nitro-culture bacteria (germs
which are easily propagated), when ap-
plied with the seed to poor or exhausted
land, would immensely increase the growth
and yield of beans, peas, alfalfa, clover,
and all other leguminous plants which draw
their sustenance from the air. Grains like
wheat and oats, which draw their food from
the soil, do not profit directly from the



apphcationof these nitrogenous germs ; but
they may be made to do so, indirectly, by
first preparing the ground through crops
of alfalfa or clover. Thus by " inoculating
the ground " exhausted land can the more
quickly be brought back to a condition
favorable for the growing of grains.

Since the appearance of the article the
Department of Agriculture has been beset
with applications for information, and for
the htUe cakes of germs which the de-
partment distributes for experiment; and
private enterprise has undertaken to prop-
agate the germs for sale. The importance
of this discovery to the country cannot
be overestimated. Of the six million farms
in the United States at least one half the
acreage is in a state of partial exhaustion,
due to improvident methods of cultivation.
Recuperation through the use of the nitro-
culture bacteria applied to legiuninous
crops is not only simple and cheap, but
works such an obvious improvement in
one season as to impress the most slipshod
farmer with the value of enriching his
land by crop rdtation.

The little germs are the ideal slaves for
a lazy man, if only he has the energy to
be timely in his function of overseer. Our
six million farms produce, yearly, crops
and animals valued at about twenty-one
billions of dollars. When the little germs
have been generally put to use, the prod-
ucts should be increased, on a low esti-
mate, ten per cent, for the same amount of
labor, with a yearly increase in value of
two billions of dollars. This discovery may
prove of the greatest value to the older
communities by giving, with a brief period
of tillage, a new lease of life to the worn-
out or " abandoned " farm.

In the March and April numbers of the
magazine appeared two articles by Mr.
Harwood describing " A Wonder-Worker
of Science"— Luther Burbank of Cali-
fornia—who is carrying on a surprising
work in creating new forms of plant life
and improving familiar forms. His work
points the way to a greater variety of lus-
cious fruits,— and perhaps to cheaper ones,
owing to larger yields for the same care,—
and to the enjoyment by everybody of new
and more gorgeous forms of floral beauty.
Such progress in the culture of fruits and
flowers should interest every husbandman,
despite the fact that in a business way it
appeals only to a rather limited class.



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In the opening article of this number
of the magazine Mr. Grosvenor describes
the activities of the United States Weather
Bureau, with special reference to its ser-
vices to the farmers. In addition to the
warnings of rain and cold, which result in
a yearly saving of several millions of
dollars, the farmers are themselves taught
to be weather-wise by the indefatigable
and practical advice of " Our Heralds of
Storm and Flood."

In a short time The Century will offer
to the farmers an account of the labors of
the Department of Agriculture in fighting
infectious disease among the herds of the
country, and in experimenting toward the
selection of the best breeds of horses, cat-
tle, sheep, goats, and poultry. This article,
like the others mentioned above, will be
profusely illustrated, and will be followed,
at brief intervals, by papers of special in-
terest to "the farming community/* that
most important body of the population,
which has been in late years reinforced by
men of large business instincts who have
taken up agriculture on a grand scale, and
by multitudes of well-to-do professional
men and merchants who have adopted
farming as a feature of their summer life,
not so much for profit as for a means of de-
rivinghealth and pleasure from seriouscon-
tact with the practical side of country life.

A NEW REASON FOR ''GOING WEST"

THE LEWIS AND CLARK EXPOSITION

FROM the 1st of June until the end
of September, the " Lewis and Clark
Centennial and Oriental Fair " will enter-



tain the people of the Pacific slope and
thoil^nds of tourists from the Middle and
Atlantic States with an exposition which
has been called into being by a vast
amount of energy and public spirit. It
will commemorate the hundredth anni-
versary of the Lewis and Clark expedi-
tion,^ which blazed the northern route to
the Pacific, in execution of plans formed
by President Jefferson, and hastened the
settlement of that beautiful and productive
region. The celebration of an event of
such national importance properly has the
support of the general government, and
has been liberally carried out by local
enterprise.

Fine exhibition buildings have been
erected in a park of four hundred acres
overlooking the Willamette River, only
twenty minutes' ride by electric car from
the center of the city of Portland. Another
attractive natural feature of the site is
Guild's Lake, in the center of which, on a
peninsula, stands the United States gov-
ernment building. As Portland is a city of
one hundred and thirty thousand people,
there will be no lack of facilities for the
entertainment of visitors.

A special feature has been made of the
growing relations of the Pacific slope with
Asia, as indicated by that part of tiie title
of the exposition which describes it as
being also an "Oriental Fair." Twenty
conventions of a national character will
assernble at Portland during the summer.
The occasion would seem to offer to the
inhabitants of the East a special reason
for devoting the vacation season to a
Western trip.




Sherman's Estimate of arant*s Character

THE following letter from General Sher-
man, written while he was General of the
Army, and addressed to his friend Mrs. Edwin
F. Hall, then living in San Francisco, has inter-
est as revealing the frank opinions of the writer
concerning General Grant and other comrades
of the CivU War:



Headquarters^ Army of the United States y
Washington^ D. C,

November i8y rSyg,

Dear Mrs. Hall : Everything which comes
from your golden land seems to have an azure
fringe, and your letter of— no date, received
a day or two since, seemed to fill a void which
nothing else could have done. General Mc-



1 Sec *' New Material concerning the Lewis and Clark Expedition," in The Century for October, 1904.



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OPEN LETTERS



317



Dowell dropped into my office within a few
moments of its receipt, and was made vain by
your praise of h\s/es/a at the time of General
Grant's arrival. I remember his house and
the grounds at Black Point, and can imagine
all else so graphically portrayed by you.

I don't believe Grant's head has been turned
or confused one iota by the extraordinary dis-
plays in his honor at San Francisco or else-
where. He is a strange character. Nothing
like it is portrayed by Plutarch or the many
who have striven to portray the great men of
ancient or modem times. I knew him as a
cadet at West Point, as a lieutenant of the
Fourth Infantry, as a citizen of St. Louis, and
as a growing general all through a bloody
Civil War. Yet to me he is a mystery— and I
believe he is a mystery to himself. I am just
back from Chicago, where he had a reception
equal in numbers and display to that at San
Francisco. I was President of the Society of
the Army of the Tennessee,— the first he com-
manded,— with which he achieved the great
victories of Forts Henry and Donelson, of
Shiloh, and of Vicksburg. As such I presided
at two great assemblages of people— at the
theater and at the banquet-hall; in both
cases I sat by him and directed all the pro-
ceedings. He was as simple, as awkward, as
when he was a cadet; but all he did and all
he said had good sense and modesty as the
basis. No man in America has held higher
office, or been more instrumental in guiding
great events ; and without elaborating I '11 give
you what I construe to be the philosophy of
his life. A simple faith that our country must
go on, and by keeping up with the events of
the day he will be always right— for "What-
ever is, is right." He don't lead in one sense,
and don't attempt to change natural results.
Thus the world accounts him the typical man,
and therefore adores him. Our people want suc-
cess, progress, and unity, and in these Grant
has been, is, and will be accepted as the type.

But if I go on writing of Grant I may cut
myself out of your good graces. 1 would*
rather have the devoted attention and respect
of a few than of the hoi polloi of the Greeks,
and will therefore explain how it happens
that I did not come to California this year.

Last winter the President, Mr. Hayes, Mrs.
Hayes, a most beautiful and accomplished
lady, my younger daughter Rachel, and a
few others had arranged, as soon as Congress
adjourned,— viz., March 4 last,— we would
make the California trip.

But Congress never does as it should, and
adjourned without the appropriations nec-
essary to carry on the government. There-
fore the President had to call the extra ses-
sion, and therefore the visit was impossible.
Ever since there has been turmoil, confusion ;
and here we have been ever since, with occa-



sional intermissions. That visit is lost— for
President Hayes, in his time, will not have an-
other chance. If 1 come, it must be alone or
with some of my staff. You may be sure that
I will soon make a necessity for an inspection
in California to give excuse for another visit ;
only the next time I want to be more free, so
as to follow my own personal inclinations,
which lead to quiet, social enjoyment rather
than noise, crowds, and confusion. I still have
many old friends in California, some of whom
even you do not know or appreciate, but nev-
ertheless friends who become more precious
as numbers diminish. Indeed, I often feel em-
barrassed because many claim my time be-
cause we served in the Mexican War ; others,
in the South ; others, in Kansas and Missouri ;
and very many because we were comrades in
the Civil War.

Here at this moment crowds are assem-
bled to unveil the equestrian statue of Gen-
eral George H. Thomas, another of the
heroes of the Civil War, who died in Cali-
fornia in 1870, and who now lies buried at
Troy, New York. He, too, was my classmate
at West Point from 1836 to 1840; served
with me in the Second Regiment for ten
years; and, last, was my most trusted com-
mander in the great campaign of Atlanta.
His equestrian statue is now erected in the
square of Washington where Fourteenth
street is intersected by Massachusetts Avenue.

To-morrow, with becoming exercises, this
statue will be unveiled and presented to the
nation. A great oration will be pronounced,
and the statue accepted by the President of
the United States, to be followed in the even-
ing by other speeches and ceremonies.

I will be present at all, but will bear a mod-
est part, because most of the audience will
think that my turn comes next, and many that
I, too, ought to have died long since to make
room for ambitious subordinates. But some-
how I linger on— it may be, "superfluous on
the stage " ; but I reason that I have taken a
Kasonable share of chances to be killed by
bullets and Indians, and it is not my fault
that I have survived Thomas, and McPher-
son, and others of my war comrades. When
my time does come I suppose that the world
will have forgotten the days of 1864-65, and
forget the gratitude then felt and expressed
for the men who fought and won the battle
for our national Union and liberty. Don't
forget it yourself, but be thankful that your
children thereby escaped the horrors of bat-
tle, the terrible conflicts of passion and feel-
ing, which had to be in 1861-65 or at some
subsequent time. Now all is peace and glory ;
America now stands at the head of civilized
nations ; and many must exist who know the
truth and bear in honor and affectionate re-
membrance the men who fought that glorious



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peace might be possible. With love to Mr.
, and to all friends, I am with real re-



spect,



Yours,



W, T, Sherman.



The Centary*8 American ArtlsU Series

GEORGE HITCHCOCK
(See page 237)

It has remained for an American, Mr. George
Hitchcock, to become one of the most colorful
and characteristic painters of Holland. Over
a score of years ago Mr. Hitchcock settled in
Egmond, near Amsterdam, and he has since
devoted his energies almost exclusively to
recording the springtime brightness of tulips
and hyacinths. Few artists have shown such
singleness of purpose, and few have achieved
a more conspicuous measure of success. Mr.
Hitchcock prefers Holland mainly in one
mood, but that mood is her most typical and
most delightful. Holland flooded in sunlight
and covered with a multicolored floral carpet
is the Holland Mr. Hitchcock puts upon can-
vas in all its brilliant, vernal radiance. A
figure-painter quite as unmistakably as a land-
scape-painter, Mr. Hitchcock combines both
elements on even terms. He has thus painted
a succession of canvases showing the quaint
though somewhat phlegmatic charm of nu-
merous Dutch maidens at work or resting,
standing pensively or strolling leisurely amid
variegated clusters of bloom. Among the
most engaging of these compositions are " The
Mob Cap," " Hyacinths," and the picture— re-



produced on page 237— known as " Blaster
Sunday " or "In Brabant," which shows a
maiden in figured cape and muslin cap
wreathed with blossoms, through which peeps
her blonde hair. Underfoot are masses of
purple crocuses blending into the brown
hedge in the distance, and on the air is the
delicate, evasive caress of early spring.

Mr. Hitchcock, who was bom in Providence,
Rhode Island, in 1850, comes of a long line
of judges and advocates, and was graduated
from Brown University in 1872 and from the
Harvard Law School in 1 874. Admitted to the
bar both in Providence and in New York, he
remained in the law until twenty-nine, when
he definitely gave over jurisprudence for the
palette. He studied in Paris with Boulanger
and Lefebvre, at Diisseldorf, and with Mesdag
at The Hague. An academic painter in Paris
and a manne-painter under Mesdag, Mr. Hitch-
cock did not really discover himself until he
found the tulip-fields of Egmond.

Following on the success of hb " Culture
des Tulipes " at the Salon of 1887, Mr. Hitch-
cock exhibited regularly in the principal Eu-
ropean capitals. He was hors concours in
Paris by 1 889, and subsequently won medals
in Berlin, Dresden, Munich, and Vienna, and
has also exhibited at the Society of American
Artists in New York and the Chicago Expo-
sition. He is a member of the Munich Seces-
sion, and is the only American member of the
Vienna Academy, as well as an officer of the
Order of Franz Josef.

Christian Brinton,




English BS She is Set Up

THE following is what was left of a con-
tribution by an English writer to the late
periodical of all languages, ** L'CEuvre," after
the Parisian compositor had done his best.

mirage!

Over there to the right, beyond the udaters
of the bay, beond the purple nills, beyond
the line of Snoro-Covered peaks cohich Stand
Ochind, the Sun uill set in about au hour.
Already the blue of the Sky has become
tinged vith rose, imparting the sam delicate
tint to the holloros of the idaves tohich come
and break almost noiselessly at my feet, Kiss-



iny the red sand os only the enchanted idav^
of the Mediterraneau cau hies and carers.

A fed hundred yards from the shore the
isater appears like a woderf ul mosaic made of
opalo and amethysto, rabies and mdher-of-
pearl, cemented tozether by gold of every
imaginable shade of red and yelladi; nord
Skimmerius tike au Autumu corufilld : nord
motionleso as the sand sohich Stretches far
ad eye cau see: nord broken by the touch of
the coing of agreat idliste gull uhich rises a
feu feet and then coheelo arday to the South
with a melancholy cry.

Dam not alone upon the shore: Coming
tordards me is a young man, a i>oet; near
Hum, au old grey-bearded iman and a child.



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IN LIGHTER VEIN



319



both of idhom are lorldng care fully doron
amonyst the sand Seckuy perhapo fur Shello.
The poet has hio eyes fixed sea-wards tord-
ards the horizon may be he is watchiny the
glitter any idave-cresto, the soaring birds, the
feathur-Iike eland. . . . Idhen willing a fero
yards from idhere3 aus Staudius ne sudden-ly
stopo and excitedly callo the attention of the
old man to somehing uhict he sees, far avay
to the 3 outh: "Idonderfut! Isonderful!"
Ne cries. ** A laud that has risen from the
sea ! Look ! Look ! " de all lodkehu the di-
rection the indicated and there, Lure endeflu,
was to be seen the most lovely land that ever
poet idasking of in trio dream : a land of lilaes
and of roses ; of lilaes and of roses ; of rain-
bows glitterius on the spray of fountaino fal-
Hne on Sando of gold ; of surect maidens, in
pale draperies, Slumbering on idhite marble
seato ou terraces that overlodhed the sea ; and
all beneath a sky of vaparous blue.

But it was not that idlict cored be seen id-
linct 30 enraptured, but rather idhat one felt
must be found in that magic bland ; some-
thing 50 certain yet 50 rendefined. There
mere floroers ; therefore there must be bees
with murmurius coings ; there vere florvero :
there were gardens: Merefora birds singins
amonpt the Almond-Elosasoms in tu twilight.
And, above all, that parfact peace the poss-
essian polhict would more that repay aux pos-
sible hardshises undergone to attain it.

So the poet Said : ** Let us go. The Godo
are not dead ! Over there in the island they
still live ; troubling themselves no longer with
the affairs of mortalo they are happy in that
exile tordlinct they have been banistred by
the too-prosaic ideas of the nerdera. Let us
go : perhaps they ivill admit us to share their
exile."

And the old man Said : ** Let us go: there
is gold in the island ! red and yellord gold.
Many a time nave 3 seen the island appear :
many a timo have 3 gone ont towards it, but
alas I never Couldt get to it befora il disap-
peared. Let us goat once or it will too late."

"Let us go" Said the Child", if there are
fluvero. . . .

Lo they todk a boat that idas lying on the
beach and went toyards the island. O sand
them go. The young man rowed, the old man
held the tilles; the child sat in the prord,
catchinx worth both bauds at the foam. On
and on they went, but before they nad been
gone five or six minutes 3 sand the island
vanish, fadins firat and becominx confourde
ed urith the mist Miat joined sea and sley.
But still they rowed omdards. I called to
them but they could not hear me. So Sit-
aided in the tivilight till they Should return.

The sun went doron behind the purple
hills, and fiamins Clouds hung like tapistries



in the idast. But not nutil the sapphire sky
idas filled urith many stars did? hear the
plash of the peturnins oars.

"Too late ! Too late 1 " Said the old man.
" Ude must roro faster next time. All had
disappeared."

"AH had disappeared" echoed the child.
"There rucre not even any flouvers. ..."

And the poet wept.

The QnwdMMi of the Veterao

I *VE got the finest grandpapa

That ever lived, I blieve ;
He used to be a soldier boy—

He *s got one empty sleeve.

He tells the grandest tales to me,

Of battles that he fought ;
Of how he marched, and how he charged.

And how that he got shot.

My papa was a soldier, too ;

No battles was he in,
And when I ask him, " Why ? " he laughs.

And guesses he "was tin."

I Ve tried to understand their talk,

And b*lieve I have it right :
My grandpa licked so many, there

Were none for pa to fight.

Arthur E, Parke,

Jean Pasco*5 Trading

Jean Pasco walked to Furnier*s store,
Jean drove a horse back to his door;
The jieighbors said : " Look, he feels big !
He *s traded the cow for a horse and rig ! "

"Margot," cried Jean, " it *s summer now;
We *11 go on the road and need no cow !
This horse, you say, is too old to pull 1
Not so; he can pull a wagonful —
Us two and the boys and more besides.
Oh, the road is good for one that rides !

"We *11 take a huckleberry load
And peddle to people along the road ;
There *s money to make and things to see.
Silk for you and clothes for me !
Margot, you '11 say I *m a clever one
The day our traveling has begun."

Before Jean Pasco spoke a word more,
Margot jumped in and drove to the store.
" Here is your horse ! " she cried, "and now,
Jean Pasco, quick, bring home the cow !
Did you think to trade for clothes and silk
The cow that gives the children milk?
Next time you '11 know there is no trade
Till Margot Pasco says it 's made."

Francis Sterne Palmer,



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Dat *Skeeter

(A NARRATIVE BY BRUDDER CRIPPER. WITH CHORUS)

I *S 'quainted wid a *skeeter— oh, he. hab a
hard heart !
(Listen, now, Brudder Grip, listen, now!)
He do sting me in the forehead an* ebery
tender part.
(Gracious Dow, Brudder Grip, gracious
Dow!)
W*en I rise up in de mo*nin', w*en I lay me
down fer sleep,
(Oh, cry, Brudder Gripper, oh, cry!)
Dat 'skeeter he beside me, an' a studdy watch
he *I1 keep —
(Till yer die, Brudder Grip, till yer die !)
He foller me ter meetin', where de preacher
talkin' tall,
(Dat 's so, Brudder Gripper, dat 's so !)
An* w'en I rise ter cogitate an' 'terrogate dem
all,
(Don't we know, Brudder Grip, don't we
know ?)
Dat 'skeeter he sneak close ter me, he crawl
up by my side,
(He do, Brudder Gripper, he do !)
An' de mo' dat I does appetise de wuss do he
deride.
(Dat 's true, Brudder Gripper, dat 's true !)
Well, one night w'en de moon been high,
an' watermelons fine,
(You bet, Brudder Gripper, you bet !)
I sneak down ter de Big House, jest fer look
at maussa's vine.
(Don't fret, Brudder Gripper, don't fret!)



I jest been wbhed fer test dem, so I 'blige ter
eat a few—
(We know, Brudder Gripper, we know!)
Old maussa hab so many he can't grudge me
one or two ;
(Dat 's so, Brudder Gripper, dat 's so !)
But when I kinder runnin' home, 'c'ase
maussa might be by,
(Understan', Brudder Gripper, under-
stan'!),
Dat 'skeeter come behind me, an* I light out
wid a cry.
(Oh, land, Brudder Gripper, oh, land !)
De for'man he been ketched me, an* he
licked me black an* blue.
(What a row, Brudder Grip, what a row I)



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