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EOYAL ILLUSTBATED

HISTORY OF EASTEBN ENGLAND.



CIVIL, MILITAEY, POLITICAL, AND ECCLESIASTICAL,



FKOM THE EARLIEST PERIOD TO THE PRESENT TIME,



A SUKYEY OF THE EASTERN COUNTIES:

PHYSICAL FEATURES^ GEOLOGY, AND NATURAL HISTORY OF

CAMBRIDGESHIRE, ESSEX, NORFOLK, AND SUFFOLK,

DESCEIPTIONS OF ANTIQUITIES, ..

CASTLES, CAMPS, FORTS, CHURCHES, ABBEYS, MONASTERIES,

MARKET TOWNS, PUBLIC BUILDINGS,

AND THE SEATS OF THE NOBILITY AND GENTRY;

AN ACCOUNT OF

idRICULTURE, MANUFACTURES, TRADES, &c..



^



MEMOIRS OF

COUNTY FMIILIES AND EMINENT MEN

OF EVERY PERIOD.

BY A . D . BAYNE

Author of " A History of Norwich."



&H^

V.I

JAMES MACDONALD & Co.,
MARKET-PLACE, GREAT YARj\IOUTH



TRINTED AT THE " NORFOLK NEWS " OFFICE, MUSEUM COURT, ST. ANDREW S, NORWICH.






CONTENTS OF VOL. I



j) LVTKODUCTION.

SPlan of the Work — Topographical and Historical —

^ Xatuial History and Geology of Eastern England, 9 ; Climato and Elora of

^ East Anglia, 21 ; the Fauna of Eastern England, 24 ; the Birds of l!^orfolk

^ and Siifiblk, 26; the Fishes of »"orfolk and Suffolk, 29.

^ CHAPTEE I.

\ToroGRAPHy op Essex — SrruATioN and Extent, 33.

General Description of Essex, 33 ; Physical Features of the County, 36 ;
Political Division of the Couaty, 39 ; Ecclesiastical Division of the County,
39 ; Estates in Essex, 40.

Hundreds in Essex —

Tendring, 40; Lexden, 41; Winstree, 41; Thurstable, 42; Dengie, 43;
Kochford, 43 ; Chelmsford, 44 ; Witliam, 45 ; Hickford, 45 ; Freshwell, 46 ;
Uttlesford, 46; Clavering, 47; Dunmow, 48; Ongar, 48; Waltham, 49;
Eecontree, 52 ; Barstable, 52 ; Chattbrd, 53 ; Havering atte Bower, 54.

The Towns in Essex —

(Colchester Line of Railway.)
Stratford, 55; Barking, 5Q ; Eford, 56; Eomford, 57; Brentwood, 58;
Ingatestone, 61; Chelmsford, 61; Witham, 64; Braintree, 64; Coggeshall,
67 ; Colchester, 69 ; Ardleigh, 76 ; ^Nlanningtree, 77 ; Harwich, 78 ; Southend,
82 ; Iklaldon, 84 ; Walton-on-the-j^aze, 84.

(Cambridge Line of Railway.)
Tottenham, 86; "VValthamstow, 86; Edmonton, 87; Enfield, 87; Waltham
Abbey, 88 ; Eoydon, 90 ; Broxbourne, 90 ; Harlow, 91 ; Sutton, 92 ; Bishop
Stortford, 93; Stanstead, 93; Elsenham, 94; Quenden, 94; JS'ewport, 95;
Saffron Walden, 95 ; Audley End, 98; Chesterford, 100.

Essex [Castles and Forts, 101 ; Abbeys and other Monastic Institutions
IN Essex, 101. .



11 CONTENTS.

Seats of the Nobility and Gentry in Essex —

Audley End, Eord Braybrooke, 39 ; Euston Hall, Viscount Maynard, 39 ; Thorn-
don Hall, Lord Petrc, 39 ; Terlino- Place, Lord Eayleigli, 39 ; Rivenliall Place,
8ir J. P. Wood, LL.D., 39 ; Down Hall, near Harlow, Sir J. T. J. Selwin, 39 ;
Hill Hall, Sir W. B. Smith, 39 ; Hcydon Hall, Sir B. J. H. Soame, 39 ; Mesner
Hall, Sir E. A. .Vllcyan, 39 ; Wivenhoe Hall, Sir W. C. De Crespigny, 39 ;
Dale Hall, Sii- B. Hartwell, 39 ; Newton Hall, Sir B. P. Heimiker, 39 ; Bell
House, Sir T. B. Lennard, 39 ; Ingatestone, Edgar Disney, Esq., 61 ; Audlej
End, Lord Bray brook, 98.

CHAPTER IL

ToroGiiAPUY OF Cambridgeshire — Situation and Extent, 101

General Description of the County, 102 ; Hundreds and Parishes in tlie
C^onnty, 108.

The Towns of Cambridgeshire—

Cambridge, 109 ; the University of Cambridge, 112 ; the University Colleges,
124; Newmarket, 125; Linton, 127; Waterbeach, 127; the City of Ely,
128; Littleport, 131; March, 131; Wisbeach, 132; Thorney Abbey, 135;
Whittlesey, 136.

The Bedford Level, 136.

The Estuary of the Wash of Lincoln, 138.

CHAPTER III.

Topography of Norfolk — Situation and Extent, 139.

General Descrii)tion of tlie County, 139 ; the Forest Bed in Norfolk, 1-40 ; the
Norfolk Coast, 141 ; Physical Features of Norfolk, 145 ; Political Divisions,
147 ; Ecclesiastical Divisions, 147.

Hundreds in West Norfolk —

Clackclose, 148; Grimshoe, 149 ; Shropham, 153; Guiltcross. 154; Wayland,
156; South Greenhoe, 157; Forehoe, 158; Mitford, 162 ; Launditch, 164;
Eynesford, 165; Gallow, 166; North Greenhoe, 168; Smithdon, 172;
Freebridge Lynn, 173; Freebridge Marshland, 174; Brothercross, 176.

Towns and Parishes in AVest Norfolk —

Downham Market, 149; Thetford, 150; Attleborough, 153 ; East Harling, 155;
Kenningliall, 155; Quidenham, 156 ; Watton, 157 ; Merton, 157; Swatfham,
158; Wymondham, 159; Kimberley, 161; Hingham, 161; Dereham, 162;
Elmham, 165; Moreton-on-the-Hill, 165 ; the Burnhams, 166; Fakenham,
167; Houghton, 167; Raynham, 168; Walsingham, 168; WeU.s, 170; Holk-
ham, 171; Hunstanton, 172; Castle Acre, 173; Castle Rising, 173;
Hillington St. Mary, 174; Sandringham, 175; a description of Lynn Regis,
175 ; Rise and Progress of the Town, 176.

Seats of the Nobility and Gentry in West Norfolk —

Kenningliall, 155 ; Quidenham, 156 ; Merton, 157 ; Kimberley, 161 ; Elmham,
165; Houghton, 167; Raynham, 168; Walsingham, 169; Holkham, 171;
Hunstanton, 172; HilHngton, 174; Sandringham, the Seat of the Prince of
Wales, 174.



CONTENTS. Ill

HuNDUEDS IN East I^orfolk —
Blofield, 183; Walsham, 185; South Walsham, 186; Happing, 190; East
Flegg, 193 ; West Flegg, 193 ; Tunstead, 187.

Towns anp Parishes in East Norfolk —

Bishop's Thorpe, 183: Postwick, 183; Blofield, 183; 8trumpshaw, 184
Brandeston, 184; Burlingham, 184; Buckenham Ferry, 184; Cantley, 185
Acle, 185; South Walsham, 186; North Walsham, 187; Westwick, 187
Bacton, 189; Ingham, 190; Ludham, 191; Eccles, 192; Caister, 193
Stokesby, 195 ; Ashhy, 195 : Eolleshy, 195 ; Martham, 196 ; Somerton, 196
Winterton, 196.

Seats op the Nobility and Gentry in East Norfolk —

Bishop's Thorpe, 183 ; Blofield, 183 ; Burlingham, 184; Westwick, 187.

Hundreds in North Norfolk —

Taverham, 197 ; Holt, 202 ; South Erpingham, 203 ; North Erpinghara, 208.

Towns and Parishes in North Norfolk —

Attlebridge, 197; Drayton, 198; Cossey, 198; Taverham, 199; Horsford,
199; Horsham, 199; Catton, 200; Sprowston, 200; Eackheath, 200;
Spixworth, 201 ; Salhouse, 201 ; Wroxham, 201 ; Holt, 202 ; Melton
Constable, 202; Cley, 203; Aylsham, 203; Blickling, 205; Gunton, 206;
Coltishall, 207 ; Heydon, 207 ; Trimmingham, 208 ; Mundesley, 208 ; Sher-
ringham. 209 ; Siderstrand, 210 ; Cromer, 211.

Seats of the Nobility and Gentry in North Norfolk —

Taverham, 197 ; Cossey, 198 ; Catton, 200 ; Eackheath, 200 ; Wroxham, 201 ;
Spixworth, 201 ; Letheringsett, 202 ; Aylsham, 203 ; Bhckling, 205 ; Gunton,
206 ; Heydon, 207 ; Cromer, 210 ; INIelton Constable, 202.

Hundreds in South Norfolk —

Henstead, 213; Humbleyard, 217; Clavoring, 219; Loddon, 222; Depwade,
224; Ear..ham, 226; Diss, 231.

Towns and Parishes in South Norfolk —

Armiughall, 213; Wliitlingham, 213; Kirby Bedon, 213; Bramerton, 214 ;
Surlingham, 214; Caister,'. 214 ; Shottesham, 216 ; Bracon Ash, 216; East
Carlton, 217; Keswick, 217; Hethersett, 218; Ketteringham, 218; Aldebjr,
219; Brooke, 219 ; Burgh Wheatacre, 220; Ellingham', 220; Geldestone,
220 ; GiUingham, 221 ; Haddiscoe, 221 ; Kirby* Cane, 221 ; Hales, 222 ;
HoAve, 222 ; Langlev, 222 ; Ditchingham, 223 ; Loddon, 223 ; Stratton, 224 ;
Tasburgh, 224; Shelton, 225; Morningthorpe, 225; Carlton Eode, 225;
Earsham, 226 ; Denton, 227; Mendham, 227 ; Metfield, 228; Pulham, 229;
Eedenhall, 229 ; Harleston, 229 ; Scole, 231 ; Tivetshall, 231 ; Fersfield, 231 ;
Eoyston, 232 ; Diss, 233 ; the Population of Norfolk in the Ninetesntli
Century, 234.

Seats of the Nobility and Gentry in South Norfolk —

Shottesham, 216; Keswick, 217; Ketteringham, 218; Bracou Ash, 216;
Brooke, 219 ; Langley, 222 ; Ditchingham, 223.



IV CONTENTS.

CHAPTEE lY.
General Description of Norwich — Situation and Extent, 235.

Eise and Progress of the City, 236 ; the Capital of East Anglia, 237; Summary
of Local Events, 238 ; Government of the City, 240 ; Population of Nor-
wich, 241 ; Trade of the City, 242 ; the Market^ Place, 243 ; the Bishopric,
244 ; the Cathedral, 24o ; .Monastic Institutions, 246 ; the Parishes and
Churches, 247 ; Nonconformist Chapels, 251 ; Norwich Castle, 251 ; County
Prison, 253; the Shirehall, 254; St. AndreAv's Hall, 254; Public Libraries
and Museum, 255 ; Benevolent Institutions, 256 ; Schools, 256; the Hamlets,
257; City Improvements, 261; Manufactures and Trades, 262; Wholesale
Trade, 267; the Eiver Yare and Navigation, 268.

CHAPTEE Y.

General Description of Great Yarmouth — Situation and Extent, .270.
Origin of the Borough, 271 ; Eise and Progress of the Borough, 272 ;
Summary of Local Events, 273 ; Ancient "NYalls and Towers, 275 ; Charters
of the Borough, 277 ; the Parish and the Church, 278 ; the Modern
Town, 279 ; the Market Place, 280 ; the Quay-side of the Town, 281 ; the
Sea-side of the Town, 282 ; Public Buildings, 283 ; Yarmouth m the Summer
Season, 284 ; Description of the Denes, 285 ; the Havens of Yarmouth, 287 :
Trade of the Port, 289 ; the New Fish "V\niarf, 291 ; the Eisheries, 292.

CHAPTEE YT.

The Topography of Suffolk — Situation and Extent, 293.

General Description of the County, 293;- the Suffolk Coast, 294; the
Antiquities of Suftblk, 296 ; the Agi-iculture of Suffolk, 297 ; Manufactures
of Suffolk, 300.

Towns and Parishes of East Suffolk —

Ipswich, 302 ; Landguard Fort, 310; Walton, 311; Felixstow, 312; Ald-
borough, 313 ; Dunwich, 316 ; Southwold, 319 ; Pakefield, 322 ; Lowestoft,
322 ; Oultou, 329 ; Carlton Colville, 330 ; Blundeston, 330 ; Somerleyton,
331 ; Fritton, 331 ; Beccles, 335 ; Bungay, 337 ; Halesworth, 340 ; Saxmund-
ham, 341 : Wickham Market, 342 ; Framlingham, 343 ; Woodbridge, 346.

Midland Towns and Parishes in Suffolk —

Bramford, 349 ; Needham Market, 349 ; Haughley, 355 ; Stowmarket, 350
Mellis, 355 ; Eye, 356 ; Mendlesham, 357 ; Hoxne, 357 ; Yoxford, 358.

Towns and Parishes of West Suffolk —

HacUeigh, 358 ; Nayland, 359 ; Clare, 359 ; MeKord, 362 ; Sudbury, 363 ;
Lavenham, 365 ; Bradfield, 366 : Honington, 376 ; Burv St. Edmund's, 367 ;
Brandon, 376; Mildenhall, 378.

Seats of the Nobility and Gentry in Suffolk —

Somerleyton, 331 ; Helmingham HaU, 346 ; Easton Hall, 346 ; Earl Soliam
Lodge, 346 ; Parham New Hall, 346 ; Shrubland Park, 350 ; Bosmere Hall,
350 ; Barking Hall, 350 ; Gipping, 352 ; Kentwell Hall, 362 ; Melford Hall,
362 ; Ickworth. 367 : Barton House, 375, Euston Hall, 376 ; Ampton and
Livermere; 375.



Origin of the Names op Places in Eastern England —

Ancient British Names, 383 ; Eoman Names, 383 ; Anglo Saxon Names, 384 ;
Names of Places in Essex, 385 ; Names of Places in Cambridgeshire, 385 ;
Names of Places in Norfolk, 38G ; Names of Places in Suffolk, 390.

Peers, Barons, Baronets, and Knights in Suffolk, 390.

CHAPTEE VII.

Ancient History op the Eastern Counties, b.c. 55 to a.d. i50 —

The British and Ptoman Period, 391 ; the Aborigines of East Anglia,^393 ;
Antiquities of the Ancient Britons, 394 ; Eeligion of the Ancient Britons, 396 ;
the Eomans in East Anglia, 39 G ; Invasions of Julius Cresar, 397 ; Invasion of
Claudius, 398 ; Insiirrection of the Iceni, 399 ; Defeat of Boadicea, 401 ;
Kings of the Trinobantes — Marius, Lucius, Coill, 402 ; Story of Helena, 403 ;
Introduction of Christianity, 404 ; Antiquities of Eoman Period, 405 ; Eoman
Eoads, 405 ; Eoman Camps, 400 ; Eoman Burial Places, 407.

CHAPTEE VTII.

The Anglo-Saxon Period, a.d. 450 to 1066 —

Invasions of the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes, 408 ; Tribes of the Anglo Saxons,
409 ; e Anglo-Saxon Octarchy, 409 ; the Kingdoms of Essex and East
Anglia, 410; the Kings of Essex, 410; the Kings of East Anglia, 411 ; St.
Edmund the Martyr, 411 ; Invasions of the Danes, 416; the Anglia Saxon
Monarchy, 420 ; Earls and Dukes of Norfolk, 427 ; the Church in East Anglia,
428; the Bishops of East Anglia, 430; Monasteries of East Anglia, 431;
Agriculture in thb Anglo-Saxon Period, 447 ; Manners and Customs of the
Anglo Saxons, 453 ; Manners and Customs of the Normans, 454.

CHAPTEE IX.

The Anglo-Norman Period — Eeign of William I., a.d. 1066 to 1087 —
The Norman Conquest, 456 ; the Camp of Eefuge at Ely, 457 ; Here ward, the
Saxon Hero, 458 ; a Tale of Norwich Castle, 462 ; Norman Barons in East
Anglia, 466 ; Grants of Land to Norman Warriors, 469 ; Ancestors of County
Families, 470.

Ebign op William IL, a.d. 1087 to 1100—

Leading Events in this Short Eeign, 476 ; Eoger Bigod, Governor of East
Anglia, 476 ; Eudo Dapifer, Governor of Colchester, 476 ; Grants made by
the King in Norfolk, 477 ; Jews settle in the Towns, 477.

Antiquities op the Anglo-Norman Period —

Norman Castles at Walton, Oi-ford, Framlingham, Haughley, Bungay, and
Mettingham, in Suffolk, 477 ; Description of Eramlingham Castle, 478
Description of Orford Castle, 480 ; Description of Castleacre, in Norfolk, 481
Description of Castle Eising, in NorfoUv, 482 ; Churches of East Anglia, 484
Churches of the Anglo-Saxon Period, 484 ; Churches of the Norman Age,
484 ; Churches of the Third or Early-English Aga, 485 ; Churches of the
Fourth Age, or Ornamental-EngHsh Style, 486 ; Churches of the Fifth Age, or
Florid-English Style, 486 ; the Diocese of Norwich, 487 ; Herbert de Losinga,
First Bishop of Norwich and Founder of the Cathedral, 487.



viil CONTENTS.

Diss, 570 ; the Family of Do Tuny at Saliam Tony, 573 ; the Trusbutt Family,
.South Kuncton, 573.

CHAPTEK XII.

Nauiutivk OF Events in the 14th Century —

lieign of Edward II., a.d. 1307 to 1327, Accession of the King, Walter de
Xonvich in favor at Court, and one of the Barons of the Exchequer, 575 ; the
King's unfortunate marriage, 574 ; Piurs de Gaveston, the King's favourite, 575 ;
his banishment, 575 ; In 1327, the King Visits Bury St. Edmunds and Keeps
his Christmas there, 576 ; Queen Isabella and her paramour (Mortimer) land
at Harwich, thence proceed to Xorwich, thence to" Bury St. Edmund, 576 !
!^[urdcr of the King, 57(3 ; the Queen passes the Remainder of her Days at
Ca.stle Ptising, in Xorfolk, 577; Norwich Prosperous in this Reign, 577;
Bishops of Norwich, 578

Reign of Edwaru III, a.u. 1327 to 1377 —

Accession of the King, who challenged the Crown of France, 580 ; an Act
passed that all Cities and l^oroughs should retain their F'ranchises, 580 ; Disputes
between the Barons of the Cinque Ports and the Bailitis of Yarmouth, 580 ;
Yarmouth a Naval Station, 580 ; Flemish Refugees invited by the King to
settle in England, 581 ; Many of them settled in the Eastern Counties and
introduced Woollen Manufactui-es, 581 ; Norwich the only staple Town, 582 ;
Charters granted to Ipswich, 583 ; Tournament held at Norwich and attended
by the King and Queen, 583 ; Jolin Perebourne, Burgess of Yarmouth, Admiral
of the North Sea Fleet, 584 ; Yarmouth, Lynn, Harwich, IjDswich, and Dun-
Avich, supplied ships of war to the King's Fleet, 585 ; Famines, Plagues, and
Pestilences in Norfolk and Suttblk, 585, 586 ; Scarcity of Labourers and
Statute of Laboc^rers, 586; a furious Storm in ]361: Tower of Norwich
Cathedral throwni down and Dreadful Inundations, 586 ; Eminent Men of
Norfolk in this reign, 587 ; Bishops of Norwich in this reign, William Bate-
man, Thomas Percy, Henry le Spencer, 588.

Reign of Richard IL, a.d. 1377 to 1399 —

Accession of the King and Coronation, 589 : War A\-ith France, 589 ; Increased
Taxation, 590 ; Discontent of the People, 590 : Wat Tyler's Rebellion, 590 ;
Outrages of the Rebels in F^ssex, Norfolk, and Suffolk, 591 ; Parliament held
at Cambridge in 1381 in Trinity CoUege, 595 ; John of Gaunt \dsited Norwich
in 1389, and was received with high honours, 596 ; Henry le Spencer, Bishop
of Norwich, had a license to build a Castle at North Elmham in Norfolk, 596 ;
Conspiracy against the King, 596 ; Thomas Mowbray created Duke of Norfolk
for his services, 597 ; Quarrel between him and the Duke of Hereford, 597 ;
both Dukes banished, 597 ; King Richard IL deposed, 597 ; Bishops of
Norwich, 598 ; Trade Guilds in NorfoUc and Suffolk, 598 ; State of Agricul-
ture in the fourteenth century, 601 ; Account of the Manor of Hawstead in
Suffolk, 601 ; County Families dating from the fourteenth century, 603 ; the
Family of the Mowbrays, Dukes of Norfolk, 603 ; the Family of Fastolff of
Norfolk, 605.




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fi 1'







A HISTORY OF EASTERN ENGLAND.



INTEODUCTION.

ANY histories liave been published of different counties and towns
^j-^ in the eastern part of this island, but no connected narrative of
events has yet appeared, presenting a view of the state of provincial
society in every ago. Nearly all the local books are merely topographical,
descriptive of counties, or towns, or villages, or antiqilities. But the
races of men were similar at different periods all over the district, and
similar events occurred at different places, in Cambridgeshire, Essex,
Suffolk, and Norfolk.



It is generally admitted that the physical features of a country in-
fluence in a great degree the physical, mental, and moral character of its
inhabitants, and thus to some extent determine their history. A district
without mountains, mines, or broad rivers, is adapted by nature to be
chiefly agricultural, and yet, being surrounded by the sea, must be to some
extent suited for the purposes of commerce. Therefore, if it holds good
at all that there is a relation between the physical character of a country
and its people, some account should be given of its physical features.

The first part of this work contains a general survey of Eastern
England considered as one district or tract of land, with a description of
its physical features, its extent, situation, soils, and climate, its geology,
botany, and natural history. This is followed by a brief description of



4 HISTORY Of EASTERN ENGLAND.

each county, the political and ecclesiastical divisions, the government,
the market towns, the population, the roads, railways, &c. Thus the whole
district is presented to the reader as the scene of a varied history of
events.

Dr. Arnold has very ingeniously developed the parallel between the life
of individual man and that of society in general, and it applies to British
society. As man has his birth, infancy, childhood, youth, manhood, so
has society. The ancient British period was the infancy of the British
nation, the Roman period that of its childhood, the Anglo-Saxon period
that of its youth, when the various elements of national life began to
be developed ; the Norman period was that of the early manhood of the
nation, when order arose out of chaos, when the jarring elements of society
were blended together into one people. To show this growth of national
life in Eastern England is the object of the following pages.

The British element is shown to be the first basis of English society.
This element is found in the physical organization of the natives of the
Eastern Counties, and in their language. The natives were not all exter-
minated, for many of them remained on the soil and mingled with the
Roman invaders, who, if they killed the fighting men, kept the women as
slaves.

The Roman element was the second basis of English society, and it is
found in our language, literature, laws, and municipal institutions. The
Romans introduced roads, with many improvements in the useful arts,
especially in the southern and eastern counties.

Then came the third, barbarian, Gothic or Teutonic, element; the
strong nature, the fresh manliood, which used these roads and adopted
these institutions, introducing also a new language, new laws, and institu-
tions, embracing also the Christian religion.

The Normans, a superior race, introduced a fourth new element, more
especially the feudal system, which established law and order, consolidating
English society.

The materials for an enquiry respecting the colonization of East Anglia
are chiefly the names of places, which if properly handled might lead to
some important results, and rectify many mistakes in history. The
evidence of the names of places might be supplemented by such scanty
historical records as we now possess, for unfortunately many of the original



HISTORY OF EASTEEN ENGLAND. O

records have been lost^ so that we cannot even trace the succession of East
Anghan kings. We discover what was the earliest mention of the division
of East Anglia into Northfolk and Southfolk. We find that they had the
same designations in their own native country whence they came.

The Eastern Counties have taken part in many historical events since
the Norman Conquest^ chiefly in the long resistance to Norman tyranny.
East Anglia has been the theatre of many important movements deeply
affecting the welfare of the country. The meeting of the Barons at the
shrine of St. Edmund preparatory to Magna Charta ; the great riots
in the reign of Richard II. under Jack Straw, in connection with the
insurrection of Wat Tyler ; the insurrection in the reign of Edward VI.,
under Robert Kett, in Norfolk, will show that the men of East Anglia
have not been deficient in spirit to resist any semblance of oppression.

The Eastern Counties were all combined or associated in the great
i-ebellion against the tyi-amiy of Charles I., and kept the Civil War
outside their borders. Oliver Cromwell was the chief leader in this eastern
district for some years before he was called to act elsewhere on behalf of
the Parliament. He visited most of £he eastern towns, and conducted
or directed military operations.

The plan of this history requires some explanation in order that the
reader may better understand its design, which is to present a complete
narrative of events that took place in the Eastern Counties in every
period. The course of events appears to have been from the south to the
north, in Essex, Cambridgeshire, Suffolk, and Norfolk, and therefore each
county is made the scene in succession. The order of time is followed as
far as necessary to preserve the continuity of the narrative, but the lead-
ing events are separated from minor details which may have happened
in the same year. The state of society is considered at the end of every
period, and also the state of religion.

The history of the Eastern Counties is divided into twelve periods :

1. The Ancient British Period before the invasion of the Romans,
when this island was all a wilderness. An account is given of the
origin and various tribes of the aborigines, especially of the Iceni ; of
their modes of life and warfare ; of their government, religion, manners,
customs, habitations, costumes, weapons, burial places, antiquities, &c.
It is proved that the Iceni were a very warlike people and not savages ;
that they had many useful arts, agriculture, and manufactures ; that the



C HISTORY OF EASTERN ENGLAND.

Iceiii wi'i-e not exterminated nor driven away from the land, but mingled
with their invaders.

2. The Roman Period for 400 years, including the invasions of Cassar,
Claudius, Agricola, and other Roman Emperors, the subjugation of the
natives, the introduction of useful arts, the formation of roads, the
building of forts, camps, and towns in the Eastern Counties. The course
of events is shown to be from the south to the north, from Kent to
Essex, thence to Cambridgeshire, Suffolk, Norwich, and Norfolk. An
account is given of Roman antiquities, of the remains of Roman roads,
forts, camps, towns, &c. It is shown that the Romans first made roads
and built towns, which were the earliest seats of civilization. Municipal
institutions were first established in the towns.

3. The Anglo-Saxon Period for 600 years, including the invasions of
the North European tribes, first in the south, next in the east of England,
the formation of eight Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, then the establishment
of the monarchy all over England. A full account is given of the early
settlements of the Angles, Saxons, and Danes in East Anglia. The Danes
are proved to be the parent stock of the people. A sketch is added
of Anglo-Saxon antiquities, of the hints derived from the names of places,
&c. The state of society in the Anglo-Saxon period is described, with
ample details as to the establishment of the Church of Rome in East
Anglia.

4. Norman Period, including the Norman Conquest of England, the
leading events in the reigns of William I. and William II., the grants
of land to Norman nobles in the Eastern Counties, the rebellion at Norwich
Castle, the siege of the castle, the state of agriculture, the state of society
and religion, county families in Eastern England, Norman antiquities



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