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to the majestic pomp of the Catholic
liturgy, —all united to make the funeral rites
worthy of an imperial highness. But the
real burial — the burial she had wished—
took place, a few days previous, in the
humble church of St. Gratien on the 18th
of January. There the service was austere,
plain, and strictly private. No one was
present save the family and the peasants
of the neighborhood, who had been the
organizers of the ceremony, inasmuch as
the commime— that is, the village authori-
ties — insistently petitioned the government
for leave to bury the princess in the church
itself, such burials being now forbidden in
France. Hither they came in procession,
with their band at their head, to pay a last
tribute of respect to the lady of the Chiteau
de St. Gratien. An incident fraught with
emotional interest marked the passage of
the Empress Eugenie. As she stepped out
of the little church all heads were bowed,
while she, as if in memory borne back to
her imperial past, returned the marks of
respect, saluting right and left with the
graceful, majestic bow unseen in France
since she left. Who that ever saw her does
not remember those gracious inclinations
of the head natural to the Empress from
the swanlike form of her neck, the pecu-
liar shape of her perfect bust, and the ele-
gant carriage of her head? Beneath her
white hair, veiled in crape, she was still the
same ; and before this transient resiurection
of a vanished past more than one of the
beholders shed tears.

Now the good princess sleeps her last
sleep in the transept of the church she
restored, opposite the tomb of Catinat,
marshal of France. He was one of her
favorite heroes, a man who refused honors,
riches, titles of nobility, and caused Louis
XIV to say of him : " He is virtue crowned."

The estate of St. Gratien belonged to
him, and the old house in which he lived,
a pavilion of the time of Henry III, still
exists. The princess used to lodge her best
friends there, delighted to have in her keep-
ing the memory of this great man, which
she surroimded with respect. The ivory
crucifix given to Catinat by Fenelon she



had placed in the village church. It will
remain, perhaps, as a last and only relic
of St. Gratien, the chdteau and groimds
having been immediately sold in lots— in
fact, parceled out.

Alas ! everything which belonged to the
princess went to the auction sale, except a
few pictures bequeathed in her will to the
Louvre, and which are already placed in
the National Museum, her portrait by
Doucet among them. Probably Prince
Louis Bonaparte could not, without this
public sale, have found money for the
charitable legacies of his aunt. It was,
however, pitiful to see the gems which one
remembered having admired on those
queenly arms and shoulders pass into the
hands of the jewelers, who fought for them.
A necklace of pearls brought 489,500
francs, the sheer value of the pearls them-
selves. But what was that intrinsic worth
compared with the historical interest of such
a jewel, the engagement gift offered in
1807 by Napoleon to his brother's bride,
the young Princess of VVurtemberg ? The
three strands of pearls which belonged to
Queen Sophia of Holland were bought by
a dealer for 940,000 francs, and were re-
sold the next day for more than a million.
This is among the highest prices ever
reached at public sale for a piece of
jewelry, a painting, or other object of art.
A collar of thirty-three black pearls, for-
merly belonging to the Queen of West-
phalia, reached 101,000 francs. Perhaps
the most extraordinary of all, a string of
twenty- two diamonds from India brought
128,000 francs. Two pendants, each
formed of a single pearl, brought 200,750
francs. The exact total is 3, 18 1,841 francs.
But who cares ? Family jewels are price-
less — above all, when the family is this of
Napoleon. Not only the pearls and dia-
monds, but the splendid lace which the
princess loved has been disposed of: old
guipure, point d'Alen9on of the eighteenth
century, etc. ; the whole collection for little
less than a hundred thousand francs.

The house in the Rue de Berri has be-
come the property of the Belgian govern-
ment, which has there installed its legation
in Paris. When one passes by its doors,
closed as those of a tomb, one cannot help
thinking sadly that it is not merely the
close of a life, but the close of a society,
the end of a world which had a prestige
and a grandeur of its own.



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THE PASSING OF JOSEPH JEFFERSON

BY R. W. G.

SOME element from nature seems withdrawn,
The world we lived in being of his spirit wrought, —
His brightness, sweetness, tender gaiety.
His childlike, wistful, and half-humorous faith
That tiuned this harsh earth into fairy-land.
He made our world, and now our world is changed.

The sunniest nature his that ever breathed ;
Most lovable of all the sons of men ;
Who built his joy on making others happy :
Like Jesus, lover of the hills and shores,
And like him to the beasts and flowers kin,
And with a brother's love for all mankind.
But chiefly for the loving— though the lost.
In his own art,— ineffable, serene.
And mystical (not less to nature true
And to the heart of man),— his was the power
To shed a light of love on human waifs
And folk of simple soul. Where'er he went.
Sweet childhood followed and all childlike hearts.
His very presence made a holiday-
Affectionate laughter and quick, unsad tears.

Now, he being gone, the sun shines not so bright
And every .shadow darkens.

Kind heaven forbid
Our lives should lack forever what he gave,—
Prove mirage-haunted, every good unreal!
Let the brave cheer of life we had through him
Return, reflected from his joyous soul
That cannot all be lost, where'er it hides, —
Hides, but is quenched not, —haply smiling still
Near where his well-loved Shakspere smiling sits.
Whose birthday for his own new birth he took
Into the unseen world, to him not far
But radiant with the same mysterious light
That filled his noontime with the twilight dream.
And it was Easter, too,— the golden day
Of resurrection, and man's dauntless hope.
Into the unseen he passed, willing and glad.
And humbly proud of a great nation's love ;



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TOPICS OF THE TIME



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In honored age, with heart imtouched by years
Save to grow sweeter, and more dear, more dear, —
Into that world whereon, so oft, he mused ;
Where he forgets not this, nor shaM we him,—
That magic smile, that most pathetic voice.
That starry glance, that rare and faithful soul.

From dream to dream he passed on Shakspere's day-
So dedicate his mind to pleasant thought.
So deep his fealty to that great .shade ;
He being, like him of Avon, a fairy child,
High-bom of miracle and mystery.
Of wonder, and of wisdom, and of mirth.



TOPICS OF THE TIME



CLEARING-HOUSES FOR HUMAN
BETTERMENT

COLUMBUS and his successors re-
duced the world from an unimagi-
nable infinity into imaginable vastness.
Since the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries
it has grown continually smaller, but never
perhaps, since then, so rapidly as within
the last five years. Recent Occidental and
Oriental wars with their sequelae, and other
causes, such as the extension of railroad
and telegraph and telephone lines, have
brought the ends of a still pretty big world
together as never before. This great
change is evidenced in the fact that the
average American at last is able to occupy
his mind with foreign news; even with
Oriental news; even with Oriental news
not warlike.

One of the things that the awakened
mind of the average American now per-
ceives is that he cannot complaisantly con-
fine his attention to home affairs, without
comparison with those of foreign coun-
tries. He at last sees that he must " care "
very much for " abroad " ; he realizes that
American problems are world problems,
many of which must be solved by availing
ourselves of the contemporary experience
of other nations. He recognizes that the



new form of industrialism, —namely, manu-
facture, — which diminishes the agricultural
populations and augments the urban, is a
condition which affects, in greater or less
degree, the whole world. With this great
change of conditions come all the new
problems, physical and moral, of concen-
trated living ; all the dangers to the indi-
vidual and society from congestion of
population, and from the new forces of
steAm and electricity as applied to trans-
portation and to machinery of all kinds.

It is now seen that these new conditions
affect not merely the centers of civilization,
but the most distant parts of the earth
where the spirit of modem enterprise has
penetrated. Meantime, everywhere experi-
ments are being made in the solution of the
new problems ; the successes and the failures
all being of the greatest use as examples or
warnings — if the knowledge of them can
be promptly carried to other communities
throughout the world, where similar con-
ditions induce similar experiments.

For many years special studies by in-
dividuals, or by official commissions, have
made a shift at supplying to single com-
munities, or single groups or individuals,
or to the general public, practical infor-
mation and advice in these matters. But
during the past few years it has been



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476



THE CENTURY MAGAZINE



realized that there were no agencies which
were doing the work of gathering and
wisely disseminating practical information
on all matters of social welfare with suffi-
cient thoroughness to supply the demands
arising on every side.

So far as we know, the Mus^e Social in
Paris was the first practical response to
the demand occasioned by the new con-
ditions. This institution was founded and
endowed in Paris, in the year 1894, by the
Comte de Chambrun. Its field is limited
to concerns of labor ; but in this field it is
of the highest utility. Any person in the
world may send to the Mus^e Social an
inquiry on any subject within its piu-view
and receive an expert answer ; if the ma-
terial for such an answer is not at hand in
the archives of the institution, it will be
immediately obtained from the best expert
authorities in France. From time to time
the Mus^e sends out commissions of in-
quiry into foreign countries. Within its
walls are meeting-rooms for consultation
and for public lectiures, and a library kept
up to date along its special line.

But before the establishment of the
Mus6e Social, Dr. Josiah Strong, then con-
nected with the Evangelical Alliance, had
outlined a similar institution, but on a
broader basis, for America : what may be
called a cUaring-house for human betterment.
In the year 1898 he was enabled partly to
realize his own ideal in the formation of
what is now known by its new name of the
American Institute for Social Service,—
an institution of which he is himself presi-
dent, and Dr. W. H. Tolman is director.
This institute represents what may be
called the American idea of a Mus^e So-
cial, which includes the functions of the ad-
mirable Paris foundation, but only awaits
a proper endowment to cover the whole
field of social betterment.

It seems to us that this is one of the
most practical and hopeful ideas ever for-
mulated, and we are not siuprised that the
Institute has enlisted the support of states-
men like President Roosevelt and ex-
President Cleveland, who are among its
" Associates," and that the idea has been
taken up energetically in other countries,
the movement in some cases being directly
inspired by the American Institute, and in
the case of Great Britain having, in its be-
ginnings, the personal cooperation of the
founder and president of the American



Institute. The Swedish Institute of So-
cial Service was directly modeled on the
American Institute of Social Service.

The work of such clearing-houses for
human betterment is not merely remedial,
but preventive. The American Institute
includes among its proposed features such
a museum of safety as the museums at
Amsterdam, Milan, Munich, Charlotten-
burg, and Paris, where are shown, and in
some cases operated, appliances connected
with machinery for the prevention of ac-
cidents. It proposes also a department —
greatly needed— of comparative legisla-
tion, to register the laws on social subjects
as they are passed in every American legis-
lative, as well as foreign legislation. The
Institute already records and disseminates
information on schemes of industrial bet-
terment, of village improvement, of hous-
ing reform, of municipal housekeeping,
and all cognate subjects; and it answers
inquiries on these subjects from all parts
of America and, indeed, of the world.

But we cannot here describe all the
functions of the American Institute and
similar foundations abroad. We desire
merely to name these foundations as
among the most useful, original, and hope-
ful of the new agencies of civilization.

Better than all, such institutions are a
fresh manifestation of thenoblest side of the
human spirit,— the sentiment of brother-
hood, of disinterested helpfulness. There
is so much of energetic and successful
selfishness in the world that we sometimes
overlook the powerful organizations and
tremendous energies at work not only to
help the afflicted, but to prevent affliction ;
to build up right and wholesome condi-
tions; to make this hard world a cleaner,
better, happier place to live in for all the
children of men.

THE STAGE WHISPER

IT is a matter of frequent comment that
within the last two years there has been
a marked improvement in the American
stage, both in matter and manner. It would
be an evil omen were Shakspere to be ab-
sent from the boards for long, since it is
better that he should be played poorly than
not at all ; but it is pleasant to record that
of late some very creditable representations
have been given, enlisting Miss Marlowe,
Miss Matthieson, Miss Eleanor Robson,



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OPEN LETTERS



477



Mr. Mansfield, Mr. Sothem, Mr. Otis
Skinner, and others, and that these happily
have proved successful at the box-office.
For the rest, the new plays have often been
up to the comprehension of intellectual
people; Mr. Zangwill and Mr. Shaw in
particular have exhibited skill and wit in
refreshing combination. Of Mr. Thomas
Bailey Aldrich's beautiful poetic tragedy
of "Judith," with Miss Nance O'Neil in
the title r61e, we have spoken heretofore.
Mrs. Le Moyne's interesting and credit-
able representations of "The Blot in the
'Scutcheon " and " In a Balcony " keep alive
the tradition of Browning's tragedy. Mrs.
Fiske has given us a successful melodrama.
Mr. Klein's admirable play "The Music
Master '* has advanced Mr. David War-
field to the front rank of comedians in this
country. Another welcome addition to the
playwrights is Mr. George Ade, who is mak-
ing excellent progress in humorous work of
an admirable and wholesome sort, and only
needs to let his ideality have a little freer
play to realize his best possibilities. Both
in the success of good plays and in the
failure of bad ones, there seems to be a
healthier condition of affairs.

In one respect, however, there is little if
any improvement— in the cardinal defect
of poor elocution. With the increased cost
of living in general, the cost of good seats
has, by the aid of the speculator, reached
a price that to many a theater-goer makes
them a luxury. Does it ever occur to the
managers that if the actors were well
trained in voice-production and enuncia-
tion, all seats in the theater would be good
ones ? There is rarely any difficulty in see-



ing the stage, but many a reader of these
lines can recall his controlled impulses to
cry, "Louder!" The handsome but un-
trained actor or actress who reaches the
fortimate few in the nearer part of the or-
chestra probably is unaware of the penum-
bra of mystification that often extends half-
way from the lobby to the stage. It is in-
deed a rare experience in any performance
to hear all the actors all the time. It is not
so much that the American voice is to
blame : a compensation for its nasal quality
is that, whether in speech or singing, it car-
ries far and that it may yield to treatment.
The English voice, though lovely in qual-
ity, is not always free from mumbling and
monotony. In each case it is training that
counts, and upon this point certainly less
stress is laid in this country than elsewhere.
The dramatic schools maintain a high ideal,
but they reach a small percentage of those
who face the footlights. The theater, like
most other educational institutions in
America, is lacking in discipline, in the
fundamentals of technic. Most actors, as
Mr. Stedman says of writers, learn their
business, as barbers do theirs, by " trying
it on the public," while the victims wince.
It was one of Joseph Jefferson's distinc-
tions that he was not only an advocate, but
an example, of good stage elocution. He
was, however, an exception that proved the
rule. The first step toward a better state of
affairs is to convince managers and actors
that it is desirable. With the memory of
many a bad quarter-hour of strained effort
to hear what should be apprehended with
ease, we respectfully submit this word of
suggestion.




Note on Emperor WilHain

AN "Anglo-Saxon" writes to us, from Ger-
L many, taking exception to ex-Ambassador
Andrew D. White's statement, in The Cen-
tury for February, regarding the popularity
of the German Emperor in his own country.
The writer says he has lived in Germany
for some years, "in close contact with the



'plain people * of all descriptions," and that he
has " never heard any word from these which
expresses a sense of personal regard, devotion,
or affection for the present incumbent of the
German throne." He goes on to criticize his
policies with regard to both Asiatic and Euro-
pean matters, condemning him for his attitude
toward China and Turkey, and for his sup-
posed Pan-Germanic designs.— The Editor.



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Humor in School

SECOND PAPER

IT was in the wilds of Vancouver Island. The
teacher boarded with the wife of the trustee
and wore brow^i shoes. These were a rara
avis in that forest land. One day there came
a timid tap at the teacher's bedroom door,
followed by a voice: "Teacher, will you lend
me your Browning?" Teacher, overlooking
the " two foot nothing " of little Mary Inverarity
(her father a rancher, her mother an Indian
squaw), asked : " My Browning, kiddie ? What
would you do with Browning ? " " Brown my
shoes, teacher, please," replied Mary, with a
modest look at her mother-made moccasins.
The parity of reasoning was plain,— blacking,
that which blacks boots ; browning, the thing
that browns them.

The text-book in English history, account-
ing for the untimely death of Henry V, says :
"In the very noon of his glory he died. The
debaucheries of his early life sowed the seeds
of his early death." Confronted with the ex-
amination demand, "What killed Henry V? "
the small boy wrote : " He swallowed a seed in
his early youth and forgot all about it. But it
grew and it grew and it grew, and after the
battle of Agincourt it sprang up and choked
him."

With a heart attuned to " nature-study," a
little Hungarian girl in the Canadian North-
west exclaimed : " Yah, teacher ; it 's certain
beautiful on our prairie, where the birds and
the small sheep run about raw." It is this
girVs brother who states: "Plumage is the
foliage of a parrot or hen."

It is, of course, a little girl who declares
with conviction : " Nature is the loN-eliest thing
in the world. If >%*€ had no nature >%'e would
all be unhappy and die."

That >%-e are fearfully and >%x)nderfuny made
is borne in upon one after reading such replies
as these from the anatomy class :

" The thoracic duct is a tube or canal which
equals a goose-quill in \%*eight."

** The bones which meet at the knee are the
shin-bone and the submaxillar>'."

** Circulation is a beet that goes all o\*er the
body."

•* Cause of nalrow chests is most female
folks tie in their waists,"

•* IVlicut people should not eat hot or warm
bread: it *s apt to gixt )t)u pastr\- of the
stomach."



"The food enters the human body at a
cavity behind the collar-bone."

The workings of the Salic Law are not
easily grasped by the infant mind ; so we get
answers like these : " The Sallick Law declared
that no man who once married a woman might
hope to set on the throne of England." The
question is irrevocably disposed of by the ex-
tremist who records : " The Salic Law declared
that no man should be born of a woman."

There is a mixture of kingdoms if not of
metaphors in the next two. " He stretched his
sultry length beneath the ewe-tree's shade."
" Away back as far as the time of Jack Cartier
England sent her ships into Hudson Bay to
trade beads and muskets with the Indians for
ivory off the walrus- tree."

'* Charles I died of excessive ambition, and
John I died of peaches and new ale."

" Henry VIII had many wives and favorites ;
he burned the Pope's bull in effigy, and said
if he had served the Pope as God had served
him, he would never have dyed in his old
age."

" George IV was unfeeling and immortal."

"Florence Nightingale is referred to as
' Nature's Soft Nurse ' ; she was very tender to
the soldiers in the Crimea, and led on the
noble Red Cross Society."

" Alfred Austin was chosen by the Queen
to be the poet laureate; he said, Mf you let
me make the songs of the nation, I care not
who sings them.' "

It was in a Victoria Sunday-school that a
teacher tried in vain to convince a seven-year-
old that he was wrong. The boy was as in-
sistent as Wordsworth's " we-are-seven " girl,
and calmly closed the argument with: "I
think I *m right ; my father is a B. A."

Only last week there was trouble in the in-
fant class. Little Dorothy had been guUty of
some childish peccadillo, and her teacher (very
>'oung and very impressive) was moralizing:
" You know, Dorothy, >'our father will be sorry
to hear this, your mother will be sorry, and
God \k-ill be sorry." '* Yes," Dorothy sadly
agreed, with a sigh ; " and Jesus Christ and
King Edward ^-ill be sorry."

Revelstoke is a little place far up in British
Columbia, hedged \x\ by the mighty hills ; and
the circus does n't often come to town. I
climbed up there two >-ears ago to report a
teachers' con\-ention. Two cow-boys leaning
against the drug-store comer watched the



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IN LIGHTER VEIN



479



stream of invaders. " What kind of a round-
up is it, Bill?" "Kid-punchers," was the
laconic reply.

" Give three reasons for saying the earth is
round," confronted Sandy on an examination
paper. "My teacher says it *s round, the
book says it 's round, and a man told me it
was round." At his high-school entrance
examination the physiology paper asked,
" How many times does your pulse beat a
minute?" Sandy put down his pen, opened
his watch on the desk beside him, grasped his
pulse, and calmly counted.

His deliberation was equaled by that of a
Canadian teacher who fell heir last year to an
English estate of ;^2o,ooo. In the lawyer's
office the clerks made bets as to how she would
take it. One thought she would scream, two
were of opinion she would burst into tears,
two others favored hysterics. Her reply to
the messenger was disconcerting : " I shall
finish my monthly report, hear these spelling
errors, whip two boys, and be at your office in
forty minutes."

" Are you talking again. Pearl ? " asked the
teacher. " Yes, ma'am ; I was just saying to
Ellsie Prowse that I was going to tell the
teacher that my pa has his new teeth in now."
" Oh," said the teacher, " was that it ? " " Yes,
Miss Gillespie ; the top ones was all right, but
the bottom ones teeter a little."

In the geography class I asked: "Tom,
your father is a sailor : would it be possible
for him to start to-day to go round the world,
and keep on sailing always in the same direc-
tion till he came back to his starting-point ? "
" No, Miss Cameron." "Why?" " He 's in
jail." Tom himself is a great sport. Last
spring I asked the class to name some of the
most useful things we dig out of the earth.
" Worms," returned Tom.

In the history class: "Who prompted
Mary ? " No answer. " Mary, did you not
hear some one prompting?" Mary, with a
twinkle : " Well, I thought I did, Miss Purves ;
perhaps it was history repeating itself."

Again : " King Alfred burned the neatherd



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